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  • LIU Xiaolong, LIAO Jingpeng, ZHONG Xin, DUAN Ximiao, HU Yongxuan, LIU Jiacheng, LIU Zekai, YANG Hongtao
    Abstract (245) PDF (197) RichHTML (47)

    In order to explore the gene expression regulation mechanism in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by heat stress,heat stress treatments were set at seedling,heading and filling stage to investigate the dynamic change of ROS accumulation in rice,respectively.And the Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression pattern of nine respiratory burst oxidase homologue (Rboh) encoding genes (OsRboh1-OsRboh9) in rice under different growth stages.Results showed that the ROS accumulation in rice leaves and grains significantly increased with the extension of heat stress.The ROS content increased slowly after 7 days of heat stress at seedling stage, while increased continuously after heat stress during the heading stage and early filling stage (1-10 d) in rice grains. Expression levels of the nine OsRboh family genes continuously increased with the extension of heat stress at seedling and heading stages,and OsRboh7 and OsRboh5 showed higher expression levels under heat stress.The expression levels of OsRboh1,OsRboh5 and OsRboh9 were continuously increased,while other genes showed a change tendency of increasing initially and then decreasing under heat stress at filling stage.The expression levels of OsRboh7 and OsRboh5 were all reached to a high level at seedling,heading and filling stage under heat stress.Furthermore,higher expression levels of OsRboh7 and OsRboh5 were showed in various tissues and organs of rice such as seedling leaves,flag leaf,floret,lemma,palea,stamen,pistil and grain.The higher induced range of gene expression levels in OsRboh7 and OsRboh5 by heat stress was shown in seedling leaves,floret,stamen,pistil and grain.Taken together,OsRboh7 and OsRboh5 were mostly remarkably responsive to heat stress at different growth stages among the OsRboh family genes in rice,which indicated that OsRboh7 and OsRboh5 played a vital role in the regulation of ROS formation pathway in rice under heat stress condition.

  • CHEN Na, ZHAN Wenwen, LIU Xingyu, SHI Leixin, LI Ruonan, XIE Rong, QUE Zhiqun
    Abstract (243) PDF (254) RichHTML (44)

    WRKY transcription factor is a family of transcription factors unique to plants.Studies have demonstrated that WRKY transcription factor played an important role in plant growth and development and in plant response to biological and abiotic stress.In order to reveal the function of tomato WRKY gene,two inbred lines of tomato with high resistance to bacterial wilt Hm 2-2(R)and high susceptibility to bacterial wilt BY 1-2(S)were used as experimental materials based on the preliminary transcriptome data,and a WRKY transcription factor SlWRKY75 gene(Solyc05g015850.3)was cloned.The structure,expression pattern and function of the gene and its encoded protein were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis,multiple alignment of amino acid sequences,phylogenetic tree construction,Real-time Quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR)and virus induced gene silencing(VIGS).The results showed that the full length of the cDNA of this gene was 653 bp,its maximum open reading frame was 519 bp,encoding 172 amino acids,the relative molecular weight of the protein was 19.878 51 ku,the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.32.The protein belonged to the hydrophilic non-secreted protein,and there was no transmembrane structure.Meanwhile,the protein had a highly conserved WRKY domain and a CX4CX23HXH zinc finger motif,which belonged to the Class Ⅱ family.Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SlWRKY75 was closely related to Solanum pennellii SpWRKY75 and clustered into a group with other Solanaceae,while it was far related to Hevea brasiliensis HbWRKY75 and Gossypium hirsutum GhWRKY75 and was in different branches in the phylogenetic tree.The results of qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of SlWRKY75 gene were tissue-specific and could be induced by Ralstonia solanacearum,salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.VIGS result showed that silencing SlWRKY75 reduced plant resistance to bacterial wilt,indicating that SlWRKY75 positively regulated tomato resistance to bacterial wilt.These results suggested that SlWRKY75 gene played an important role in regulating tomato resistance to bacterial wilt.

  • TANG Lan, ZHANG Yanru, QIU Guilan, LI Ruonan, ZHAO Li, WU Yuanqi
    Abstract (238) PDF (135) RichHTML (63)

    In the early stage, the dwarf dwarf-12 was successfully selected by distant hybridization of dwarf sorghum and local maize.After previous studies, the dwarf gene may be controlled by br2.Since there were no adverse traits, in order to utilize and discover excellent dwarf inbred lines, and then crossed dwarf-12 with local white maize, and selected the excellent dwarf inbred line d8227. The dwarf maize material d8227 obtained by predecessors was combined with maize of different heights, and it was identified that it has good combining ability. In order to increase the germplasm resources of dwarf maize and improve the yield of maize, in-depth research was carried out.d8227 and dwarf-12 were used as research materials to compare the differences in main agronomic traits between dwarf parents and progeny to observe the differences in stem cytology;d8227 and four inbred lines with different backgrounds were used for genetic mating design to analyze dwarf culm.Inheritance mode of genes; construct a targeting population, perform high-throughput sequencing with BSA method, conduct preliminary mapping of dwarf genes, and perform allelic identification of dwarf materials with known positioning intervals to clarify target genes and known genes relationship. The results showed that the plant height of d8227 increased by 9.35%, the ear position increased by 31.50%, the leaves of d8227 decreased, and the length of stem nodes increased.dwarf-12 increased by 52.21%, 5.26%, 23.76%, 6.93%, 12.02%; using the paraffin section method, observe the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal cells on the upper, ear and lower ear of d8227 and dwarf-12 with a microscope, and d8227 was longitudinally sectioned.The cells were loosely arranged and the cells were obviously elongated;the dwarf-12 cells were arranged regularly and compactly.After measuring the cell area, ear and lower ear cell area of the d8227 were significantly increased than that of the dwarf-12, which was mainly caused by the elongation of the d8227 cells. Through genetic analysis, the dwarf stalk gene was a single recessive gene, and the gene was preliminarily located.The dwarf stalk gene were located at 190-215 Mb of chromosome 1.The dwarf maize that had been located in the interval was selected for allelic identification.The two-year planting results showed that d8227 and 123d, Na360 were not alleles, but may be alleles with 125d and 123d, which needed follow-up fine mapping and in-depth research. On the whole, d8227 is a medium dwarf material with excellent characters and has breeding potential, but further studies such as fine positioning are needed to judge its utilization value.

  • ZHANG Peipei, CHEN Tao, JING Fanli, LIU Yuan, MA Jingfu, TIAN Tian, WANG Peng, YANG Delong
    Abstract (208) PDF (205) RichHTML (39)

    Phytosulfokine receptor(PSKR)plays an important role in promoting plant cell proliferation and is involved in plant response to abiotic stresses.To explore the sequence characteristics and the function of wheat PSKR genes,the cDNA sequences of three homologous genes of TaPSKR1 were cloned from wheat variety Jinmai 47 by homologous cloning technology,named TaPSKR1-6A,TaPSKR1-6B and TaPSKR1-6D because of their locations on chromosome 6A,6B and 6D,respectively.The gene structure,protein physical and chemical properties,cis acting elements,functional domains and evolutionary relationships were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis.The expression patterns of TaPSKR1 genes in different tissues and under different stresses were detected by qRT-PCR.The results showed that TaPSKR1-6A,TaPSKR1-6B and TaPSKR1-6D all contained one exon.The open reading frame(ORF)of the three TaPSKR1 genes were 3 153,3 132,3 156 bp,respectively,which encoded 1 050,1 043 and 1 051 amino acid residues.Bioinformatics analysis showed that TaPSKR1 proteins were located on the cell membrane,containing signal peptide,transmembrane domains,eight LRRs type domains and intracellular kinase domain,which belonged to PSKR gene family.Phylogenetic analysis showed that TaPSKR1 proteins had closely relationship with its related species and rice,which were clustered into the same subgroup.The results of expression analysis showed that TaPSKR1 genes were expressed in roots,stems,leaves and seeds,and the expression levels in roots were the highest.Under drought and salt stress treatments,the expressions of three homologous copies of TaPSKR1 genes were sharply upregulated in leaves,suggesting that TaPSKR1 might play an important regulatory role in wheat defense to abiotic stresses.

  • CAO Liru, MA Chenchen, PANG Yunyun, YE Feiyu, WANG Zhenhua, LU Xiaomin
    Abstract (178) PDF (171) RichHTML (17)

    bZIP transcription factors are widely found in plants and play an important role in regulating plant growth and development and abiotic stress response.In order to explore the functional role of bZIP transcription factor in maize drought stress response,transcriptome sequencing technology was used to analyze the expression changes of transcription factors in maize seedlings treated with drought stress for 5 days and rehydration for 3 days,and a bZIP transcription factor(ZmbZIP26)was screened from transcriptome data in response to drought and rewatering treatment.Co-expression network analysis revealed that ZmbZIP26 was at the core node of network regulation.The gene contained a 558 bp open reading frame encoding 185 amino acids,which was a hydrophilic protein.Phylogenetic tree and conserved sequence analysis showed that ZmbZIP26 protein had high homology with homologous proteins of sorghum and Miscanthus,and also had the same conserved motifs at the same amino acid positions.Cis-element analysis showed that the upstream 2 000 bp region of the ATG site contained drought response elements,hormone response elements and light response elements.qRT-PCR analysis showed that ZmbZIP26 was a constitutively expressed gene,which was highly expressed in young stems,female panicles and roots.ZmbZIP26 positively responded to drought,high temperature,high salt and nitrogen stress and the process of restoring,which might play an important role in the process of plant resistance.Subcellular localization analysis revealed that ZmbZIP26 was a nuclear protein localized in the nucleus.Protein interaction prediction showed that ZmbZIP26 might interact with zinc finger protein,serine protein,Ca-dependent protein and glutathione transfer protein to construct a regulatory network,which cooperatively regulated maize growth and development and stress response process.

  • XIONG Caiyun, WANG Yang, PEI Hu, MO Haiwei, TANG Yunqi, HUANG Jun
    Abstract (137) PDF (78) RichHTML (22)

    In order to reduce the labor costs and guarantee the seed purity, male sterility gene was applied to sweet corn hybrid seed production. We used male sterility 2020 (ms2020), a spontaneous male sterility mutant derived from sweet corn inbred line K78, as the experimental material to construct F1 and corresponding F2 populations of ms2020 and sweet corn inbred line M08. We performed phenotypic identification, genetic analysis, and gene mapping for ms2020 mutant. Phenotypic identification showed that the F1 population was fertile, and the F2 population was partially sterile. The sterile plants could be tasseled normally, but the anthers were not exposed, no pollen shed, anthers small, and pale yellow. Employing 1% I2-KI staining showed that the anthers of sterile plants contained abortive pollen grains that could not stain normally. The results of genetic analysis showed that the ratio of fertile normal plants to sterile plants was 3∶1, indicating that ms2020 male sterile mutant was a recessive mutant controlled by a single gene. The target gene was initially located on the short arm of chromosome 7 by the BSA method. Subsequently, 20 pairs of SSR markers in the initial interval were used to locate the sterile gene, and gene was finely located between markers S1 and W10, with a physical distance of 11.30 kb. Two genes, Zm00001d018802 and Zm00001d018803 were included in this region. Based on the functional analysis of candidate genes, it is speculated that Zm00001d018802 (ZmMs22/ZmMSCA1) encoding gludodoxin, which has been reported as a male sterility gene in maize, may be the key candidate gene for ms2020.The abortion characteristics and genetic regularity of ms2020 male sterility mutant were identified, which provided the material for male sterility hybridization seed production of sweet corn. The key candidate gene of the mutant were located, which laid a foundation for further analysis of its molecular mechanism.

  • TANG Bin, GENG Cunjuan, ZENG Qiang, GUO Huanle, LI Han, CAO Zhongyang, DENG Lichao, PENG Ming, ZHOU Hong, CHEN Zhihui
    Abstract (126) PDF (114) RichHTML (15)

    Maize grain development stage is very sensitive to high temperature stress,which seriously affects the yield and quality of maize.To study the difference of gene expression in grain and analyze the gene molecular mechanism of different high-temperature tolerant maize inbred lines in response to high-temperature stress,RNA-Seq technology was used to analysis the differentially expressed genes(DEGs)of XN202(heat tolerant)and CT110(heat susceptible)in maize grains 15 days after pollination under normal and high temperature stress.Compared with the control,XN202 and CT110 detected 1 517 and 1 012 DEGs,respectively,with 142 common DEGs,including 7 transcription factors.There were significant differences in grain response to high temperature stress among different heat tolerant inbred lines.DNA replication,nucleosome,minichromosome maintenance complex,alpha DNA polymerase:primase complex,nutrient reservoir activity,alanine,aspartate and glutamate metabolism were involved in response to high temperature stress through gene ontology(GO)function annotation and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG)signal pathway enrichment analysis.According to bioinformatics analysis,a total of 374 DEGs were located in the reported QTL interval of heat tolerance related traits in maize,and 42 DEGs were putative heat tolerance candidate genes.In summary,maize grains could form complex cellular protection and defense system under high temperature stress,and DEGs related to high temperature tolerance,such as AP2/ERF,MYB,bHLH,NAC,HSF and HSP,might play an important role in the molecular regulatory network.

  • ZHANG Bin, LI Xiaohui
    Abstract (120) PDF (93) RichHTML (12)

    To explore the function and possible molecular mechanisms of amino acid transporters (AATs),firstly,a new hidden markov model was established to identify the members of the rice AAT family,and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to analyze the evolutionary relationship of AAT members between rice and Arabidopsis;secondly,the promoter,protein structure,and functional domain of rice polyamine transporter gene 1 (OsPUT1) were analyzed using bioinformatics methods;thirdly,the subcellular localization of OsPUT1 was determined by constructing the OsPUT1-GFP vector and expressing it in rice protoplasts;fourthly,the expression patterns of OsPUT1 gene in different tissues and under different stress conditions were detected using qRT-PCR;finally,the function of OsPUT1 gene was preliminarily studied using the OE,Nip and RNAi lines.The results showed that there were 96 OsAATs divided into 13 subfamilies in rice;the PUT subfamily contained 6 OsPUTs,among which OsPUT1 and AtPUT3 had the closest genetic distance and were distributed in the same branch.The promoter of OsPUT1 gene contained cis-acting elements related to growth and development,light regulation,plant hormones,and stress response;OsPUT1 protein contained the polyamine transporter domain PotE,and subcellular localization experiment indicated that it was located on the cell membrane;the expression of OsPUT1 gene was relatively high in leaves,while was low in flowers;gene expression was inhibited by JA,mannitol,and ABA,while decreased and then returned to normal under low temperature stress,yet increased and then decreased under SA,Spm and paraquat treatment,however,under sodium chloride treatment,the gene expression level first increased,reached its peak at 1 h,then decreased,reached its lowest at 12 h,and returned to normal levels at 24 h;OE lines significantly reduced resistance to paraquat,while RNAi lines significantly increased resistance to paraquat.Overall,the OsPUT1 protein might have the function of transporting PA and participating in stress response.

  • WANG Yali, WEI Qichao, LI Chengwei
    Abstract (119) PDF (91) RichHTML (13)

    Grain specific promoter with high transcription activity can regulate the specific and high-level expression of target genes in plant grains.In order to explore specific promoters of maize grain,the dominant expression gene GRMZM2G006585 was screened from the published data of maize expression profile microarray.The DNA sequence about 2 000 bp upstream of its coding region was cloned and named PZm2G006585.By using the online websites New PLACE and PlantCARE to analyze its promoter elements,we found that it contained multiple grain specific related elements such as E-box and P-box.It was preliminarily considered that the upstream sequence of the cloned coding region was a grain specific promoter from maize.In order to verify its function,the expression vector of GUS gene was constructed and transformed into plants.GUS histochemical staining results of transgenic rice showed that the expression pattern of exogenous genes driven by the promoter was grain specific and embryo dominant.The results of GUS activity detection in T3 seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana single copy line showed that the GUS activity driven by PZm2G006585 was 909.52 nmol/(min·mg).The discovery and functional verification of the grain-specific promoter PZm2G006585 can provide candidate promoter resource for specific expression of target genes in maize,rice and other monocotyledons.

  • HAO Tianjia, XU Xuexin, XU Yufan, LIU Shuai, JIA Jing, ZHU Zixin, MENG Fangang, ZHAO Changxing
    Abstract (116) PDF (98) RichHTML (12)

    In order to effectively improve the 1000-grain weight of winter wheat,explore the effect of different drip irrigation and fertilization frequency on grain filling and mature grain shape of medium strong gluten wheat in the Huang-Huai-Hai wheat region,under the field experimental conditions,different winter wheat varieties with medium strong gluten were selected as experimental materials,a comparative experiment was carried out on different drip irrigation fertilization frequency(2,3,4 times,respectively represented by DF2,DF3,DF4)and traditional irrigation fertilization(CK)under 210 kg/ha of total nitrogen application(urea form)and 120 mm of total irrigation.The results showed that there were significant or extremely significant correlations between grain shape(except length and roundness),key grain filling parameters(Vmean,Vmax,V2,M2)and 1000-grain weight through correlation analysis.Drip irrigation increased Vmean (average filling speed),Vmax (maximum filling speed),V2 (grain filling speed in rapid growth period),and M2 (grain accumulation in rapid growth period).Compared with two times of topdressing with water and fertilizer(DF2),after three water and fertilizer applications(DF3),Tmax,Vmean,Vmax,V2,M2,and grain area all increased,and after four water and fertilizer applications(DF4),Tmax,T2,M2 had improved.Compared with DF2,the length,width,thickness,roundness,and grains area increased with the frequency of fertilization(DF3 and DF4),the width and grain area of DF3 reached a significant level,and the thickness of DF4 reached a significant level,reducing the vertical and horizontal.The sieving equivalent of 2.2-2.5 mm was significantly reduced,and the sieving equivalent of >2.8 mm was increased,and the grains were more plump.Compared with border irrigation,the grains of DF3 and DF4 were also more plump.In conclusion,in wheat production,it is very important to increase the frequency of fertilization through drip irrigation to optimize the development of spike grains and improve grain weight.

  • ZHANG Bin
    Abstract (105) PDF (86) RichHTML (9)

    To investigate the function and possible molecular mechanisms of soybean GmGRAS69 gene,which belongs to the GRAS transcription factor family,in plant drought stress.Sequence conservation and evolutionary relationship between soybean GmGRAS69 and GRAS members of other species were analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction.Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression pattern of GmPP2C69 in soybean roots and leaves treated with PEG.Then,GmPP2C69 overexpression vector was constructed,and then wild-type Arabidopsis was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip method.The growth phenotypes of wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis were observed under normal culture and drought treatment.The fresh weight per plant,relative water content of leaf,soluble sugar content of shoot,antioxidant enzymes(SOD,POD and CAT)activities and corresponding antioxidant enzyme gene expression levels were measured.The results showed that GmGRAS69 was significantly up-regulated in both roots and leaves of PEG-treated soybean plants,and the response was more significant in roots.In addition,GmGRAS69-overexpressed Arabidopsis was successfully obtained,and the drought tolerance of the GmGRAS69-overexpressed plants was significantly enhanced compared with WT.Under drought treatment,the fresh weight,leaf relative water content and soluble sugar content of GmGRAS69-overexpressed plants were significantly higher than those of WT.The activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD,POD and CAT and the expression levels of corresponding genes SOD,POD and CAT were also significantly higher than those of WT.The results showed that the expression of GmGRAS69 was up-regulated under drought stress,and the transgenic plants were enhanced drought tolerance by activating SOD,POD and CAT antioxidant enzyme encoding genes,enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and increasing soluble sugar accumulation.

  • CHANG Yanting, ZHANG Wenbo, XIA Mengsi, FAN Keke, HU Xiaomeng, WANG Shuhua, ZHANG Xue, BAI Yiwei, ZHANG Na, HU Tao, JIANG Zehui
    Abstract (101) PDF (51) RichHTML (8)

    SEPALLATA1(SEP1) gene is a member of MADS-box gene family which plays an important role in flowering time regulation.In order to clarify the biological function and expression characteristics of PlSEP1 gene in tree peony during flowering,and further understand the mechanism of PlSEP1 gene involved in the regulation of flowering time.A MADS-box family gene,PlSEP1,was screened from the transcriptome data of floral bud development in the reblooming cultivar of tree peony,High noon,the relative expression of PlSEP1 gene in the floral bud development of tree peony was detected by quantitative Real-time PCR,and the function of PlSEP1 gene was explored through over expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.The results showed that,PlSEP1 encoded 244 amino acid with a ORF of 735 bp.The bioinformative analysis showed that PlSEP1 encoded a stable hydrophilic protein,which contained none signal peptide.Phylogenetic tree showed that the PlSEP1 was close with its homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana,Glycine max.Subcellular location assay showed that PlSEP1 protein was located in the nucleus.PlSEP1 expressed highest in flower buds,and reached the highest in the differentiation stage.The phenotype of early flowering in over-expression transgene plant suggested that PlSEP1 regulate flowering time.

  • XIAO Qiang, LIU Dongsheng, LIU Jianbin, WU Fengxia, YI Wenping
    Abstract (95) PDF (78) RichHTML (9)

    In view of the problems of excessive input of nitrogen(N)fertilizer,serious nitrogen loss and soil N accumulation,and hard to popularize controlled-release urea(CRU)because of its high cost,this research,based on the field experiment including six crop growing seasons over three years,explored the application effect of combined CRU with urea under the condition of reduced N rate in winter wheat-summer maize rotation and aimed for optimizing the N application rate under applying the optimized blending application ratio of CRU and urea,so as to provide the technical references for reducing chemical N fertilizer input,increasing its use efficiency and generalizing CRU.The experimental design consisted of six treatments:CK(No N application),FH(urea with 270-240 kg/ha N application on winter wheat and summer maize respectively;50% of the total N applied once and 50% dressing).For N1,N2,N3 and N4 treatments, mixture of CRU and urea(controlled release nitrogen accounting for 40% of the total nitrogen content) was applied once before planting at 243,216,189 and 162 kg/ha respectively for winter wheat,and was applied at 216, 192, 168, and 144 kg/ha with controlled release nitrogen accounting for 30% respectively for summer maize.The results showed that:compared with FH,only N1 increased the yield and net profit of winter wheat and summer maize for three consecutive years.For winter wheat,N1 increased significantly the yield by 4.0%,5.4% in 2017-2018 and 2019-2020,respectively,and still increased the yield by 1.6% even in 2018-2019 that the yields of other treatments were decreased.N1 also increased significantly summer maize's yield by 10.9%.In addition,after harvesting winter wheat and summer maize per year,amount of accumulation of inorganic N in 0-100 cm and 60-100 cm soil layer of N1 was significantly lower than that of FH, while the cumulative N use efficiency of N1 after 6 growing seasons of crop was increased by 11.3 percentage point.These results demonstrated that a mixture of CRU and urea (at a ratio of controlled release nitrogen accounting for 40% and 30% of the total nitrogen content for wheat and maize respectively)with a 10% reduction in N application rate compared to FH could be more beneficial to increase crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency, and reduce leaching of soil inorganic nitrogen in wheat-maize rotation system.

  • WANG Rui, CHENG Qingjun, WANG Huiyan, JU Lan, PING Jun'ai, ZHANG Fuyao
    Abstract (95) PDF (54) RichHTML (12)

    Tiller higher than main stem is one of the important reasons that make the uniformity of sorghum varieties and mechanized production of sorghum complicated.In order to clarify the mechanism of the gene that regulates the tiller height in sorghum,improve the uniformity of sorghum varieties and breed sorghum varieties suitable for mechanized production,based on the mapping results of our previous studies,15 of the sorghum variety whose tiller height was consistent with main stem height as well as 17 of the sorghum variety whose tiller height was higher than main stem height,were selected to form the natural population to have the candidate genes tested.It was found that it was the SNP3 locus belonging to the gene Sobic.009G2133001.v3.2 located in the conserved domains of Hydrolase_4 affects the tiller height,it was named SbTH.With two sorghum varieties K35-Y5 and 1383 taken as material,the expression patterns of gene SbTH in different sorghum tissues were analyzed by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.The results showed that the SbTH gene got expressed in both the roots and the leaves.Though the expression levels were different,the trends were basically the same.In the stem of variety 1383 whose tiller was higher than main stem,the expression level and trend were almost the same.Only in variety K35-Y5 whose tiller height was consistent with main stem height,at anthesis of main stem,reverse expression pattern was observed.While the expression level of main stem reached the maximum,the expression level of tiller was lowered to the minimum.From above results,we concluded that the expression level of SbTH was low in the tiller of K35-Y5,thus the overgrowth of the tiller internodes got controlled,forming the plant phenotype whose stem and tiller had the same height.The expression level of SbTH was high in the tiller of variety 1383,thus the growth of tiller internodes was promoted,which made the tiller be higher than the stem.Therefore,it is believed that the differential expression of gene SbTH at anthesis of main stem is the key to tiller height regulation.

  • LI Wenfei, LI Hongxia, LIU Yuwei, GONG Xiaodong, WEI Shuzhen, GU Shouqin
    Abstract (95) PDF (127) RichHTML (18)

    12-oxo-phytodienoic(OPR) acid reductase is a flavin mononucleotide-dependent oxidoreductase,a key enzyme for the synthesis of jasmonic acid,which is important for plant growth, development and defence regulation.In order to study the disease resistance effect of OPR gene in maize, bioinformatics methods were used to identify OPR family members in 31 different maize inbred lines and the expression pattern after infestation by S. turcica was analyzed.The results showed that eight OPR genes were identified in maize line B73 and they were unevenly distributed on seven chromosomes.In addition,these expressed proteins of OPR genes were rich in acidic amino acids.Further analysis revealed that the maize OPR family contained only one structural domain,Oxidored_FMN,and all OPR members contained 10 protein conserved motifs identified.Phylogenetic relationship analysis of OPR family members from maize,wheat,rice and Arabidopsis using MEGA software revealed significant differences in the evolutionary relationships of OPR gene families in these plants.The OPR proteins of maize and those of rice were the closest in evolution.Homology analysis using OrthoFinder software revealed that the maize OPR gene family was highly conserved,with all OPR genes being core genes,but with slightly different functions.According to the previous RNA-seq data of Hebei key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Molecular Pathology,we analyzed the expression pattern of OPR genes of maize B73 in response to S.turcica infection and verified the gene expression pattern of OPR genes through qRT-PCR.It was found that there were three different expression patterns in the process of S.turcica infection.This study systematically identified the maize pan-genomic OPR family genes and their expression patterns in response to S.turcica infection.

  • PEI Hu, XIONG Caiyun, ZHANG Yahui, REN Wenchuang, LI Xiaoqin, HUANG Jun
    Abstract (89) PDF (70) RichHTML (15)

    To further explore the molecular mechanism of pericarp thickness development in sweet corn, pericarp from sweet corn inbred lines M03 and M08 were used for transcriptome sequencing,these materials provided by the sweet corn breeding laboratory of South China Agricultural University.RNA-sequencing material were sampled at 15,19 and 23 days after pollination.Genes’ differentially expressed analysis combined with weighted gene co-expression network(WGCNA)analysis were used to identify the co-expressed gene modules related to pericarp thickness at the milk stage of sweet corn,and the hub genes were also identified.Quantitative real time-PCR(qRT-PCR)was used to validate the expression level of the hub genes.Here,a total of 4 748 differentially expressed genes(DEGs)were identified by comparing different development stages and different samples.Gene annotation analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly enriched in carbohydrate metabolic processes,plant-pathogen interactions,and plant MAPK signaling pathways.Co-expression analysis identified 18 modules,in which four modules(Turquois,Yellow,Magenta and Pink)were significantly associated with pericarp thickness.GO and KEGG functional enrichment analysis were performed based on these four specific modules,which could be enriched in alanine aspartate and glutamate metabolism,MAPK signaling pathway-plant and cysteine and methionine metabolism.The top 20 hub genes were screed by calculating the gene connectivity in the corresponding net-works,13 hub genes including MYB transcription factor,cell cycle protein(CYC15),β-amylase,apoptosis regulatory gene(BCL-2),etc.were finally screened by functional annotation.Transcription factors such as auxin response factor(ARF,AUX/IAA),ethylene response element binding factor(ERF),and leucine zipper(bZIP)were also included in the co-expression network,and these genes may play a crucial role in pericarp development process.

  • NIE Lizhen, ZHANG Zhicheng, XIE Rui, CHANG Yue, ZHANG Qionglin, HAN Ping'an, YI Jing
    Abstract (88) PDF (52) RichHTML (13)

    Anthocyanins are a kind of important flavonoids produced during the secondary metabolism of plants.Anthocyanidin synthase(ANS)catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidins to anthocyanidins in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway.Previous studies have shown that the anthocyanidin synthase gene plays an important role during the coloring process of plant organs.To investigate whether the gene can promote anthocyanin synthesis in potato tubers,using the red-skinned and red-fleshed colored potato variety Hongmei as the material,anthocyanidin synthasegene was isolated from tubers of color potato by RT-PCR, the characterization analyzed by bioinformatics and function validated by overexpression into Arabidopsis thaliana.The results showed that sequence 1 406 bp cDNA of the gene was amplified from the potato,including 1 368 bp open reading frame(ORF).The ORF encoded a deduced protein of 455 amino acids.The gene was named as StANS1a by bioinformatics analysis.GenBank accession number is ON512347.The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the deduced protein contained a DIOX_N'domain located at 52—166 resides and a 2OG_FeⅡ_Oxy domain located at 215—312 resides.Arabidopsis thaliana plants was transformed with constructs overexpression vector StANS1a.The transcriptional expression of StANS1a in transgenic lines were tested by RT-PCR.The results showed that in the same population,the transcriptional expression of StANS1a showed an increase in different transgenic lines compared with the wild-type(Wt).The anthocyanin content was further analyzed in transgenic lines.Compared to the Wt,the anthocyanin contents of the seven lines(T1—T7)were increased from 2.17% to 54.61%. These results strongly demonstrated that overexpression of the StANS1a gene could promote anthocyanin synthesis in transgenic plants.The colored potato StANS1a gene plays an important role in the anthocyanin metabolic pathway.

  • XIANG Guili, WU Rina, YAMAMOTO Naoki, WU Yichao, JIANG Jin, LIAO Mingli, WEI Shuhong, PENG Zhengsong, YANG Zaijun
    Abstract (86) PDF (43) RichHTML (7)

    PEPC catalyzes phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP)to generate oxaloacetate(OAA)to participate the tricarboxylic acid(TCA),which plays an important role in development and stress adaptation of plant.However,there have been no reports of PEPC involvement in plant organ development.Exploration and study on biological function of Tappc3A gene in wheat flower development,and provides new clues to explore the molecular mechanism of homologous conversion of stamens into pistillody in wheat.The Tappc3A gene was cloned from CM28TP and HTS-1 by PCR,and the sequence and phylogenetic tree were analyzed by bioinformatics tools,and the expression level of Tappc3A gene in different developmental stages and different reproductive organs of wheat young spikes was analyzed by using qRT-PCR,and whether the protein function encoded by Tappc3A gene was analyzed by prokaryotic expression.The wheat RNA-Seq database was used to analyze the co-expression of Tappc3A gene and other genes that regulate flower organ development.The ORF of Tappc3A gene was 2 901 bp in length,encoding 966 amino acid residues,with a typical phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPase)conserved domain,a conserved serine(Ser,S)reversible phosphorylation site(SIDAQLR)at the N-terminal,a plant-type PEPC protein signature sequence(QNTG)at the C-terminal,and the 774th amino acid was the typical alanine of C3 plant PEPC.Cluster analysis also showed that Tappc3A belonged to the C3 type PEPC family.qRT-PCR analysis,in three stages of wheat young spike development,showed that the expression of Tappc3A gene in HTS-1 was higher than that in CM28TP at the dichotomous stage to the florescence differentiation stage and the pharmacophore period,and the expression of Tappc3A gene was significantly higher in pistils(P)and pistillody stamens(PS)than stamens(S).The prokaryotic expression results showed that the protein encoded by Tappc3A gene,which catalyzes the production of OAA from PEP,and its activity was significantly enhanced after IPTG induction.The gene co-expression analysis showed that Tappc3A gene might be involved in the morphogenesis of wheat floral organs.Tappc3A gene might be involved in wheat pistil development,and its overexpression in stamens might be associated with the homologous transformation of stamens into pistillody trait formation.

  • WANG Meiling, JIANG Wenyue, GE Yuyang, ZHU Xinkai, LI Chunyan, ZHU Min, GUO Wenshan, DING Jinfeng
    Abstract (86) PDF (71) RichHTML (6)

    To provide references for the waterlogging-tolerance and yield-stability cultivation of wheat,the experiment was conducted to study the effects of different degrees of waterlogging on root dry weight and vigor in different soil layers,shoot growth,grain yield,and its components using Yangmai 25 and Ningmai 13 as experimental materials.The treatments included short-term mild(SL,10 cm water layer under the soil surface for 3 days),short-term severe(SS,2 cm water layer above the soil surface for 3 days),long-term mild(LL,10 cm water layer under the soil surface for 12 days),long-term severe(LS,2 cm water layer above the soil surface for 12 days)waterlogging treatments at stem-elongation stage,and control treatment(CK,maintaining the relative soil water content of 70%—75%).The results showed that Yangmai 25 showed significantly higher grain yield,1000-grain weight,root dry weight,root activity in the 0—40 cm soil layer,and ratio of root to shoot than Ningmai 13.Compared with CK,SL and SS reduced grain yield by 13.44%—22.45%,while LL and LS reduced grain yield significantly by 28.76%—37.26%.There was no significant difference in grain yield between SL and SS,LL and LS.Under the short-term waterlogging,the biomass of root and shoot were slightly reduced,the root in 0—20 cm soil layer maintained high vigor,and the vigor of root in 20—60 cm soil layer could recover.However,long-term waterlogging significantly decreased root dry weight resulting in growth imbalance of root and shoot.In addition,root activity was low and difficult to recover under long-term waterlogging,and the top-three leaves was prone to premature senescence with the top 3rd leaf showing most obvious.The results suggested that lowering water levels as soon as possible after waterlogging could help the surface roots maintain growth and physiological activity,and reduced the risk of premature leaf senescence,satisfying the photosynthetic needs for grain filling.

  • HU Wenfeng, ZHOU Xuan, HUANG Yuelin, XU Zhangqian, ZHANG Huiru, YANG Xiangdong, PENG Jianwei
    Abstract (86) PDF (18) RichHTML (5)

    To reveal the application effect of controlled release urea in table grape(Shine muscat),and screen out the optimum application amount,a field experiment(2018-2019)was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen(N)reduction combined with polyurethane coated urea on the yield,photosynthetic characteristics and quality of table grapes,and to explore the relationship between chlorophyll content at different leaf positions and quality traits.The results of this study can provide scientific theoretical basis for the cost-saving and efficient utilization of N fertilizer in the cultivation of table grape.The results showed that:compared with the conventional fertilization treatment,the yield of table grape were increased by 10.67%-32.91%,under 0-30% N reduction combined with coated urea treatment,while reduced by 5.79% under 40% N reduction combined with coated urea treatment.Among them,suitable N reduction combined with controlled release fertilizer for table grape had better effect on yield and income increase than conventional fertilization.With the decrease of N application rate combined with coated urea,the yield and net photosynthetic rate of table grapes increased first and then decreased.Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the mean value of SPAD of functional leaves at the expansion stage and the quality traits(soluble solid,total sugar,vitamin C,sugar-acid ratio and solid-acid ratio),but a significant negative correlation between SPAD value and total acid.In general,N reduction combined with coated urea treatment was beneficial to the formation of yield component,increased SPAD value and net photosynthetic rate of functional leaves at the puffing stage,effectively expand fruit grains,promoted the increase production,saved fertilizer and increased efficiency of table grapes,and improved the food quality of table grapes.The N reduction of 10%-20% combined with coated urea treatment had the best effect.

  • LI Xiao, GUO Wenfang, YANG Li, HU Wei, KUANG Liuqing, LIU Dechun, LIU Yong
    Abstract (83) PDF (45) RichHTML (14)

    In order to explore the role of citrus MYB96 gene in the process of citrus stress resistance,four MYB transcription factor genes were cloned from sweet orange,lemon,kumquat and ponkan,and named CsMYB96,ClMYB96,FmMYB96 and CrMYB96,respectively.Their bioinformatics and expression patterns under different abiotic stress treatments were analyzed.The results showed that the open reading frame of CsMYB96,ClMYB96,FmMYB96 and CrMYB96 were 1 032,1 035,1 035 and 1 032 bp,respectively.The citrus MYB96 proteins were composed of 343,344,344 and 343 amino acids,respectively,with a molecular weight of about 38.16, 38.27, 38.22 and 38.13 ku and an isoelectric points of 6.31,6.35,6.35 and 6.31,these proteins were all unstable hydrophilic proteins and the prediction results of subcellular localization were all located in the nucleus.The secondary structures of four MYB96 proteins were similar,mainly composed of α-helix and random curls.And all of four MYB96 proteins had a highly conserved R2 and R3 domains.In terms of evolutionary relationship,the proteins encoded by these four genes are most closely related to Citrus clementine CcMYB96 protein.The promoter of CsMYB96 gene contained abscisic acid response element(ABRE),low temperature response element(LTR),anaerobic response element(ARE),MYB binding site(MBS)involved in drought induction and other abiotic stress response related cis acting elements.Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that CsMYB96 could be induced by low temperature and drought stress,while ClMYB96 and FmMYB96 were induced under high salt stress.The expression of CrMYB96 was down-regulated in different degrees under low temperature,drought and high salt stress.

  • WANG Kexin, GUO Zhaoyang, YIN Yuhang, CHEN Shengzhong, SONG Xiyun, ZHAO Meiai
    Abstract (83) PDF (76) RichHTML (8)

    The glutasidyl thiotransferase gene(GST)can be involved in the process of plants responding to abiotic stresses.In order to understand the ability of ZmGST in response to salt and drought stress in maize,the ZmGST gene was obtained by RT-PCR cloning using the inbred line CA66 of maize as the material,and the gene was bioinformatically analyzed,and the relative expression of the gene in different tissues of maize and simulated drought and salt stress was analyzed by Real-time fluorescence,and the prokaryotic expression vector was constructed and treated with drought and salt.The results showed that the CDS sequence of ZmGST gene was 384 bp in length and encoded 127 amino acids,and the bioinformatics analysis showed that the gene belonged to the Tau family,was a hydrophilic unstable protein,did not have a transmembrane structure,had 12 phosphorylation modification sites,found no signal peptide,was a non-secreted protein,and subcellular localization predicted that ZmGST was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm.The homologous sequence results showed that ZmGST was the closest related to Sorghum bicolor,and had the highest similarity with ZmGSTU14 gene.The promoter analysis results were found to contain TC-rich repeats and other elements,which are involved in defense and stress response.Real-time fluorescence quantitative results showed that the expression of ZmGST gene was the highest in maize roots and was upregulated by salt stress,which reached the highest level after 24 h of treatment.The results of salt and drought stress at the prokaryotic level showed that the recombinant plasmid pET28a-ZmGST could grow normally in medium with different salt concentrations,and the simulated drought was inhibited.It is speculated that ZmGST gene plays an important role in maize response to salt stress.

  • LIN Xiaobing, LIU Kailou, HUANG Shangshu, HE Shaolang, XU Xiaolin, ZHOU Qina, ZHONG Yijun
    Abstract (83) PDF (50) RichHTML (13)

    To explore the effects of long-term different fertilization on soil microbial biomass carbon,nitrogen and enzyme activity of double cropping maize in Southern China.Based on a 35 a long-term located experiment in dryland red soil in Jinxian,Jiangxi Province,four treatments including no fertilizer(CK),chemical fertilizer(NPK),chemical fertilizer and fresh pig manure(NPKM),and fresh pig manure(OM).The soil nutrients,microbial biomass carbon,nitrogen and enzyme activities were measured in the 0—20 cm,20—40 cm soil layers at the maturity of double cropping maize and the correlations between them were analyzed.Results showed that long-term fertilization(NPK,NPKM and OM)significantly increased soil microbial biomass carbon,nitrogen and enzyme activity.During the spring maize period,the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content of fertilization treatment compared with CK increased by 67.05%—159.15% and 3.33%—62.37% in the 0—40 cm soil layer.And the activities of catalase,phosphomonoesterase,urease and sucrase increased by 0.22%—79.71%,9.82%—59.51%,8.73%—82.37%,66.67%—538.89%,respectively.During the autumn maize period,the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content of fertilization treatment compared with CK increased by 36.30%—136.72% and 17.09%—47.29% in the 0—40 cm soil layer.And the activities of catalase,phosphomonoesterase,urease and sucrase increased by 7.41%—74.55%,22.69%—57.39%,18.85%—58.98% and 51.70%—216.67%,respectively.Among them,the NPKM treatment had the best improvement effect.In general,soil microbial biomass carbon,nitrogen and enzyme activity in 0—20 cm soil layer were higher than in 20—40 cm soil layer,and the soil microbial biomass carbon,nitrogen and enzyme activity in autumn maize period were higher than those in spring maize period.NPKM and OM treatments also significantly increased soil pH,organic carbon,total nitrogen,total phosphorus,total potassium,available phosphorus,available nitrogen and available potassium.After long-term application of organic fertilizer,soil phosphorus accumulation was obvious,while NPK treatment accelerated soil acidification.All treatments could significantly increase maize yield(P<0.05). Compared with CK, it increased by 1.04—15.07 times. In conclusion,organic-inorganic application(NPKM)is the best fertilization measure to enhance soil nutrients,microbial biomass,enzyme activity and yield.

  • YANG Kai, CHENG Xiaohu, ZHAO Jie, HUANG Jinan, YU Cuihong, ZHANG Li, HU Mengyun, SUN Lijing, LI Hui, WNAG Qingtao, ZHANG Yingjun
    Abstract (83) PDF (86) RichHTML (15)

    To clarify the effect of different drought resistance genes on wheat grain weight, 352 main varieties (or lines) in Huang and Huai Valley wheat region were used as experimental materials. Two experimental treatments were designed, normal irrigation and drought condition. Grain weight data were investigated for three consecutive years from 2019 to 2021. KASP markers of three drought resistance genes (1-fehw3, TaDreb-B1 and Cwi-4A) were used to genotype the experimental materials, and the effects of different drought resistance genes on wheat grain weight were studied. The results showed that the KASP markers of the three genes could be used for genotyping of the experimental materials, and the effects of KASP marker of 1-fehw3 and Cwi-4A genes were better than that of TaDreb-B1 gene. The distribution frequency of the dominant alleles of 1-fehw3,TaDreb-B1 and Cwi-4A genes was 36.9%, 41.1% and 35.1%, respectively. When genotyping by single gene marker, the thousand grain weight between drought resistant and susceptible genotypes did not reach a significant level in different years and conditions. When tested using two gene markers, 1-fehw3+TaDreb-B1 showed significant differences in thousand grains weight between drought resistant and susceptible genotypes under normal irrigation in 2019 and drought in 2020; 1-fehw3+Cwi-4A reached a significant level in the 2019 and 2020 drought environments; TaDreb-B1+Cwi-4A achieved a significant level in 2020 drought environment. When tested using three genes (1-fehw3, TaDreb-B1 and Cwi-4A) markers, the thousand grains weight of drought resistant genotypes was significantly higher than that of drought susceptible genotypes in all five environments except for irrigation conditions in 2020. The results indicated that because drought resistance was a complex trait controlled by multiple genes, the contribution of a single drought resistance gene to wheat drought resistance was relatively small. However, using molecular marker assisted selection for multi gene pyramiding breeding could significantly improve wheat drought resistance.

  • TENG Haiyan
    Abstract (82) PDF (101) RichHTML (9)

    To explore the role of Osp39 gene in the regulation of rice chloroplast protein import, the sequence of Osp39 gene and upstream elements in its promoter were searched and analyzed by using bioinformatics assay,and the homology,properties and structure of the OsP39 protein were also carried out.The tissue expression of Osp39 gene and subcellular localization of OsP39 protein were analyzed by quantitative PCR and transient expression in protoplasts,respectively.The results showed that the Osp39 gene was located on chromosome 5 of rice.There were 11 exons in the coding region of Osp39 gene,and its transcription product had no alternative splicing mode,so there was only one type of transcription product.The Osp39 promoter contained a variety of light-responsive and chloroplast regulatory elements such as I box and ATCT-motif.Transcriptional analysis of Osp39 gene also showed that the transcription level of Osp39 gene in green tissues such as leaf and leaf sheath was significantly than that in non-green tissue such as root and flower during seeding and flowering stages.OsP39 protein was stable and heat-resistant,which molecular weight was about 38.7 ku and theoretical isoelectric point was pH 8.64.There were a total of 361 amino acid residues in OsP39 protein,of which the content of glycine was the highest.The 245-271 amino acid residues formed a highly conserved L6 loop region,which belonged to the characteristic domain of the OMP85 protein family.Spatial structural analysis revealed that OsP39 was a β-barrel membrane protein rich in β-sheets.Subcellular localization analysis showed that OsP39 protein was localized at the rice chloroplast membrane.The above results indicated that Osp39 gene was a chloroplast membrane related gene,which was involved in the regulation of light response and chloroplast function in rice.

  • ZHANG Panpan, QIAO Jiangfang, LI Chuan, ZHANG Meiwei, NIU Jun
    Abstract (80) PDF (66) RichHTML (9)

    It aimed to research the variation of mineral elements in the maize grain under the nitrogen(N)and zinc(Zn)fertilization,in order to provide scientific references for N and Zn application in the maize production.In the field plot experiment,two varieties including ZD958 and GSY66 were fertilized with three N rates(90,180 and 225 kg/ha)and four Zn treatments(no Zn,spraying Zn of 1∶1 at seedling stage and jointing stage,spraying Zn of 1∶1 at jointing stage and flare opening stage and spraying Zn at flare opening stage),to analyze the effects of N and Zn fertilization on the maize grain yield and mineral elements concentration and accumulation.The results showed that grain yield was significantly decreased,while Ca,Cu,Fe and Zn concentration as well as Cu and Fe accumulation were significantly increased when the N rate was more than 180 kg/ha.N and P,K,Mg concentration achieved the highest and lowerest values respectively under the 180 kg/ha N treatment.Spraying Zn of 1∶1 at jointing stage and flare opening stage and at flare opening stage only could significantly improve the yield,N and Zn concentration and N,Mg,Zn,B and Na accumulation,but decrease the P,K,Ca,B and Na concentration.Relative to GSY66,the grain yield of ZD958 was significantly increased by 19.3%,and K and Fe concentration and K,Ca,B and Na accumulation were also significantly increased.Grain yield showed extremely significantly negative correlation ship with most mineral element concentration.The positive correlationships among Ca,Mg,Cu,Mn,Fe,Zn and B were significant or extremely significant,expect for Ca and Mg,Zn.The linear regression relationships between grain Zn concentration and N,Mg concentration were significant or extremely significant.To sum up,applying 180 kg/ha N and spraying 4.5 kg/ha Zn of 1∶1 at jointing stage and flare opening stage could increase maize grain yield,N and Zn concentration and mineral elements accumulation,synchronously achieve the high yield and mineral nutrition,and are recommended to promote in maize production.

  • ZHANG Xiaohong, XU Peiyang, YAN Xu, ZHANG Beibei, YU Chanchan
    Abstract (80) PDF (59) RichHTML (6)

    To investigate the function of GhFUL1 gene in branching development of cotton,the GhFUL1 gene in the MADS-box family and its promoter were cloned from cotton,and the function and promoter activity of the gene were analyzed.The results indicated that the open reading frame (ORF) of GhFUL1 gene was 726 bp and encoded 241 amino acids.Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of FUL subclade was conserved,and GhFUL1 owned the highest similarity to Cacao TcAGL8-1 except for the homologous proteins in cotton.Subcellular localization result showed that GhFUL1 was localized in nucleus and membrane.The expression level of different cotton tissues was examined,and the result showed that GhFUL1 was highly expressed in shoot apical meristem.Overexpressing GhFUL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana increased the number of lateral branches by decreasing the expression of cytokinin oxidation/dehydrogenase genes AtCTK1 and AtCTK6.Compared with the wild type,transgenic plants did not result in significant changes of the flowering time and floral organ development.The present results suggested that GhFUL1 might affect the number of branches by regulating the cytokinin synthesis pathway.The promoter of GhFUL1 was predicted to include the TATA-box and CAAT-box elements,and cis-acting elements related to light response,auxin response and stress response by PlantCARE website.Then the promoter of GhFUL1 was cloned and constructed into expression vector pBI121 to detect promoter activity.The GUS staining of transgenic Arabidopsis lines showed that GhFUL1 promoter was specifically expressed in shoot apical meristem at seedling stage and flower organ at maturity.This study revealed that the gene and promoter of GhFUL1 played an important role in the Arabidopsis branching development process after transformation.

  • KE Danxia, FENG Shuang, HU Yihan, XU Dan, WANG Huan
    Abstract (79) PDF (72) RichHTML (11)

    The plant NADPH oxidase Rbohs(Respiratory burst oxidase homologs) is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS),which participate in various physiological processes such as plant growth,development,stress resistance and plant-microorganism interaction.In order to explore the function and mechanism of Rbohs in symbiotic nitrogen fixation,GmRbohL,a member of soybean Rbohs gene family,was cloned in this study.The gene expression pattern,protein subcellular localization and gene function were studied by molecular biology,cell biology and genetics,respectively.The results revealed that: GmRbohL gene was induced by rhizobia and expressed specifically in soybean roots and nodules.Subcellular localization analysis indicated that the gene-encoded protein GmRbohL was a membrane protein.The plant gene silencing (RNAi) vector of GmRbohL was constructed,and the transgenic hairy roots were obtained by the transformation of soybean hairy root mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599.Gene silencing of GmRbohL resulted in a significant reduction in the number of nodules of transgenic hairy roots,and the production of ROS was also inhibited. Gene silencing of GmRbohL reduced the infection of rhizobia at the stage of root nodule organogenesis,and the expression level of nodulation marker genes also decreased with the decrease of GmRbohL expression.The root nodule tissue sections showed that gene silencing of GmRbohL significantly reduced the number of symbionts in the infected area of root nodules,and the nitrogenase activity of root nodules also decreased accordingly.The above data indicated that gene silencing of GmRbohL significantly inhibits the symbiotic nodulation process of soybean by reducing the production level of ROS.It is speculated that GmRbohL may play an important positive regulatory role in organogenesis of soybean nodules and regulation of nitrogen fixation function.

  • WU Jinzhi, LI Shujing, LI Guoqiang, HUANG Ming, FU Guozhan, LI Youjun, JIANG Xiang, FENG Ye
    Abstract (77) PDF (85) RichHTML (8)

    In order to explore the effects of irrigation method and topdressing nitrogen on grain yield,quality and nitrogen accumulation and translocation of furrow-seeding wheat in dryland,a field experiment including five treatments,i.e.no irrigation and no topdressing nitrogen(NIND),every furrow irrigation and no topdressing nitrogen(EFIND),alternative furrow irrigation and no topdressing nitrogen(AFIND),every furrow irrigation and topdressing nitrogen(EFITD)and alternative furrow irrigation and topdressing nitrogen(AFITD),were set at jointing stage based on a no-tillage furrow-seeding wheat field from October 2019 to June 2020.The grain yield and its components,main quality index,as well as the shoot nitrogen accumulation,translocation and distribution were measured.The results showed that irrigation at jointing stage,irrigation mode and topdressing nitrogen significantly regulated the yield,quality and nitrogen accumulation and translocation of furrow-seeding wheat in dryland,and the regulation effects was additive.Compared with NIND,the grain yields in EFIND,AFIND,EFITD and AFITD were significantly increased by 46.57%,67.72%,83.71%,95.88%,as well as the nitrogen accumulation at anthesis,the post-anthesis nitrogen accumulation and its contribution rate to grain were significantly increased,so the nitrogen accumulation amounts at maturity were significantly increased by 25.94%,41.00%,65.86%,82.64%.Compared with NIND,the quality in EFIND,AFIND and EFITD was significantly decreased,while that in AFITD did not decrease or even significantly increased.Compared with EFI,AFI did not affect the nitrogen accumulation at anthesis,but significantly increased the post-anthesis nitrogen accumulation,and thus significantly increased the total nitrogen accumulation at maturity and grain nitrogen accumulation.Finally,compared with EFI,the grain yield in AFI was significantly increased,but the difference of quality indexes except the sedimentation value was not significant under ND,while the significant improvement of grain yield and various quality indexes was observed under TD.Compared with ND,the nitrogen accumulation at anthesis,pre-anthesis nitrogen accumulation and its translocation amount,post-anthesis nitrogen accumulation and its contribution rate to grain in TD were significantly increased,and thus the shoot nitrogen accumulation and grain nitrogen distribution rate at maturity were also significantly increased,so the grain yield,grain nitrogen accumulation and grain quality were significantly improved.Moreover,the regulation effect on quality under AFI was greater than that under EFI.In conclusion, AFITD could not only improve the shoot nitrogen accumulation at anthesis and after anthesis, but also significantly increased the amount of pre-anthesis nitrogen translocation to grain, and the shoot nitrogen accumulation and its distribution rate in grain at maturity, thus finally synergistically improved grain yield and quality of furrow-seeding wheat. Therefore, alternative furrow irrigation combined with topdressing nitrogen at jointing stage could be recommended as an alternative mode in dryland.

  • REN Sanxue, ZHOU Guangsheng, ZHAO Huarong, TIAN Xiaoli, GENG Jinjian
    Abstract (76) PDF (97) RichHTML (18)

    In order to reveal the influence mechanism of sowing date adjustment on crop yield formation, a field experiment was conducted to adjust the sowing date of the same variety of summer maize from 2019 to 2021 at Hebei Gucheng Agricultural Meteorology National Observation and Research Station in Northern north China, which was set up in four sowing date, as 10 d early sowing, 10 d late sowing, 20 d late sowing and control. By monitoring the growth period changes, plant dry matter accumulation, leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain filling characteristics, and sampling at maturity to determine the yield components, the results showed that:the sowing date of summer maize was appropriate to be advanced,the seedling stage,ear stage and the whole growth period were extended,especially,the duration of effective filling was extended with the advance of sowing date.The effective grain filling duration days were extended by 4.7 days for every 10 days ahead of the sowing date.The average filling rate of winter wheat was 4.04% higher on the sowing date was advanced by 10 days, compared with the sowing date was deferred by 10 or 20 days and the control.Grain filling accumulation increased,and 100-grain weight increased by 5.459 g.The main yield components of summer maize,such as grain number per ear,grain weight per ear and 100-grain weight showed significant differences during sowing,and increased with the sowing date.The theoretical yield increased by 1 395.4 kg/ha with 10 days ahead of the sowing date during the experimental period from June 8 to July 8.The average net photosynthetic rate(Pn)of leaves in the critical development period of summer maize increased by 0.764 μmol/(m2·s)with every 10 days ahead of sowing date,and the average Pn of sowing date 10 days earlier was increased by 7.31% compared with the control and late sowing 10 and 20 days.With the increase of photosynthetic rate,dry matter production,accumulation and transfer to grain were increased,and the grain weight per ear and 100-grain weight increased by an average of 24.01% and 18.00%,respectively,compared to the control and late sowing 10 and 20 days.Advancing sowing date resulted in low plant height,strong stems,lodging resistance,large individual green leaf area,high leaf area index(LAI),and high leaf photosynthesis ability,above-ground dry matter allocation rate at maturity stage every 10 days in advance of sowing date:grain weight improved by 2.26%,the source—pool distribution of dry matter between plant vegetative organ and ear changed,ear weight per ear,100-grain weight and grain yield increased.The research showed that the double cropping area of winter wheat—summer maize in north China could effectively improve the yield per unit area by making full use of the heat resources increased by climate warming,reasonably allocating stubble,sowing summer maize early at the appropriate time,and extending the development period and grain filling time.

  • CAI Chengcheng, LI Luopin, WEN He, LIU Shifeng, WANG Qiang, LI Liqin, WANG Xiyao
    Abstract (75) PDF (59) RichHTML (4)

    To express the protein StSPS1 encoding potato sucrose phosphate synthase(SPS)in E.coli and prepare polyclonal antibodies.The StSPS1 gene was cloned from the tubers of tetraploid potato variety Chuanyu 10,with a total coding region of 3 165 bp and a protein length of 1 055 aa.Subsequently,based on the constructed His tag fusion expression vector PET30a-StSPS1,the protein induction,denaturation,purification,renaturation,and rabbit immune tests of StSPS1 protein were carried out.The results showed that the molecular weight of StSPS1 protein was approximately 119.62 ku,and its expression was minimal in soluble supernatant,mainly in insoluble precipitates.The optimal induction conditions were induced with 0.5 or 1.0 mmol/L IPTG at 37 ℃ for 4 h.Due to StSPS1 being an inclusion body protein,it was subjected to inclusion body denaturation and purified using His tags to match the size of the target band.At the same time,a protein immunoblotting(WB)test was performed using His antibodies,and the target band was detected at 119.62 ku,indicating the successful purification of StSPS1 inclusion body protein.Finally,by injecting the dialyzed and refolded StSPS1 protein into the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits,two antibodies against StSPS1 were successfully immunized.After WB identification,it was found that both antibodies could hybridize target bands in the antigen and the total protein of leaves in Chuanyu 10.In summary,potato StSPS1 protein was induced and purified,and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against StSPS1 protein were successfully prepared.

  • YANG Xiujuan, SUN Jiying, GAO Julin, LIU Jian, MENG Fansheng, ZHANG Yuezhong, WEN Xiaoliang, WANG Zhigang, YU Xiaofang, LIU Wenxiang, WANG Yanqi
    Abstract (75) PDF (49) RichHTML (4)

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen application rates on the accumulation and distribution characteristics of dry matter and nitrogen,yield and components of maize in the key growth period under different ecological conditions in Inner Mongolia,experiments were carried out in three ecological zones,Tumed Right Banner of Baotou City,Harqin Banner of Songshan District of Chifeng City and Wuyuan County of Bayannur City of Inner Mongolia in 2021.Using maize varieties Xianyu 335,Zhengdan 958 and Jingke 968 as experimental materials,the effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter and nitrogen accumulation,distribution,transport and yield formation in different organs of maize were studied.The results showed that the interaction between ecological zone and nitrogen fertilizer had a extremely significant effects on dry matter accumulation and distribution,nitrogen accumulation and distribution,yield and its component factors.The proportion of dry matter in various organs of maize varieties in different ecological regions was different,in order of grain>stalk>cob+bract>leaf blade.The difference was mainly manifested in the silking maturity stage. At N2 level,Xianyu 335 had higher dry matter accumulation before flowering and Zhengdan 958 had higher dry matter accumulation after flowering.At the N1 level,the stalk transfer volume,stalk transfer rate and stalk contribution rate of Jingke 968 showed good performance.The nitrogen accumulation of maize varieties with different nitrogen efficiency showed an increasing trend with the advance of growth period.The nitrogen distribution in all organs at maturity stage was grain>leaf blade > cob + bract > stalk.The maize yield in different ecological regions was Harqin Banner>Wuyuan County>Tumed Right Banner.Under the N0 level of Tumed Right Banner,the yield was Xianyu 335>Jingke 968>Zhengdan 958;at the N1 and N2 levels,the yield performance was Zhengdan 958>Jingke 968> Xianyu 335.At the different nitrogen levels in Wuyuan County and Harqin Banner,the yields were Zhengdan 958>Jingke 968>Xianyu 335,and the differences between varieties were significant(P<0.05).In conclusion,the response of nitrogen fertilizer level to Xianyu 335 dry matter accumulation was better in Wuyuan County and Tumed Right Banner.And the response of Jingke 968 and Zhengdan 958 to dry matter accumulation was better in Harqin Banner.Compared with Jingke 968,Xianyu 335 and Zhengdan 958 had better utilization of nitrogen fertilizer at the later growth stage.

  • WANG Hongtao, ZHAO Kainan, ZHANG Jun, HUANG Xiuli, ZHAO Wenxin, LI Shujing, HUANG Ming, LI Youjun, WU Jinzhi, JIANG Xiang
    Abstract (73) PDF (50) RichHTML (8)

    In order to screen the proper time and method of deep tillage for achieving high yield of winter wheat in the winter wheat-summer maize(namely,wheat-maize)multiple cropping system in dryland,a field experiment including four treatments,namely deep plowing in summer season(SP),subsoiling in summer season(SS),deep plowing in autumn season(AP)and subsoiling in autumn season(AS),was carried out in the typical dryland wheat-maize production area in Western Henan Province from June 2019 to June 2021.The yield,yield components and spike traits of wheat in the two experimental years,as well as tiller numbers,SPAD and net photosynthetic rate(Pn)in flag leaves,the characteristics of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and transportation in 2020-2021 were investigated.Both the time and method of deep tillage had significant effects on the grain yield,yield components,spike traits,tiller number,flag leaf SPAD and Pn,dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and transportation in dryland winter wheat.Compared with SP, the yield, spike number, shoot dry matter accumulation from regreening to maturity, pre-anthesis dry matter translocation, post-anthesis dry matter accumulation, total nitrogen accumulation from anthesis to maturity, pre-anthesis nitrogen translocation, flag leaf SPAD values during mid-late grain filling stage and flag leaf Pn from heading to latter grain filling of winter wheat in AS were significantly increased by 18.38%-19.55%, 16.85%-26.05%, 15.33%-20.28%, 16.47%, 20.43%, 26.11%-33.81%,36.49%,5.24%-9.69%, and 5.55%-23.70%, respectively.AS can increase the tiller numbers,flag leaf SPAD and Pn,and improve the characteristics of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and transportation,thereby ultimately stabilizing the number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight when increasing the number of spikes,and significantly increasing the grain yield of winter wheat.It is a suitable tillage pattern for wheat in wheat-maize multiple cropping system in dryland.

  • DUAN Yuxuan, CUI Jingnan, XU Shanbin, WANG Jingguo, LIU Hualong, YANG Luomiao, JIA Yan, XIN Wei, WU Wenshen, ZHENG Hongliang, ZOU Detang
    Abstract (72) PDF (71) RichHTML (7)

    In order to promote the breeding of high quality grain shape Japonica rice varieties,a natural population consisting of 295 Japonica rice varieties collected from around the world was used as test material for phenotypic analysis of five grain shape-related traits,including grain length,grain width,grain thickness,aspect ratio and thousand grains weight,between 2018 and 2019,combined with 788,396 SNPs obtained by resequencing,and genome-wide association analysis using the MLM model of TASSEL 5.0.Haplotype analysis was performed on all the genes in the QTL intervals that were jointly detected during the two years and controlled multiple shape-related traits, and candidate genes for high quality rice grains were mined by combining the results of previous studies and functional annotation of the genes. The results showed that there was extensive phenotypic variation for the five grain shape-related traits,all of which were approximately normally distributed,and most of the grain shape-related traits were significantly or highly significantly correlated with each other. And a total of 221 QTLs significantly associated with rice grain shape-related traits were detected under the threshold condition of P≤5.46×10-6,which were distributed on all 12 chromosomes of rice,and phenotypic contribution was 8.62%-20.73%, of which, seven QTLs were jointly detected in two years, and combined with the haplotype analysis and functional annotation of the genes, it was hypothesized that LOC_Os12g 44290 was a new candidate gene for rice grain shape. In summary,this study used genome-wide association analysis for QTL localization and candidate gene analysis for grain type-related traits in 295 Japonica rice varieties,providing a theoretical basis for breeding Japonica rice varieties with high quality grain types.

  • ZHU Zixin, ZHANG Yulu, JIA Jing, LI Wenlu, ZHAO Ludi, MENG Fangang, GE Hongmei, XU Xuexin, ZHAO Changxing
    Abstract (71) PDF (64) RichHTML (5)

    In order to clarify the main agronomic traits and their relationships with grain yield of different colored-grain wheat varieties(lines),and select colored-grain wheat varieties suitable for cultivation in Eastern Shandong.The experiment was carried out during 2020-2022 winter wheat growing seasons.Four purple-grain wheat varieties (lines)Qingyan No.1 purple wheat (QYZ-1),QYZ-2,Shannong No.1 purple wheat (SNZM1),and Nongda 3753 (ND3753),two blue-grain wheat lines 20064 and 20072,and one common white grain wheat variety Jimai 22 (JM22,control variety) were selected as test materials,to systematically study the differences in flag leaf SPAD,leaf area index,dry matter accumulation and remobilization,grain yield and its component factors,stability of agronomic traits and yield sustainability of different colored-grain wheat varieties (lines).The results showed that grain yield,thousand grains weight,leaf area index at anthesis,SPAD value after anthesis,dry matter accumulation at anthesis,dry matter accumulation at maturity,dry matter accumulation at post-anthesis and harvest index of each colored-grain wheat varieties (lines) were lower than those of common white grain wheat (Jimai 22).Compared among the various colored-grain wheat varieties (lines),the purple-grain wheat QYZ-1 grain yield was significantly higher than that of other colored-grain wheat varieties (lines),and the grains per unit area number was not significantly different from that of QYZ-2,but its thousand grains weight was significantly higher than that of QYZ-2.The upper three leaves area index of the purple-grain wheat QYZ-1 was significantly higher than that of the blue wheat lines and ND3753 at the anthesis stage.The flag leaf SPAD,the dry matter accumulation at maturity and post-anthesis,the dry matter remobilization before anthesis,and the harvest index were higher than those of other colored-grain wheat varieties (lines);compared with other varieties (lines),the coefficient of variation (CV) of agronomic traits of JM22 and QYZ-1 were lower.Compared with colored-grain wheat,the mean yield and yield sustainability index (SYI) of QYZ-1 were higher.In addition,the correlation analysis showed that the grain yield was positive significantly correlated with the dry matter accumulation at anthesis,the dry matter accumulation at maturity and post-anthesis,the dry matter remobilization before anthesis,the harvest index,flag leaf SPAD value at 28 days after anthesis,whole green leaves area index at anthesis and thousand grains weight,respectively.Based on the results of the two years' study,QYZ-1 obtained the appropriate leaf area index,maintained the higher flag leaf SPAD after anthesis,and the longer duration of anthesis to maturity stage,delayed the leaf senescence during the late grain filling stage,and synergistically increased the post-anthesis dry matter accumulation and the dry matter remobilization before anthesis,dry matter accumulation at maturity and harvest index,and grain number per unit area and thousand grains weight,and then achieved higher grain yield.In summary,Qingyan No.1 purple wheat,as a colored-grain wheat variety,has a stable yield and good sustainability,making it suitable for planting in Eastern Shandong region.

  • LI Mingxuan, LIU Ying, YANG Baiming, ZHANG Fan, SONG Jiaxin, SU Chaijing, ZHANG Weihua, WU Ying
    Abstract (71) PDF (50) RichHTML (7)

    Glutamate decarboxylase(GAD)is a cleavage enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamic acid,plays a key role in GABA synthesis pathway and has an important influence on plants' resistance to abiotic stress.Three watermelon GAD gene family members(Cla97C01G007270,Cla97C01G007290 and Cla97C04G079700)were screened by the association analysis of metabolomics and transcriptomes.On this basis,three watermelon GAD family genes were cloned,named ClGAD1,ClGAD2 and ClGAD3 respectively,and their bioinformatics and expression patterns were analyzed.The results showed that the CDS of ClGAD1,ClGAD2 and ClGAD3 were 1 524,1 497 and 1 497 bp,respectively,and the number of amino acids encoded by them was 507,498 and 498,respectively.All three proteins were hydrophilic proteins and were located in mitochondria.It was highly conserved,and the conserved domain was glutamic acid decarboxylase.Its promoter region contained a large number of CAAT-box and TATA-box,as well as corresponding elements related to adversity stress such as MYB and MYC.The secondary structures of the three GAD proteins were mainly α-helix and random coil.The tertiary structures were all homohexamer structures.Phylogenetic tree showed that members of GAD gene family were closest to GAD of Momordica charantia and Arabidopsis thaliana.qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the highest expression levels of ClGAD1 and ClGAD2 were showed in stems,while that of ClGAD3 was showed in flowers.The expression levels of ClGAD1,ClGAD2 and ClGAD3 were the highest under salt stress for 12,24 and 48 h,respectively.Under cold and drought stress,the expression patterns of the three GAD genes were similar,and all of them were expressed in large quantities in the early stage of stress,and the expression of ClGAD3 under abiotic stress was higher than that of the other two family members.The full-length cDNA of three GAD genes in watermelon was obtained,and their bioinformatics and expression patterns were analyzed,which provided an experimental basis for enriching the abiotic stress resistance gene resources of watermelon.

  • WANG Peng, TIAN Zhejuan, ZHAO Xuefang, KANG Chen, WU Zhiming, LI Yadong, HUANG Jinan
    Abstract (71) PDF (56) RichHTML (9)

    Calmodulin is an important Ca2+ receptor protein in plants,which plays an important role in calcium signaling pathway and stress resistance.It is of great significance to study the mechanism of CaM protein in tomato under low temperature stress for cold tolerance breeding of tomato.Tomato calmodulin genes SlCaM3, SlCaM4 and SlCaM5 were cloned from tomato varieties Heinz1706,LA3969,Jifen 2,Jifen 3 and Nongbofenba 15,and their sequences and protein sequences were analyzed by bioinformatics;the cis acting elements in the promoter regions of SlCaM3,SlCaM4 and SlCaM5 were analyzed by plantcare;Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of SlCaM3,SlCaM4 and SlCaM5 under 15,5 ℃ temperature stress in different tomato varieties,and the specific expression of SlCaM3,SlCaM4 and SlCaM5 in different tissues was analyzed in combination with RNA-seq data.The results showed that the coding sequence of SlCaM3,SlCaM4 and SlCaM5 were 450 bp,and their similarity was 93.63%;the encoded amino acid sequences were identical,belonging to acidic stable hydrophilic protein with typical conservative domain of cam protein.The analysis of cis acting elements showed that the promoter regions of the three genes contained not only the necessary core elements,but also a variety of biotic and abiotic stress response elements,and showed a complementary pattern.The analysis of the expression patterns of different degrees of low temperature stress showed that the expression patterns of SlCaM3,SlCaM4 and SlCaM5 in five tomato materials showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing at 15 ℃,and the expression of SlCaM5 increased more significantly.At 5 ℃,SlCaM3 and SlCaM4 did not change significantly,but the expression level of SlCaM5 gene increased significantly in the later stage of treatment.The high expression of SlCaM5 gene in the process of tomato resistance to low temperature indicated that it maintained the translation level of cam protein under low temperature and ensured that the function of CaM protein was not affected.The analysis of SlCaM3,SlCaM4 and SlCaM5 specific expression in different tissues of Heinz1706 showed that SlCaM3 and SlCaM4 were highly expressed in meristem,while the expression of SlCaM5 different tissues was not significantly different.

  • ZHAO Shengnan, GAO Meixin, YU Zhaohang, NIE Kaiyue, WANG Haoran, MENG Jie, ZHU Hong, LI Shuai
    Abstract (71) PDF (58) RichHTML (8)

    FLK(Flowering Locus KH Domain)plays an important role in flowering time regulation,and its function has been characterized in Arabidopsis.In order to identify the function,GmFLK was isolated from soybean Williams 82 and the encoded protein was predicted by structural and bioinformatics analysis.The subcellular localization of this protein was examined in tobacco leaves and the expression pattern of this gene was analyzed in soybean.The results showed that the GmFLK was 6 806 bp in length,containing 6 exons and 5 introns.The CDS was 1 341 bp,encoding 446 amino acids.The molecular weight of the protein was 47.031 ku,and the isoelectric point was 5.46.GmFLK protein contained three structures,α-Helix,β-Strand and Coil,which had 24.44%,14.80% and 60.76%,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GmFLK had a close relationship with Glyma.03g248200,followed by Medicago Medtr7g115340,Arachis hypogaea ArahyQL2VNI, ArahyUPVY9X,and Arabidopsis AtFLK.Subcellular localization analysis showed that GmFLK protein was expressed in the nucleus,cytoplasm and cell membrane.GmFLK promoter contained 10 types of cis-acting elements,and 6 types were considered to be involved in photoperiod response.In addition,GmFLK was expressed in flower,leaf,root,seed and stem,and GmFLK showed relative high expression levels in leaf and seed,and relative low levels in flower.The expression patterns of GmFLK under long day and short day photoperiod conditions were similar.However,GmFLK showed different expression levels throughout the day and night,and exhibited low expression level after 4 h,lights-on,and high expression level after 0 and 12 h,lights-on.In summary,our study reveals that GmFLK might be a key factor involved in flowering time regulation.

  • HUANG Miao, LUO Youyou, NI Rui, ZHAO Jin
    Abstract (70) PDF (84) RichHTML (5)

    In order to explore the response of ARP to low temperature stress in ornamental pepper,and provide a theoretical basis for subsequent research on gene function in ornamental pepper under low temperature stress.This study cloned homologous ARP gene from ornamental pepper using RT-PCR technology,named CfARP,and analyzed their expression in different tissues of ornamental peppers and under low temperature treatment;Using bioinformatics analysis to study gene protein coding,physicochemical properties,and genetic relationships,and using qRT-PCR technology to detect the expression level of CfARP in different tissues of ornamental pepper and under low temperature treatment.The results showed that the CDS sequence of the CfARP gene was 342 bp,with 100% homology with Zunla 1.It could encode 113 amino acids and contained a conserved Auxin-repressed domain;protein physicochemical analysis revealed that the molecular weight of CfARP protein was 12.156 ku,its isoelectric point was 10.22,and the average coefficient of hydrophilicity was -0.913.It was preliminarily predicted that CfARP was a hydrophilic protein;compared with other species' ARP amino acid sequences,it was found that CfARP was highly conserved in Solanaceae plants.The Real-time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR results showed that the expression level of CfARP gene was the highest in the stems of ornamental pepper,followed by roots,and relatively less in leaves and flowers;the expression level of CfARP gene continuously increased with the increase of low-temperature treatment duration.It was preliminarily speculated that CfARP had a certain role in the response of ornamental pepper to low temperature stress.

  • LAI Zhanglong, RUAN Chaoling, XIAO Wei, LIU Yanbin, YU Zhaoxi, LIU Kai, SAI Qingyun, TIAN Yonghua, ZHANG Feng, YANG Ruilan, LIU Ting, YANG Liqiang, WANG Yutao, LIAN Zongqiang
    Abstract (69) PDF (80) RichHTML (8)

    In view of the low conversion rate of artificial domestication and survival rate of seedling cultivation of Silurus lanzhouensis,in order to use gene editing technology to create and cultivate new germplasm of S.lanzhouensis that was easy to domesticate,the effects of neuropeptide Y gene(NPY) of S.lanzhouensis were studied.The results showed that the full cDNA sequence of the NPY gene was 775 bp in length,with an open reading frame(ORF)of 288 bp,which encoded 95 amino acids and contained a transmembrane helix and a signal peptide binding site for pancreatic hormone recognition.The NPY protein sequence of S.lanzhouensis had the highest consistency with that of Silurus meridionalis,which was 98.95%.The Real-time Fluorescent Quantitative PCR results showed that NPY mRNA expression was the highest in brain tissue,followed by the hypothalamus,and the lowest in muscle.The expression level of NPY mRNA in male tissues of different ages was higher than that in female tissues;and the expression of NPY mRNA decreased with age in both sexes.Localization of brain cells by in situ hybridization found that NPY was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm,and abundant expression was found in the preoptic area,tectum,pituitary,the lentiform nucleus of cerebellum and the caudate nucleus of the medulla oblongata in different parts of the brain.Further verification of starvation compensation showed that the expression of NPY in brain tissue increased significantly after starvation,and decreased significantly after feeding.The above results showed that NPY gene might play an important role in the growth and feeding process of S.lanzhouensis.It could be used as an important verification of the subsequent functional gene editing and the creation of new germplasm,and had important theoretical significance and technical support for accelerating the breeding of new varieties of S.lanzhouensis.

  • CUI Yongzeng, YAO Haipo, LI Qian, YAO Yanrong, LÜ Lihua, WU Liyong, ZHAI Lichao, JIA Xiuling
    Abstract (69) PDF (48) RichHTML (9)

    Partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer is being increasingly recognized as a promising approach for achieving sustainable agriculture.This paper explores the proportion of organic fertilizer substitution nitrogen fertilizer,physiological basis for stable yield after substitution nitrogen fertilizer,and the effect of spraying liquid nitrogen after substitution nitrogen fertilizer in North China,in order to provide a basis for the technology of reducing nitrogen fertilizer and increasing yield and efficiency of winter wheat in this region.Field experiments of the following eight treatments were conducted in Ningjin,Hebei from 2020 to 2022:T1,non-nitrogen,application of chemical P and K fertilizer alone;T2,application of chemical N,P and K fertilizer alone;and T3- T7,substitution of 20%,40%,60%,80%and 100% the chemical N rate of T2 with organic fertilizer,respectively;T8,substitution of 100% chemical N rate of T2 with organic fertilizer,and spraying liquid nitrogen fertilizer at the erecting stage.The results showed that the organic fertilizer substitution rate of 29.5%-66.7% and the 100% substitution rate+liquid nitrogen treatment had higher wheat yield,and their yield was comparable to the CK.Under this fertilization condition,the leaf area index and leaf SPAD value were also higher at most stages,which was the physiological basis for stable yield after replacing chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer.When the organic fertilizer substitution rate was greater than 40%,the wheat grain quality was higher,especially when the organic fertilizer substitution rate was 40%,the stability time,tensile area,and maximum tensile resistance were increased by 17.8%,23.5%,and 9.1%,respectively,compared to the CK.The nitrogen efficiency indicators of the CK,40% substitution rate,and 100% substitution rate+liquid nitrogen fertilizer treatments mostly performed better,with higher nitrogen uptake of grain,nitrogen fertilizer efficiency and nitrogen uptake efficiency.Substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer significantly increased the nitrate nitrogen content in soil 0-80 cm from the erecting to the filling stage and 0-60 cm at the mature stage,resulting in a phenomenon of surface accumulation of soil nitrate nitrogen.The higher the replacement rate of organic fertilizer,the higher the nitrate nitrogen content in this layer of soil.Replacing nitrogen fertilizer with organic fertilizer could significantly reduce the nitrate nitrogen content of 80-100 cm soil in the mature stage,thereby reducing the risk of nitrogen leaching in the rainy season.Based on the above conclusions,the treatment of 40% substitution rate and 100% substitution rate+liquid nitrogen fertilizer had excellent wheat yield,quality,and nitrogen efficiency,with significant benefits.

  • FAN Yilin, ZHAO Dan, MA Yan, YUE Yongqi, FENG Xinxin, ZHANG Jiyue, ZI Xiangdong, XIONG Xianrong, FU Wei, XIONG Yan
    Abstract (69) PDF (39) RichHTML (7)

    In order to obtain the molecular characterization of the yak ANXA5 gene,discuss its expression characteristics in tissues and cells,and larify its medium localization in granulosa cells.Samples of yak heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney,uterus,ovaries and oviducts were collected.After extraction of total RNA,we used PCR,bioinformatics software,qPCR techniques and immunocytochemistry to clone and analyze sequence of the yak ANXA5 gene and investigated its expression and localization.The results showed that the CDS region of the yak ANXA5 gene was 966 bp in length,encoding 321 amino acids.Compared to the cattle ANXA5 genes,there were 6 base mutations in the yak ANXA5 gene.Both the nucleotide homology and amino acid homology of yak and cattle were more than 99%,and the amino acid homology were more than 90% with other mammals,indicating that the ANXA5 gene was more conservative in evolution.ANXA5 expression level was highest in lung,which was extremely significant higher than the other tissues(P<0.01),followed by uterus and oviduct.ANXA5 was expressed in ovarian granulosa cells of yak at different stages,and the expression level increased gradually with time.The results showed that the expression level of ANXA5 in cultured 72 h granulosa cells were extremely significant higher than that in cultured 24,36 h granulosa cells(P<0.01).The expression level of ANXA5 in cultured 48 h granulosa cells were extremely significant higher than that in cultured 24 h granulosa cells(P<0.01)and significantly higher than that in cultured 36 h granulosa cells(P<0.05),indicating that the expression level of ANXA5 in luteinized granulosa cells was higher.However,the immunohistochemical results showed that the subcellular localization of ANXA5 was in the cytoplasm,and corpus luteum cells were highly expressed.

  • PIAO Jun, JIN Daoran, PIAO Jingai, JI Yinghua, SUN Feng, LI Shuo
    Abstract (68) PDF (42) RichHTML (11)

    In order to explore virus species in aphids,Aphis craccivora natural populations from Jiangsu were collected and identified,and then the fragmented mRNA from aphid total RNA was used as template to construct the sequencing library.The virus species in A.craccivora were analyzed by virome sequencing technology,and the two novel viruses were further identified.The results showed that after splicing,alignment and classification annotation of sequencing data,177 viral contigs were finally obtained,which were consistent or highly homologous with the sequences of 24 viruses,including 5 plant viruses(involving 5 families)and 19 insect viruses(involving 9 families and 6 unclassified viruses).The virus with the highest sequencing abundance among plant viruses was detected,and after Blast,these viruses with higher homology were all from Cytorhabdovirus,and they had the same conserved domain,so it was considered as a novel Cytorhabdovirus,temporarily named Aphis craccivora associated rhabdovirus(AcARV).The phylogenetic analysis based on viral L proteins revealed that AcARV and Rice stripe mosaic virus(RSMV)clustered into the closest clade,indicating that the two viruses were the closest in evolution.Most identified insect virus species were rarely reported in aphids.Capsid protein VP1 of insect virus Himetobi P virus(HiPV)was detected in A.craccivora via RT-PCR and Western Blot,which confirmed the infection of HiPV in A.craccivora,and it was the first report that HiPV was found in aphids.HiPV VP1 gene of A.craccivora isolate shared 95.5%,99.0% nucleotide identities with Japan and Jiangsu Laodelphax striatellus isolates.These results clarify A.craccivora bears a variety of plant viruses,including a new rhabdovirus AcARV.Meanwhile,insect virus species are abundant in A.craccivora,and HiPV can infect aphids.

  • 2023, 38(5): 0-0.
    Abstract (67) PDF (110)
  • DOU Jiaxin, TIAN Tian, WANG Peng, LIU Yuan, CHEN Tao, ZHANG Peipei, YANG Delong
    Abstract (67) PDF (51) RichHTML (5)

    Sucrose is the main form of water-soluble carbohydrates transported in wheat stems,and plays a key role in the regulation of wheat growth and grain filling,which is a typical quantitative trait with a complex genetic basis.The SNP loci and candidate genes significantly associated with sucrose accumulation and translocation in wheat stems were explored at the genome-wide level to provide a theoretical basis for gene cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection.Seven traits of 117 domestic wheat varieties were measured, such as the sucrose content of flowering, filling, and maturity, the translocation rate and contribution rate to grain filling of sucrose at the pre-anthesis and post-anthesis, under different environmental conditions. Based on 35K SNP microarray genotyping, a mixed linear model MLM (Q + K) was used for genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene prediction.The overall phenotypic variation ranged from 9.53% to 45.70% with rich phenotypic diversity;the heritability of seven traits ranged from 0.32 to 0.49;the genotyping results showed that the polymorphism information content (PIC) of SNP markers ranged from 0.10 to 0.38;the population structure analysis divided the tested materials into four subgroups.The MLM(Q+K)model detected 146 significantly associated loci for traits related to sucrose accumulation and transport,among them,three SNP loci were detected repeatedly in two environments,and 13 candidate genes related to sucrose accumulation and transport related traits were screened based on the 200 kb physical location interval upstream and downstream of the 3 SNP loci that were stably and significantly associated.Among them, TraesCS1B02G324100 (Nucleotide-diphospho-suger transferase gene),TraesCS1B02G324200(Cellulose synthase-like protein gene),and TraesCS1B02G324300 (β-1,3-glucanase gene) were associated with sugar metabolism.

  • BAI Lu, XIN Cuihua, LIU Lele, WANG Junjie, JIAN Lei, SHAO Yutao, PEI Haixia, GUO Jiangbo
    Abstract (66) PDF (52) RichHTML (9)

    In order to study the biological function of NbEHD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana,its gene structure,conserved domains,phosphorylation sites,subcellular localization and evolutionary relationship were predicted by bioinformatics methods.The encoding sequence of NbEHD1 was 1 638 bp,and its genomic sequence contained 16 exons and 15 introns.NbEHD1 protein was predicted located in the cytoplasm,which had 42 phosphorylation sites and had no signal peptide and transmembrane region.NbEHD1 belonged to the P-loop_NTPase superfamily and had a conserved domain specific to the EHD family.Phylogenetic relationship showed that NbEHD1 was closely related to EHD sequences of Solanum tuberosum and Solanum lycopersicum.Blast analysis against N.benthamiana sub-data base in SNG was performed to obtain the predicted full length of NbEHD1,then its full nucleic acid sequence was amplified by gene-specific primers.After obtaining NbEHD1 CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing construct,the vector was successfully transformed into the leaves of N.benthamiana by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.Eventually 16 T0-generation plantlets were successfully identified,which provided materials for further research to determine the biological function of NbEHD1.

  • LIU Chao, SUN Tianjie, LIU Na, CHEN Yan, WANG Dongmei
    Abstract (66) PDF (55) RichHTML (10)

    In order to investigate the function of thaumatin-like protein 8(TaTLP8)in wheat resistance to Puccinia triticina infection,the incompatible and compatible combinations of the wheat near-isogenic line TcLr26 and its recurrent parent Thatcher(Tc)with P.triticina physiological race 260 were studied.Following bioinformatics analysis,prokaryotic expression,affinity purification,and immunization,a rabbit-derived polyclonal antibody to TaTLP8 was prepared,and the expression of TaTLP8 in the incompatible and compatible combinations of wheat and P.triticina was detected.The results showed that wheat TaTLP8 was highly homologous to the HvTLP8 in barley and contained a signal peptide at its N-terminus.The recombinant plasmid pET28a-TaTLP8-nosp was generated with the TaTLP8 gene excluding its signal peptide region(TaTLP8-nosp),and the protein was expressed at an optimal concentration of 0.100 mmol/L IPTG in E.coli BL21.The purified TaTLP8-nosp recombinant protein was used to immunize New Zealand rabbits to prepare an antibody,which was found to bind specifically to TaTLP8 protein in wheat by Western Blotting.The prepared antibody was used to detect the expression of TaTLP8 in wheat-P.triticina incompatible and compatible interactions.TaTLP8 started to express 8 h after inoculation in the incompatible combination,and its expression level gradually increased.In the compatible combination,the expression of TaTLP8 was not detected until 48 h after P.triticina inoculation,and its expression level gradually decreased.In addition,the expression of TaTLP8 in the incompatible combination was higher than that in the compatible combination,indicating that TaTLP8 may play a positive regulatory role in the resistance of wheat to P.triticina infection.

  • GUO Yulong, ZHAO Jingshan, WANG Zheng, GAO Zhen, DU Xiong, DANG Hongkai
    Abstract (66) PDF (66) RichHTML (9)

    In view of the contradiction between the temperature required for winter wheat growth and the actual ambient temperature in the northern North China Plain, field experiments were conducted in two consecutive growing seasons from 2019 to 2021 to study the effect of increasing temperature in late winter and early spring on regulating wheat source-sink performance. In the first growing season, four warming treatments were set warming on January 20 (CT1), January 26 (CT2), February 1 (CT3), February 7 (CT4), and ending on March 20. In the second growing season, three warming treatments were set warming on January 25 (CT1), February 1 (CT2), February 8 (CT3), and ending on March 15, and conventional production was used as control (CK) in both growing seasons. The results showed that the accumulated temperature of CT1 increased by 138.1-405.1 ℃, the average daily temperature of CT1 from jointing to anthesis decreased by 2.50 ℃ in second growing season, and the average daily temperature of CT1 from anthesis to maturity decreased by 2.31 ℃ in first growing season, and the regreening of wheat was advanced by 25 days in first growing season, and the total number of days from regreening to maturity was extended by 21 days in first growing season. Leaf area index and flag leaf area of the CT1 treatment at anthesis were significantly increased by 17.6% and 33.7% in second growing season. The net photosynthetic rate increased by 11.7% in 2020-2021 growing season, and MDA content of CT1 flag leaf decreased by 28.0% after anthesis in first growing season. In second growing season, CT1 spike length and grain length were significantly increased by 15.7% and 2.3%, and at 15 days after anthesis the grain filling rate was significantly increased by 41.0%, the kernel number was significantly increased by 8.8, the 1000-grain weight was significantly increased by 2.0 g, and the yield was significantly increased by 35.8%. Suggesting that, the warming treatment advanced the regreening of wheat and the beginning time of wheat source-sink matter accumulation, relatively lower temperature after the end of intermitten warming measures, it extended the total time of material accumulation in the source-sink and prepared conditions for improving the activity of the source-sink, and the earlier the warming treatment was implemented, the more the performance of the wheat source-sink would be improved.

  • WANG Chuanchuan, MU Tong, LI Desheng, ZHANG Di, LI Leilei, ZHANG Juan, GU Yaling
    Abstract (66) PDF (55) RichHTML (10)

    The study aims to understand the molecular function of fatty acid binding protein 4(FABP4)in Holstein cows and its expression pattern in different tissues.The coding sequence(CDS)of FABP4 gene was amplified by PCR using mammary tissue of Holstein cows as cDNA template,and bioinformatics analysis was performed.The qRT-PCR was used to detect the relative mRNA expression levels of FABP4 gene in small intestine,liver,mammary gland,heart,uterus,kidney and ovary tissues.The results showed that the sequence of the coding region of FABP4 gene in Holstein cows was 399 bp long,encoding 133 amino acids,and the secondary structure of the protein was mainly β-folded.The amino acid homology analysis revealed that bovine FABP4 was most closely related to sheep and goats;nucleoplasmic localization indicated that FABP4 gene might play an important function in the cytoplasm.Protein interaction analysis of FABP4 using STRING revealed that it was closely related to lipid-related proteins such as FABP3,PPARG,and LIPE.The qRT-PCR showed that FABP4 was expressed in all tissues of mid-lactation cows,but the highest expression was found in the mammary tissue of cows,which was significantly higher than other tissues(P<0.05).This study provides an important theoretical basis for the subsequent further study of the biological function and milk fat regulation mechanism of FABP4 in Holstein cows.

  • GAO Luyao, CAO Jiajian, WANG Chunhua, WU Tao, DU Yalin
    Abstract (66) PDF (51) RichHTML (11)

    GDSL is an important gene affecting the development of cuticle.This study cloned cucumber GDSL lipase gene and analyzed its expression pattern,in order to lay a foundation for the study of cuticle development and the glassiness of cucumber.The gene sequence was cloned to clarify its role in cucumbers with different glossiness by using six cultivars with different glossiness as materials.The promoter of CsGDSL lipase gene was cloned to analyze its functional elements.According to the reference sequence in cucumber genome database,we cloned the GDSL lipase gene of cucumber and analyzed by bio-informatics.The expression of the gene in different tissue parts of cucumber was confirmed by qRT-PCR technique.The CDS of CsGDSL length 1 059 bp which encoded 352 amino acids,and the secondary structure was mainly random curl(45.45%)and α-helix(33.24%).This gene was conservative in the process of evolution and was most closely related to CmGDSL.The expression level was the highest in the male flower of cucumber on the flowering day,and the expression level in the ovary at 3 days after flowering was higher than that at 0 days after flowering.The CDS sequence of CsGDSL gene was conservative in six cultivars. CsGDSL gene was responsive to stress,hormone and light.We obtained the CsGDSL lipase gene in this study,and identified its expression in different tissue parts of cucumber,the gene is relatively conserved in different cultivars,suggesting that CsGDSL may affect cucumber glossiness.

  • XIAO Caisheng, XIE Xin, LI Feng, GUO Lishuang, HE Lu, CHEN Haodong, LI Fei, KUANG Fengchun, ZHAO Yan, KUANG Zhengcheng
    Abstract (65) PDF (63) RichHTML (10)

    To investigate the effects of Mn treatment on the growth,development and cadmium adsorption capacity of cotton under Cd stress.Different concentrations of Mn treatment(0,5,10,50 μmol/L)were applied to exploit changes of superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),malondialdehyde(MDA),free proline(Pro),Cd content,dry matter quality,and main root length of roots of cotton seedlings of Xiang C178 and Xiang FZ001 under Cd stress.The stress of 10 μmol/L Cd had a significant effect on the growth of cotton root.The physical barrier and antioxidant defense mechanism were constructed to reduce the damage of Cd to root cells,resulting in a decrease in SOD activity and an increase in CAT activity,MDA content and Pro content.And, adding Mn was observed to effect the physiological response to cadmium of cotton seedling roots. Low concentration of Mn treatment resulted in the decrease of Cd content,the increase in SOD activity and Pro content,the decrease in CAT activity and MDA content in the root of cotton seedlings,which effectively prevented the inhibition of Cd stress on the root growth of cotton seedlings.High concentrations of Mn could increase Cd content and SOD activity in cotton seedling roots, which affected the root growth of cotton seedlings.When using cotton to repair Cd-contaminated farmland,it can be less than 10 μmol/L Mn ion treatment is used to improve the Cd tolerance of cotton seedlings and ensure the normal growth of cotton plants.

  • HE Miaoling, WANG Zhilan, DU Xiaofen, HAN Kangni, LIAN Shichao, LI Yuxin, CHENG Kai, LI Yanfang, WANG Jun
    Abstract (64) PDF (62) RichHTML (3)

    Ideal plant architecture can significantly improve crop yield,but the relationship between plant architecture traits and yield traits is still unclear in foxtail millet.To provide a theoretical basis and germplasm resource for plant architecture breeding in foxtail millet,10 plant architectures traits(plant height,main stem length,panicle length,panicle neck length,panicle diameter,tiller number,node number,length of flag leaf,width of flag leaf and area of flag leaf)and 3 yield traits(panicle weight,panicle grain weight and 1000-grain weight)were analyzed via 126 F6 recombinant inbred lines(RIL)from a F1 arrived from a cross between Aininghuang and Jingu 21 under three ecological environment consisting of Changzhi,Yuci and Datong.Based on the best linear unbiased estimation(BLUE),variance analysis,correlation analysis,partial correlation analysis,principal component analysis,multiple regression analysis and cluster analysis were conducted.The phenotype variation analysis showed there were an extremely significant difference between plant height and main stem length in three ecological environments,a significantly or extremely significant difference between panicle neck length and node number in two ecological environments,and the significant or extremely significant differences among panicle length,panicle diameter,panicle weight,panicle grain weight and tiller number in single ecological environment.In RIL population, an abundant variation was observed for 13 traits with the approximately normal frequency distribution,and the variation coefficients ranged from 6.86% to 31.71%.Except for the main stem length in Yuci, other traits showed a transgressive separation in three ecological environments.Correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis indicated that panicle weight and panicle grain weight were extremely significant positive correlated with plant height,main stem length,panicle length,panicle neck length and node number,while they were extremely significant negative correlated with tiller number,panicle weight was significantly positive correlated with flag leaf length.Principal component analysis simplified 13 traits into 4 principal components,and the cumulative contribution rate was up to 93.938%.The fitting degree R2 of multiple regression analysis was 0.614, and main stem length,panicle length and tiller number were the main factors affecting panicle weight.The RIL population was divided into 7 groups via cluster analysis,among which Group Ⅴ consisted of 3 materials with the highest yield, medium plant height and good comprehensive traits,which could be used as elite parents for ideal plant architecture breeding.

  • XIAO Rang, ZHANG Yongling, ZHAO Yunchen, GUO Shiqian, CUI Zengtuan, SHI Weijie
    Abstract (64) PDF (39) RichHTML (3)

    In order to investigate the effects of chemical fertilizer reduction and combined application of organic fertilizer on soil microbial quantity,nutrient content,eggplant yield,quality and water use efficiency in Hexi oasis,the field experiments of seven different treatments were carried out in 2019 and 2020 with purple long eggplant Tianlong 8 as the test material.Seven treatments were set up,including 100% common chemical fertilizer(FH),80% common chemical fertilizer+20% organic fertilizer(FE),60% common chemical fertilizer+40% organic fertilizer(FS),40% common chemical fertilizer+60% organic fertilizer(FF),20% common chemical fertilizer+80% organic fertilizer(FT),100% organic fertilizer(FZ)and no fertilizer control(CK).The changes of soil microbial quantity,nutrient content and yield in 0-20 cm after eggplant harvest were analyzed.The results showed that chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer could increase the number of bacteria,fungi,actinomycetes and the contents of total nitrogen,total phosphorus,total potassium and organic matter in soil.Among them,60% chemical fertilizer+40% organic fertilizer had the best improvement effect,followed by 80% chemical fertilizer+20% organic fertilizer.The combined application of pure chemical fertilizer had little effect on the growth dynamics of eggplant,but the combined application of organic fertilizer could significantly promote the nutrient absorption of eggplant,increase plant height,stem diameter and leaf area index,and regulate the yield components,laying the foundation for high yield of eggplant.Chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer can promote the distribution of eggplant photosynthetic products to fruit and improve eggplant yield.The economic yield of 60% chemical fertilizer+40% organic fertilizer treatment was the highest(42 716.15 kg/ha),followed by 40% ordinary chemical fertilizer+60% organic fertilizer(41 922.06 kg/ha)and 80% ordinary chemical fertilizer+20% organic fertilizer(40 302.74 kg/ha),which were 53.64%,50.78% and 44.96% higher than CK.Chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer can improve the water and heat status of soil tillage layer and improve the water use efficiency of eggplant.The water use efficiency of FS was the highest(10.46 kg/m3),followed by FF(10.37 kg/hm3)and FT(9.79 kg/hm3),which was 47.53%,46.19% and 38.08% higher than that of CK.Therefore,considering the soil environment,yield and water use efficiency,the best recommended treatment is chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer is 60%+40% organic fertilizer.

  • FAN Yaqi, WANG Yanan, HUO Ruixuan, QIAO Yuejing, GUO Laichun, YANG Zhenping
    Abstract (63) PDF (75) RichHTML (3)

    Conservation tillage and organic fertilizer application are one of the effective solutions to alleviate ecological vulnerability in dry farming areas of the Loess Plateau.Reasonable tillage and fertilization measures are of great significance for the realization of two crops a year in the arid area of central Shanxi.The dry farmland in the Loess Plateau was taken as the research object,and the split-plot experimental design was adopted,the main area was three tillage methods (deep tillage (DT),deep loosening (SS),no tillage (NT)),and the sub-area was four fertilization levels (No fertilizer control (CK),full chemical fertilizer (CF),50% chemical fertilizer+50% organic fertilizer (OF),full organic fertilizer (OM)).The changes of soil bulk density,available nutrients and annual yield of wheat and maize under different tillage and fertilization methods were explored.The results showed that in 0-20 cm the soil bulk density of SS and NT treatments were lower than that of DT treatment after organic fertilizer application.The soil bulk density of SS+OF treatment was 1.13 g/cm3,which was significantly lower than that of DT+OF treatment in wheat season.In the whole annual rotation system,the soil mass water content of NT+OM treatment was the highest,which was 7.88 percent point higher than that of other fertilization treatments,and the three-phase ratio of soil under SS+OM treatment was more ideal,and the deviation value of three phase was low.Under the three tillage methods,the content of available nitrogen and available phosphorus generally showed the trend of OM>OF>CF>CK,and the content of available potassium was significantly related to the fertilization method,which was the highest under the CF treatment.The application of organic manure in maize season significantly increased the fresh ear yield of maize compared with a single application of chemical fertilizer,but the difference between them was not significant.The annual yield of wheat and maize under SS+OM treatment was the highest,reaching 19 145 kg/ha.In summary,under the conditions of this experiment,the combination of SS,NT and organic fertilizer application could significantly improve the physical properties of the soil,and the content of alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus also had a certain degree of improvement,and SS+OM treatment was beneficial to the increase of the yield of wheat-maize continuous cropping field in the Loess Plateau.

  • QIN Meimei, ZHAO Qi, LI Qian, HE Yongbo, ZHU Xiaoping, ZHANG Jing, SU Huan, LI Lei
    Abstract (62) PDF (66) RichHTML (7)

    In order to explore the effects of amino acid water-soluble fertilizer on grape yield and quality,the full-fruit Zaohebao grape was used as the experimental material,three treatments were set up:conventional fertilization (CK);increased application of organic fertilizer (OPT);organic fertilizer + amino acid water soluble fertilizer treatment (OPT+AA),the effects of exogenous amino acids on grape yield,growth,quality and soil nutrient content were studied.The results showed that compared with CK,grape yield decreased by 14.17% under OPT treatment and 7.50% under OPT+AA treatment,but were not significant.Compared with CK,partial productivity of fertilizer treated with OPT and OPT+AA increased significantly.Partial productivity of N,P2O5 and K2O treated with OPT+AA increased significantly by 73.44%,85.01% and 85.01%,respectively.OPT+AA significantly increased total sugar by 8.09%,soluble solids by 1.32 percentage,sugar-acid ratio by 38.80%,and the titratable acid content by 0.16 percentage.The nutrient content of shoots was significantly increased by 24.73% in OPT+AA,total phosphorus content and total potassium content were significantly increased by 24.73%.In addition,OPT and OPT+AA treatments did not inhibit plant growth,but could effectively reduce the leaching of available nutrients and increase the nutrient content in the root domain.In summary,reducing and increasing the application of organic fertilizer had no significant effect on grape yield,but could reduce the leaching of available nutrients and significantly improve the partial productivity of fertilizer.The application of amino acid water-soluble fertilizer could promote nutrient absorption in plants,improving grape yield and fruit quality.

  • HAN Meiqi, ZHANG Yuqin, YANG Hengshan, TAI Jicheng, WU Zhiyu, Sarula, FAN Xiuyan, MENG Fanhao, WANG Miao, LI Xiaona
    Abstract (62) PDF (44) RichHTML (5)

    To explore the influence of straw returning years to the field after deep turning back on soil bacterial community in continuous cropping corn fields in the West Liaohe Plain,and provide theoretical guidance for continuous straw returning to improve soil fertility.This study takes corn straw leaving the field as a control (CK),based on the high-throughput sequencing technology of bacterial 16S rDNA V3-V4 region,combined with bioinformatics,we analyzed the characteristics of organic matter,nitrogen nutrients content,soil bacterial community structure and diversity changes in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers of corn fields with continuous straw returning for 2(SR2),5(SR5) and 10 a (SR10).The results showed that SR2 had no significant difference with CK in soil organic matter and nitrogen nutrients content,while SR5 and SR10 significantly increased soil organic matter and nitrogen nutrient content;under different straw returning years,soil bacterial diversity was different and each had its own unique OTU,among which SR10 OTU had the largest number;alpha diversity index showed that the relative abundance and diversity of soil bacterial community were not significantly different between SR2 and CK,SR5 and SR10 increased significantly,and SR10 and CK had the largest difference;a total of 51 bacterial groups were obtained at the phyla level,including Actinobacteriota,Proteobacteria,Acidobacteriota,Crenarchaeota and Chloroflexi,whose relative abundance was more than 5%.The relative abundance of Proteobacteria,Acidobacteriota and Chloroflexi increased with the increase of returning years.RDA clustering analysis showed that the soil bacterial community structure of 0-20 cm soil layer SR2 was similar to CK,SR5 was more similar to SR10,20-40 cm soil layer,different straw returning years,treatments were different from CK,SR2 and SR5 were similar,SR10 had significant differences in community structure compared to SR5 and SR2.The contents of soil NO 3 --N, NH 4 +-N,OM,and TN all had effects on bacterial flora,and they were soil NO 3 --N> NH 4 +-N>OM>TN.The contents of soil organic matter and nitrogen nutrient had no significant difference between continuous straw returning for 2 a and CK,while continuous straw returning for 5 and 10 a were significantly increased.In summary,the microbial diversity and richness of bacteria showed minimal changes in the soil layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm after continuous straws returning for 2 a.After continuous straws returning for 5 and 10 a,both soil layers significantly increased;the bacterial community structure continuous straw returning for 2 a was similar to CK in the 0-20 cm soil layer,while the bacterial community structure continuous straw returning for 2,5,10 a were changed in the 20-40 cm soil layer.

  • LI Guang, SHI Lijuan, CUI Xudong, ZHAO Xuefeng, BAI Wenbin
    Abstract (62) PDF (39) RichHTML (6)

    In order to alleviate continuous cropping obstacles and improve soil, to ensure sorghum raw grain production and sustainable agricultural development. The long-term located experiment of continuous cropping sorghum was carried out in Dongbai base of Sorghum Research Institute of Shanxi Agricultural University from 2019 to 2020 to study the effects of tillage methods(traditional tillage,no tillage,rotary in autumn,subsoiling in autumn,deep ploughing in autumn,deep ploughing in spring)in fallow period on soil moisture,organic carbon content and yield of continuous cropping sorghum,aiming to find the suitable tillage method and time for increasing the yield of continuous cropping sorghum,and the mechanism of water conservation,carbon sequestration and yield increase so as to provide cultivation techniques and theoretical basis for the stable production of sorghum.The results showed that tillage in fallow period increased the soil organic matter in 0-20 cm soil layer in each growth period of sorghum,and increased the content of particulate organic carbon,light fraction organic carbon,heavy fraction organic carbon,readily oxidized organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon, and also increased soil water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer by 0.72-46.52 mm before sowing and soil water storage of 0-100 cm soil layer at each growth period, furthermore, the soil water before sowing continued to be used until jointing stage and it still was very effective even though much precipitation in the middle and late stages.Meanwhile,tillage in fallow period increased the yield by 4.75%-23.67% and the water use efficiency in the growth period by 19.09-29.19 kg/(ha·mm),especially the increased effect of deep ploughing in autumn was more significant.The correlation analysis showed that the yield of continuous cropping sorghum was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture and organic matter content,and the yield was more closely related to the soil moisture in the early growth stage if the base soil moisture level was higher and more closely related to the soil moisture in the middle and late stages if the base soil moisture level was lower and the precipitation in the middle and late stages was more.In short,deep ploughing in autumn of continuous cropping sorghum during fallow period was beneficial to increase the organic carbon content and promote the soil moisture conservation so that the moisture continued to be used at jointing stage,thereby increased yield and water use efficiency.

  • YANG Mingda, ZHANG Suyu, YANG Shenjiao, GUAN Xiaokang, LI Shuai, CHEN Jinping, WANG Tongchao
    Abstract (62) PDF (56) RichHTML (2)

    To explore efficient irrigation strategies to reduce irrigation amount and improve crop water productivity to alleviate water scarcity in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain winter wheat region of China. A split-plot field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of surface drip irrigation(DI)and subsurface drip irrigation(SDI)systems on wheat yield,soil water extraction,evapotranspiration(ET),and water use efficiency(WUE).The DI and SDI systems consisted of three irrigation schedules(50%-60%,60%-70%,and 70%-80% of field capacity;hereafter,W50,W60 and W70,respectively).The SDI treatment decreased the proportion by 11.8%-21.8% of soil water extraction in the 0-0.8 m soil layers while increased the amount by 28.4%-29.8% of soil water extraction in the 0.8-1.6 m soil layers for the whole growth period.The soil evaporation and irrigation amount of SDI were 23.1%,8.9% lower than that of DI on average,respectively.Although the transpiration rate did not differ significantly between SDI and DI after anthesis,the net photosynthetic rate(Pn)and leaf area index were higher in the SDI treatment than those in the DI under W50 and W60 conditions(deficit irrigation).As a result,the SDI treatment increased the yield by 14.5%-29.3% and WUE by 13.9%-25.9% under deficit irrigation conditions as compared to DI.Compared to DI, SDI decreased Pn and soil water extraction in the upper soil layers significantly under W70 condition due to more soil water stored below 0.8 m soil layer,and resulted in yield reduction by 4.1%-8.9%.SDI with W60 can extract more soil water from subsoil and regulate the photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat,thereby improving yield and WUE.

  • WANG Ying, WANG Xiaoyu, SUN Dehui, HUO Hongyan, LIU Haichen, XU Hui, ZHANG Jixing
    Abstract (62) PDF (33) RichHTML (6)

    To investigate the role of RcCDPK29 in salt tolerance of castor, we designed specific primers to clone the calcium-dependent protein kinase 29 gene (RcCDPK29) from castor leaves and performed bioinformatics analysis of the resulting sequence. The results showed that the sequence of RcCDPK29 was 1 590 bp, encoding 528 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 59.74 ku and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 6.21. It is a typical non-transmembrane protein with a negative hydrophilic value and a hydrophilic protein with a maximum of 228 α-helices. The similarity of RcCDPK29 to Arabidopsis CDPK (SMTL ID: 3q5i.1) was 40.41% with high confidence(>30%). The amino acid sequences of Manihot esculenta, Jatropha curcas,Hevea Brasiliensis,Citrus sinensis,Punica granatum,Populus trichocarpa and Ricinus communis RcCDPK29 were compared for homology. Among them, the highest homology with Jatropha was 82.29%. The RcCDPK29 protein contained a Ser/Thr protein kinase catalytic domain and four Ca2+-binding EF-hand-type structural domains. The expression of RcCDPK29 in different tissues of castor under different levels of salt stress was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the RcCDPK29 gene was mainly expressed in the stem, with the highest expression at 12 h of salt treatment. With the extension of salt treatment time, the expression of RcCDPK29 gene in roots gradually decreased and reached the lowest at 2, 8,24 h, respectively,with significant differences from 0 h;the expression of leaves was the lowest at 2 h and significantly different compared with 0 h. The full length of RcCDPK29 was amplified by designing primers with SmaⅠand XbaⅠdigestion sites, and then ligated with the expression vector pCG-3300 after double digestion with SmaⅠand XbaⅠ. The expression vector of RcCDPK29 was successfully constructed. Thus, RcCDPK29 plays an important role when castor is subjected to salt stress.

  • WANG Tao, ZHANG Yi, ZHAO Xiaoxue, CHEN Can, SI Hongqi, MA Chuanxi, LU Jie
    Abstract (61) PDF (65) RichHTML (7)

    In order to clarify the relationship between the morphological and structural characteristics of stem basal node 2 and lodging resistance in wheat,we explored key stem morphological indicators and Quantitative trait loci(QTL)sites for lodging resistance.120 RILs families were selected as research materials,and stem strength,basal second internode length,stem diameter,wall thickness,cellulose content and lignin content were measured in 2020 and 2021,respectively.Multiple regression analysis and QTL locations were performed by combining 55K SNP data.The results showed that the stem strength was significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with the stem diameter and wall thickness of the second basal internode,and was extremely significantly positively correlated with the cellulose content and lignin content of the second basal internode.Multiple regression analysis showed that cellulose content in basal second internode was the key index affecting stalk strength of wheat.A total of 19 QTLs related to stem traits were detected on chromosomes 1A,1D,2B,2D,4D,5A,5B,5D and 7B,explaining 7.67% to 65.33% of the phenotypic variation.On chromosome 1D,the QTL linked to AX-110771095 and AX-109431570 simultaneously controlled the basal second internode length,wall thickness and cellulose content,explaining the phenotypic contribution of 7.96%-10.76%.

  • LI Xing, MENG Fei, HAO Jiaqi, WANG Cong
    Abstract (61) PDF (33) RichHTML (1)

    To investigate the mechanism of chitosan promoting nodulation in vegetable soybean under salt stress,the effects of exogenous chitosan on sucrose metabolism and root accumulation in vegetable soybean under NaCl stress were explored.Effects of chitosan on nodulation,the accumulation of sucrose and reducing sugar in leaves and roots,as well as sucrose metabolism-related enzyme in vegetable soybean under NaCl stress were studied by using the vegetable soybean variety Nippon Green and the fast-growing rhizobia HH103 symbiosis as the test material in an artificial climate chamber.The results showed that the number of root nodules and fresh weight of root nodules in vegetable soybean were significantly decreased under the NaCl stress(T2)(P<0.05),with an average decrease of 36.06% and 29.91% in each stress period,respectively;the sucrose content of leaves and roots was significantly increased(P<0.05),and the reducing sugar content was significantly decreased(P<0.05);and the activities of sucrose synthase(SS)and sucrose phosphate synthase(SPS)were increased,while the activities of neutral convertase(NI)and acid convertase(AI)were decreased.The number of root nodules and fresh weight of root nodules significantly increased(P<0.05),after chitosan treatment(T3)in all stress periods,with average increases of 26.87% and 25.63% of T2;the sucrose and reducing sugar contents and sucrose metabolism-related enzyme activities of leaves and roots increased significantly compared with T2(P<0.05),with average increases of 11.32%,21.32% and 10.22%,11.11%,respectively.That chitosan could promote the nodule formation of vegetable soybean by inducing the high level of sucrose metabolism in the leaves and roots under NaCl stress and accelerating the transfer of sucrose to roots,which may be one of the important reasons for chitosan to improve the nodule formation ability of vegetable soybean under NaCl stress.

  • LIU Juan, FENG Yumei, HAN Bing, XING Yanping, LI Shufen, YANG Yan
    Abstract (61) PDF (111) RichHTML (10)

    To further investigated the effect of different allelic variants of TaGAMyb-B genes in wheat on stem elongation, used the rice Agrobacterium transformation system,RT-qPCR,tissue section and cell tissue specific analysis to systematically study the function of the 84 bp InDel of TaGAMyb-B.The results showed that,in the over-expressed transgenic rice lines,transcript expression of TaGAMyb-B was detected in seeds,roots,stems and leaves;TaGAMyb-Bb-GFP transgenic seeds were more sensitive under the treatment of NaCl,GA and mannitol compared with TaGAMyb-Ba-GFP;the diameters of first,second and third stem inter-nodes,spike length and tiller number of TaGAMyb-Ba-GFP were significantly larger than that of TaGAMyb-Bb-GFP;and the analysis of cell tissue sections showed that the average thickness of the thick-walled tissue cells in the transverse sections of the transgenic TaGAMyb-Ba-GFP rice was significantly greater than that of the transgenic TaGAMyb-Bb-GFP event,the average length of thick-walled cells was extremely significantly shorter than that of transgenic TaGAMyb-Bb-GFP event.The above mentioned results indicated that the 84 bp deletion in TaGAMyb-B increased not only abiotic stress resistance and plant lodging resistance,but also spike length and tiller number in transgenic rice.

  • BAO Changhong, LI Zhaonan, GUANQUE Duojie, LI Changzhong, YIN Gema, HE Caixia, JIN Wenjie, ZHOU Yeji, CHEN Yanxia
    Abstract (60) PDF (34) RichHTML (12)

    The study aims to correctly distinguish between Gymnocypris przewalskii and Gymnocypris eckloni,and to provide corresponding data support to scientific research and judicial identification of fish poaching cargo. The mitochondrial genomes of Gymnocypris przewalskii and Gymnocypris eckloni were sequenced and bioinformatics analyzed. In addition,a cyprinid phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum likelihood (ML) method based on the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 36 cyprinid species. The results showed that the total length of the mitochondrial genome of Gymnocypris przewalskii was 16 720 bp,including 13 protein-coding genes,22 tRNA genes,2 rRNA genes and 1 D-Loop control region. The nucleotide composition of the entire mitochondrial genome was A (28.68%),T (27.29%),G (18.16%) and C (25.87%),with a significant AT-bias (55.97%). The total sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Gymnocypris eckloni was 16 760 bp,including 13 protein-coding genes,22 tRNA genes,2 rRNA genes and 1 D-Loop control region. The nucleotide composition of whole mitochondrial genome was A (28.63%),T (27.22%),G (18.26%) and C (25.88%). There was also a significant AT bias (55.85%). All protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of Gymnocypris przewalskii and Gymnocypris eckloni took ATG as the initiation codon,the vast majority of protein-coding genes took TAG or TAA as the termination codon,and a few took incomplete codons (T--) as the termination codon. All tRNA genes could form a typical clover structure. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all species of the genus Gymnocypris were clustered together and were closely related to the Spinibarbus hollandi,Schizothorax taliensis and Aspiorhynchus laticeps. The mitochondrial genome-based phylogenetic analysis of this experimental study did not accurately distinguish the Gymnocypris przewalskii and Gymnocypris eckloni,but laid the foundation for re-establishing a clearer taxonomic system for Cyprinidae.

  • MA Xiaoyong, DAI Rongfeng, LI Xinyi, YANG Guowu, ZHA Lao, LU Jianwei, ZHAO Xue, LIANG Chunnian
    Abstract (60) PDF (27) RichHTML (1)

    To investigate the expression characteristics of the PDK4 gene in various tissues of Meiren yaks and to explore its correlation with the mechanism of fat deposition,tissue samples were collected from the longest and dorsal muscles,heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney,fat and testis of Meiren yaks,and total RNA was extracted.The gene was amplified,analyzed and characterized by RT-PCR,bioinformatics software,and qPCR.The results showed that the CDS region of the PDK4 gene was 1 224 bp,407 amino acids,the relative molecular mass of protein was 46.159 14 ku,the theoretical isoelectric point was 6.60,and the total average hydrophilicity was-0.169,which was a hydrophilic protein;the phylogenetic tree results showed that Meiren yak was the closest related to wild yak and the most distant related to hyena;PDK4 protein had 34 phosphorylation sites,no signal peptide and transmembrane region,and mainly plays a biological function in mitochondria;the PDK4 protein of Meiren yak was mainly composed of α-helix and irregular curling.The expression of the PDK4 gene in the liver and lung of 7-day-old Meiren yak was significantly higher than that of other tissues (P<0.05),moderately expressed in muscle,fat,spleen,and testes,and low in the kidney and heart.As the yak aged,the expression of the PDK4 gene in the adipose tissue of 30 months old Meiren yak increased and was significantly higher than that in the fat of 7-day-old Meiren yak(P<0.05).The above results suggest that the PDK4 gene may be involved in fat regulation during the growth process of Meiren yak and play an essential role in the fat deposition process.

  • ZHANG Lihua, ZHAI Lichao, CUI Yongzeng, DONG Zhiqiang, CUI Yingshu, ZHANG Jingting, JIA Xiuling
    Abstract (59) PDF (69) RichHTML (8)

    In order to clarify the impact of irrigation amount on maize production,using Zhengdan 958 as the main material and the local average reference crop water demand(ET0)was used as the basis of irrigation volume,a study was conducted under rain-protection shed in 2020 and 2021,which included eight irrigation treatments:T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7 and T8 representing 60% ET0,80% ET0,100% ET0,120% ET0,140% ET0,160% ET0,180% ET0 and 200% ET0,respectively.The study aimed at analysing the effects of irrigation on yield and its components and plant physicochemical properties.The results indicated that the yield and its components,ear length,grain dry matter distribution ratio,free water content,plant height,ear position height,ear height coefficient,photosynthetic potential and seed setting rate of maize showed an increasing trend when irrigation was added.Specifically, the yield and grain number per ear increased significantly while the material distribution ratio decreased in leaf and corn cob.There was a small change rate of chlorophyll and water potential of maize leaves,no significant difference in plant height and ear position height among treatments and stable ear height coefficient at VT and R6 stages under high water treatment(T5—T8).Comparing with T3,a decrease of 20% and 40% in irrigation volume could cause a significant decrease in yield,but the lower yield increase rate appeared when irrigation volume had the same increase rate as the decrease rate. The seed setting rate also showed the same variation under the same condition. However,the water supply efficiency decreased with the increase of irrigation volume and declined more than 20% when the irrigation volume exceeded T6.Correlation analysis showed that correlation between maize yield and leaf chlorophyll content,water potential at anthesis and water content was not significant,but there was a significant or extremely significant correlation with other factors.Therefore,maize yield could be raised by improving ear traits,grain dry matter distribution ratio and physical and chemical properties of plant development through irrigation,an increased irrigation amount by 40%—60% on the basis of the average water demand should be suggested for maximizing the yield and efficiency during the growth period in the region.

  • LIU Hui, XU Wenjing, YANG Shuo, ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Hongmei, LIU Xiaoqing, ZHU Yuelin, CHEN Huatao
    Abstract (59) PDF (55) RichHTML (6)

    In order to study the organic acid synthesis mechanism of vegetable soybean and provide a theoretical basis for the quality improvement of vegetable soybean,a natural population containing 264 accessions of vegetable soybean was used as experimental materials.The contents of tartaric acid,malic acid and citric acid in this population were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)in 2020 and 2021,respectively,and genome-wide association study was conducted based on the genotype data of this population,SNP loci and candidate genes significantly associated with organic acid content were identified.The results showed that the average content of tartaric acid in 2020 and 2021 populations were 4.13,4.16 mg/g,respectively;the average content of malic acid was 7.26,8.99 mg/g,respectively;the average content of citric acid was 7.12,10.88 mg/g,respectively.Correlation analysis showed that citric acid content of 264 materials showed a significant positive correlation between 2020 and 2021.Significant positive correlation coefficients were obtained for the pairs of malic/citric acids,tartaric/malic acids,and tartaric/citric acids were 0.790*,0.695*,0.739*,respectively.The results showed that there were significant differences among different varieties in the test population,with rich genetic diversity.Six specific germplasm resources with high organic acid contents were selected to provide excellent materials for the improvement and breeding of organic acid varieties of vegetable soybean.Genome-wide association study based on the mixed linear model the number of SNP loci significantly correlated with the contents of tartaric acid,malic acid and citric acid were 54,189,43,respectively,and based on the gene functional annotation information,3 and 5 candidate genes were identified which were significantly correlated with the content of tartaric acid and malic acid,respectively.

  • LI Dan, ZHAO Cunpeng, LIU Suen, WANG Kaihui, ZHANG Xiaohui, ZHAO Liying, GUO Baosheng, GENG Junyi
    Abstract (58) PDF (44) RichHTML (5)

    In order to study the function of GhAOP2-like in cotton,based on the previous proteomic data from the laboratory of Institute of Cotton, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, this study obtained the gene sequence of GhAOP2-like using homologous cloning strategy.The physicochemical properties,structure and subcellular localization of GhAOP2-like protein were analyzed by bioinformatics method.The tissue-specific expression of GhAOP2-like and the change of expression level under drought,salt and hormone treatment were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR).The results showed that the CDS sequence length of GhAOP2-like was 972 bp and encoded 323 amino acids.GhAOP2-like was located on chromosome D13.GhAOP2-like protein did not contain signal peptides and transmembrane domains,and was located in the cytoplasm with the molecular formula of C1654H2525N429O478S19 and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.20.The clustering analysis results showed that the AOP sequences in cotton and other species were clearly divided into two groups,but had the closest relationship with the AOP sequences of Hibiscus syriacus.qRT-PCR results showed that GhAOP2-like was expressed in roots,stems,leaves,and developing seeds,but the expression level of GhAOP2-like was the highest in roots.GhAOP2-like was up-regulated under drought,salt,GA3,MeJA and ABA treatments,but the expression level changed most in MeJA treatment,indicating that GhAOP2-like might improve the resistance of upland cotton by participating in JA signaling pathway.

  • SUN Xiaobo, GUO Zhenhao, LI Chang, ZHOU Huimin, LIU Xiaoqing, SU Jiale
    Abstract (58) PDF (30) RichHTML (6)

    In order to analyze the molecular mechanism of the formation of pink stripes on the petals of Dayuanyangjin,a Rhododendron cultivar,and to explore the key genes related to the formation of pink stripes,the petals of Dayuanyangjin in its full bloom period were selected to determine the pigments in the white and pink stripe regions of the petals,and at the same time,their transcriptome was sequenced and analyzed using Illumina HiSeqTM sequencing platform.Sequencing results were verified by Real-time Fluorescent Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR).The results showed that the formation of pink stripes on the petals of Dayuanyangjin was caused by the accumulation of anthocyanins.A total of 7 086 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the pink striped and white regions of petals,of which 3 802 were up-regulated and 3 284 were down-regulated.The anthocyanin biosynthesis,phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways related to anthocyanin formation were more active in the pink stripe region of petals.According to the results of the GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of DEGs,31 DEGs were screened from the related and regulatory pathways of anthocyanin biosynthesis,of which 26 were structural genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and 5 were transcriptional regulation genes (3 MYB and 2 bHLH);26 anthocyanin anabolic structure genes encode 9 enzymes,and the expression levels of 20 genes in the pink stripe tissue of petals were significantly higher than those in the white petal tissue.Through NCBI homology search,it was found that two R2R3-MYB and one bHLH were similar to the known homologous genes related to the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in fruits or leaves,and their expression levels in the pink stripe region of petals were also significantly higher than those in the white region.Ten differentially expressed genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were selected and verified by qRT-PCR.

  • GUO Yuan, MA Zhihui, WANG Shiyu, NIU Zhipeng, YANG Xiaoyu, WEI Qing, CHEN Anqi, WANG Linsheng
    Abstract (58) PDF (31) RichHTML (5)

    Spike length is an important agronomic trait in wheat and is closely related to yield components.Studying wheat spike length genes and screening molecular markers linked to spike length genes can provide molecular support for wheat molecular marker-assisted breeding.The F2 population constructed with Keda 116 and Keda 101 as parents was used as test material to construct a genetic map covering the wheat genome by SSR molecular markers and to locate QTLs for spike length by combining the complete composite interval mapping method.A total of 434 pairs of primers with polymorphism between parents were screened from 3 234 pairs of primers,and the detection rate of polymorphic primers was 13.42%.A total of 28 molecular markers were screened for possible linkage to spike length by BSA mixed pool analysis,16 of these markers were verified to be tightly linked to the target gene by a population of 262 plants.The genetic map of wheat chromosome group was constructed by QTL-IciMapping software,and the average genetic distance between markers was 38.66 cM.A total of seven QTLs loci associated with spike length were detected,which were located on chromosomes 3B,4A,4B and 6B.The additive effect values of all the seven QTLs were positive and their contributions to the genetic variation of phenotypic traits ranged from 4.01% to 23.16%.Two major QTLs were mapped on chromosome 4B,explaining 17.59%-23.16% of the phenotypic variance.Among them,Qsl4B-2 was the most closely linked QTL locus with only 3.5 cM away from the nearest molecular marker,and the analysis found that it might be a new major QTL locus.Therefore,genes associated with spike length might exist on chromosome 4B.Within the marker interval of chromosome 4B from yzu397456 to yzu404917 and yzu409422 to yzu405167,there might be seven candidate genes regulating wheat spike length,which were consistently highly expressed in the spike.

  • WANG Huijie, HUO Liguang, LI Sheng, LIANG Suming
    Abstract (57) PDF (31) RichHTML (3)

    In order to study the effect of different irrigation methods and ridge planting experiments on water use efficiency and yield of potato in dryland,and to identify an optimal ridge planting and irrigation combination mode of potato with high yield and water use efficiency simultaneously,and further provide a theoretical basis for the production efficiency of dryland potato.The two-factor experiment was persistently performed in Lanxian County Shanxi Province during two potato growing seasons(2019—2020).The three ridge planting,including conventional ridge cultivation(M1),concave ridge cultivation technique(M2)and outdoor planting(M3);the two irrigating including hydraulic driving zonal sprinkler(G1)and drip irrigation(G2),deeply exploring the effects of ridge planting and irrigation and their interaction effects on water use efficiency and yield of dry potato.The results showed that irrigation and ridge planting had obvious regulation effects on water use efficiency and yield of dry potato.Compared with M1 and M3,M2 could significantly increase soil use efficiency water storage consumption.Under G1 treatment,the water use efficiency and yield of M1 and M2 treatments increased by 14.08%,13.58%,and 23.28%,21.92%,respectively,compared to M3;under G2 treatment,the water use efficiency and yield of M1 and M2 treatments increased by 11.88%,11.50%,and 22.05%,20.45%,respectively,compared to M3,and the combination of concave ridge cropping + hydraulic driving zonal sprinkler irrigation treatment combination G1M2 had the highest yield.Under the same ridge planting,the water use efficiency and yield of hydraulically driven zonal sprinkler irrigation(G1)were the highest.Based on the regulating effects of ridge planting and irrigation on water use efficiency and grain yield,the G1M2 treatment could help synchronously to improve the grain yield and water use efficiency.This can be an optimal model of ridge planting and irrigation combination treatment of dry potato area of Shanxi Province.

  • HUANG Shangshu, JIANG Xinfeng, ZHU Tong, LIN Xiaobing, HE Shaolang, WANG Binqiang, WU Yan, LEI Liwen, SUN Yongming
    Abstract (57) PDF (45) RichHTML (2)

    In order to clarify the influence mechanism of total replacement of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer on the nitrogen fertility of tea garden soil.Based on the 5 a experiment of replacing chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer in tea garden,single application of chemical fertilizer(CF)and full application of organic fertilizer(OF)were selected as treatments,the effects of total replacement of organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizer on the physical and chemical properties,mechanical stability,aggregate composition,and aggregate inorganic nitrogen distribution characteristics of tea garden soil in rainy and dry seasons were studied,and the influencing factors of aggregate inorganic nitrogen distribution were analyzed.The results showed that:Compared with CF treatment,OF treatment increased the pH value,organic matter content and total nitrogen content of surface soil in rainy and dry seasons.However,there was no significant difference in soil pH between the two treatments in the rainy season(P>0.05);in the rainy season,the cation exchange capacity,ammonium nitrogen content and nitrate nitrogen content in the surface soil of the tea garden under the OF treatment were lower or significantly lower(P<0.05)than those under the CF treatment,while in the dry season,the OF treatment was significantly higher than that under the CF treatment(P<0.05),with an increase of 27.02%, 58.97%, and 266.84%, respectively. Different treatments had significant effects on the mass percentage of 0.25—2.00 mm and<0.25 mm aggregates and GWD;compared with CF treatment, OF treatment increased the mass percentage of 0.25—2.00 mm aggregates and GWD, and decreased the mass percentage of<0.25 mm aggregates; seasons had a significant effect on the mass percentage of aggregates<0.25 mm (P<0.05).The contents of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in aggregates of different treatments were as follows:<0.25 mm aggregates were the highest,0.25—2.00 mm aggregates were the second,and>2.00 mm aggregates were the lowest;in rainy season,the content of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in aggregates at all levels of OF treatment was lower or significantly lower(P<0.05) than that of CF treatment,while in dry season,OF treatment was significantly higher than that of CF treatment(P<0.05);compared with the rainy season,the content of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in aggregates at all levels under CF treatment was significantly reduced in dry season(P<0.05),and the content of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in aggregates at all levels under OF treatment was increased or significantly increased in dry season(P<0.05);under different treatments,the proportion of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen storage of aggregates showed that 0.25—2.00 mm aggregates were the highest(51.70% and 51.14%),>2.00 mm aggregates were the second(34.59% and 35.51%),and<0.25 mm aggregates were the lowest(13.71% and 13.34%);compared with CF treatment,OF treatment significantly reduced the proportion of<0.25 mm aggregate ammonium nitrogen storage in rainy and dry season and the proportion of <0.25 mm aggregate nitrate nitrogen storage in dry season(P<0.05),and significantly increased the proportion of 0.25—2.00 mm aggregate ammonium nitrogen storage in rainy season and 0.25—2.00 mm aggregate nitrate nitrogen storage in dry season(P<0.05).Correlation analysis showed that the content of ammonium nitrogen in soil aggregates was mainly affected by soil pH,cation exchange capacity and total nitrogen content,while the content of nitrate nitrogen in soil aggregates in tea garden was mainly affected by soil pH,organic matter content and total nitrogen content;further RDA analysis showed that soil pH and cation exchange capacity were the main factors affecting the distribution of inorganic nitrogen in soil mechanically stable aggregates.To sum up,total replacement of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer in tea garden is beneficial to improve the content of soil organic matter,coordinate the supply of soil nitrogen in rainy and dry seasons,and promote the formation of large aggregates and the accumulation of soil inorganic nitrogen.

  • HE Fei, LI Chuan, SHAH Faisal, LIU Fuqiang, DUAN Yuanpeng, WANG Meng, RUAN Jia, WEI Menglin, JIANG Hao, MA Xingguang, WANG Zhuo
    Abstract (57) PDF (39) RichHTML (12)

    The study aims to understand the biological process and metabolic pathway of konjac under different root separation modes from black locust,in order to provide molecular basis for the expression regulation and response mechanism of related genes in intercropping konjac roots.Illumina NovaSeq 6000 sequencing technology was used for transcriptome analysis of konjac roots separated by plastic membrane(FS),nylon mesh(MS),and non-separation(NS).A total of 59.82 Gb data were obtained,and 92 358 transcript sequences corresponding to 40 122 Unigenes were generated after de novo assembly and quantitative assessment.The most annotated Unigene in the NCBI-Nr database was 23 960,accounting for 59.72% of the total Unigenes.The transcriptome data were pair-wise compared,and the total quantities of differential expression genes of FS_vs_MS,FS_vs_NS and MS_vs_NS were 1 776,733 and 896,respectively.Of which,their corresponding up-regulated genes accounted for 33.1%,22.8% and 50.8%.GO enrichment analysis indicated that significantly differential expressed genes were mainly involved in plasma membrane,cell membrane,cell periphery,cell wall,encapsulating structure,intrinsic components of membrane,and intrinsic components of plasma membrane.KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the ribosome,oxidative phosphorylation and plant hormone signal transduction were the most significant metabolic pathways in the roots of konjac separated by nylon mesh and non-separation compared with plastic membrane.Transcriptome analysis of konjac roots provided the basic data for studying response mechanism of intercropping konjac.

  • GUO Li, WANG Guangen, LI Yihong, SHI Jianshuo, WANG Liying, LI Dongxiao, JIANG Longgang
    Abstract (57) PDF (59) RichHTML (10)

    To determine the effects of different nitrogen levels on soil nutrient characteristics and on the differences in nitrogen,phosphorus,and potassium uptake and utilization of summer maize,a field experiment had been conducted at four nitrogen rates(N0:No nitrogen application;N1:90 kg/ha;N2:195 kg/ha;N3:300 kg/ha)following nitrogen application of 240 kg/ha on preceding winter wheat.The experimental material Cangyu 76 was used to research the effects of nitrogen application rate on different characters of growth indicators and their correlation.The results showed that the dry matter weight of stem,leaf and corn crobs increased with the increase of nitrogen application ranged in 0-195 kg/ha.Soil nitrate N content in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers increased significantly with increasing N application rate;but the content of available P and available K in the same soil layer had no significant change.There were significant differences in nitrogen concentration and nitrogen accumulation in stems,leaves,corn cobs and grains under different nitrogen application rates,in which nitrogen accumulation in seeds accounted for 59.4%-63.5% of total nitrogen accumulation in above-ground parts of plants.The P and K contents in stems,leaves,corn crobs and grains had little change under nitrogen application rate,but was positively regulated by dry matter weight.When N input exceeded 195 kg/ha,nitrogen agronomic efficiency was decreased significantly.When the nitrogen rate was higher than 189 kg/ha,grain yield would be not increased,which was evaluated by Linear plus platform model that simulate the relationship between yield and nitrogen application rate.Therefore,combined with experimental and model simulation results,the optimal nitrogen input was controlled within the range of 189-195 kg/ha,which could realize both economic benefits and agroecological benefits.

  • BAI Xiaorong, MIN Weifang, SHI Yafei, SHE Yangmengfei, TIAN Haotian, LUO Chengke
    Abstract (56) PDF (56) RichHTML (4)

    To reveal the mechanism of drought resistance of different resistant rice during germination period,Rice drought-sensitive materials(Calrose,Jingning 10,Shanxing 86)and drought resistance materials(Farry,Songjing 3,Ningjing 36)were studied on the effects of simulated drought stress(15% PEG-6000)on the growth index,physiological indexes and corresponding gene expression of different rice seeds.The results showed that under normal conditions,there were no significant differences in the expression levels of growth indicators and stress-related genes between drought-sensitive and drought-resistant cultivars.However,changes in physiological indicators were shown that there were no significant differences in the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and peroxidase(POD),the contents of soluble sugar(SS) and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) among different genotypes.The contents of malondialdehyde(MDA) and superoxide anion($\mathrm{O}_{2}^{\bar{.}}$) in the drought-sensitive cultivar Shanxing 86 were significantly higher than those in other materials,and the contents of catalase(CAT),proline(Pro) and soluble protein(SP) of drought resistant Ningjing 36 were significantly higher than those of other materials as well.Under drought stress,the relative germination potential(RGP),relative bud length(RSL),germination drought resistance index(GDRI)and vitality index(VI)of germinating seeds increased by 0.03—0.07 percentage,0.32—0.39 percentage,0.12—0.18 percentage and 92.41%—108.39%,respectively;MDA and reactive oxygen species($\mathrm{O}_{2}^{\bar{.}}$,H2O2) contents in germinating seeds of drought-resistant cultivars decreased by 2.54%—61.64%,19.60%—46.30% and 35.61%—62.02% respectively compared with drought-sensitive cultivars.The contents of osmotic regulating substances(Pro,SS,SP) increased by 5.93%—18.29%,1.08%—7.97% and 3.47%—6.03% respectively.The activities of antioxidant enzymes(SOD,POD, CAT) were increased by 17.29%—33.12%,15.24%—76.06% and 14.68%—18.61% respectively.The relative expression levels of OsP5CS,antioxidant enzyme synthesis genes (OsALM1, OsPOX1, OsCATC) were up-regulated by 2.66%—182.31% and 57.14%—513.27%,0.38%—109.06% and 63.39%—184.25% respectively.Comprehensive analysis showed that drought stress inhibited the germination of rice seeds and affected the physiological characteristics of seeds and the expression of corresponding genes during germination.Under drought stress,vigor index(VI),peroxidase(POD)and peroxidase synthesis gene(OsPOX1)are the key indicators affecting rice seed germination,whether it is drought-resistant or drought-sensitive materials.In addition to the above indicators,soluble protein(SP),proline synthesis gene(OsP5CS)and catalase gene(OsCATC)are other key indicators affecting drought-resistant materials.Relative shoot length(RSL),hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)and superoxide dismutase gene(OsALM1)are other key indicators affecting drought-sensitive materials.

  • LI Ken, ZHANG Wei, WU Yunpeng, PAN Jingyi, PENG Dongxiu, ZHANG Ruowei
    Abstract (55) PDF (53) RichHTML (5)

    In order to improve the selection efficiency of melon materials with different pulp firmness types and accelerate developing varieties.The F2 and BC1F1 populations were constructed with crisp melon materials 19A21,19A75 and soft melon materials N84,20S66 as parents.According to sensory testing statistics,the theoretical values of 3∶1 and 1∶1 for crispy and soft materials were consistent,indicating that the melon pulp firmness was controlled by a single gene,and crisp was dominant to soft.The changes of ACO activity and expression pattern of CmACO1 with different firmness types were analyzed with 4 materials.The results showed that the ACO activity of soft melon appeared at a peak during fruit development,but the crispy melon did not appear.The expression of CmACO1 in soft melon was significantly higher than that in crispy melon.This gene may be involved in regulating pulp firmness.According to the difference of insertion and deletion sites of CmACO1 in different materials,the InDel-Pf marker was developed.The InDel marker was used to detect the genotypes of 32 melon materials.Among them,crisp melon showed deletion band type,soft melon showed non-deletion band type,the marker polymorphism and pulp firmness were co-separated.Two F2 populations were used to validate the InDel-Pf,the genotype and phenotype coincidence rates were 95.3% and 98.1%.The results showed that InDel-Pf marker had high accuracy in the actual identification of melon pulp firmness,which could effectively improve the efficiency of breeding selection and shorten the breeding cycle of improved varieties.

  • LIU Jia, ZHANG Mengya, REN Shilong, WANG Yongfang, MA Jifang, QUAN Jianzhang, LIU Lei, DONG Zhiping, BAI Hui, LI Zhiyong
    Abstract (55) PDF (30) RichHTML (4)

    Understanding the variation and population structure of the foxtail millet blast provides a theoretical basis for future cultivation of resistant varieties and control of the disease.Twenty pairs of SRAP primers were used for PCR amplification of strains of P.oryzae collected from 9 regions.NTSYSpc-2.11F software was used for data analysis,UPGMA method was used for cluster analysis,and Popgene 32 software was used to calculate the genetic diversity index among populations.The results showed that 8 pairs of primers were selected with good polymorphism.A total of 1 728 discernible bands were amplified by 8 pairs of primers,1 492 of which showed polymorphism,and polymorphism rate was 86.34%.The cluster analysis of 90 strains of P.oryzae showed that the similarity coefficient was between 0.77-0.85.All strains were divided into 27 genetic lineages (L1-L27) when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.802.Among them,L1 was the absolute dominant group,containing 29 strains of P.oryzae,which from Shandong,Hebei,Shanxi,Henan and Liaoning Province,accounting for 32.22% of the total strains.According to the calculation and analysis of Popgene 32 software,Nei's genetic diversity index (H) and Shannon's information index (I) of foxtail millet blast in 9 regions ranged from 0.141 4 to 0.288 1,and 0.196 0 to 0.441 6,respectively.Nei's genetic diversity index and Shannon's information index in the summer sowing region of Hebei Province were the highest,with the richest genetic diversity,while Hainan population had the lowest genetic diversity.Compared with different regions of the populations,the genetic relationship between the Jilin population and the Hainan population was the farthest,while the genetic relationship between the Hebei summer sowing millet region population and the Hebei spring sowing millet region population was the closest.It can be seen that the genetic diversity of P.oryzae in different regions was rich,and there was genetic differentiation among strains,but there was no significant correlation between genetic differentiation and geographical origin.

  • 2023, 38(4): 0-0.
    Abstract (53) PDF (155)
  • YANG Ningning, XU Mingguo, ZHANG Jiangwei, YI Jihai, CHEN Chuangfu
    Abstract (53) PDF (40) RichHTML (3)

    To explore the non-structural protein NS3(P80)of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV),and to obtain high immunogenic NS3 recombinant protein,the amino acid sequence of NS3 protein was analyzed by bioinformatics software.The sequence of NS3 gene was amplified by PCR,and the recombinant expression vector pET-22b(+)-NS3 was constructed by seamless cloning technology.The recombinant expression vector was transformed into competent cells of E.coli BL21(DE3) and induced to express NS3 recombinant protein.The reactivity of NS3 recombinant protein was detected by Western Blotting.BABL/c mice were immunized with the obtained high purity NS3 recombinant protein,and the serum was collected.The levels of IgG,IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies in serum were detected by ELISA,and the ability of neutralizing virus was detected by virus neutralization test.The results showed that there was no signal peptide and transmembrane region in the amino acid sequence of NS3 protein,the secondary structure was mainly random coil,and the NS3 amino acid sequence contained dominant antigen epitopes.The recombinant expression vector pET-22b(+)-NS3 was successfully constructed by PCR and seamless cloning techniques,and the recombinant protein of NS3 with high purity was obtained by inducing expression,with the size of about 75 ku,which was consistent with the theoretical size.Western Blotting results showed that the NS3 recombinant protein had high reactivity.ELISA test showed that mice immunized with NS3 recombinant protein could produce high levels of IgG,IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies.The antibody levels of mice immunized with NS3 recombinant protein were extremely significantly higher than those of PBS negative control group(P<0.01),and neutralizing antibody level was also significantly higher than that of PBS negative control group(P<0.01).In conclusion,this study successfully obtained NS3 recombinant protein with high purity and immunogenicity.

  • ZHANG Fuyan, ZHU Baolei, CHEN Xiaojie, WANG Jiahuan, CHENG Zhongjie, FAN Jialin, ZHANG Jianwei
    Abstract (53) PDF (56) RichHTML (9)

    In order to explore the authenticity of spaceflight induced wheat mutants, the Zhoumai 18 SP5 mutant population created by the Shijian 10 satellite,and used 42 pairs of SSR markers and 55K SNP chip technology to identify the authenticity of four mutants with more significant differences in grain phenotypes.Grain phenotypic analysis revealed that the mutant population differed significantly in thousand grains weight and grain length,with the most abundant variation in thousand grains weight and insignificant difference in grain width,and the average grain length,grain width and thousand grains weight of the mutant population were significantly higher than those of the wild type,indicating the high frequency of beneficial mutations by space flight. SSR marker identification revealed that the mutant ZM18-112 differed from the wild type by 18 markers,with a high polymorphism ratio of 42.85%,while ZM18-105,ZM18-26 and ZM18-7 differed from their wild type by no more than three markers.The SNP chip identified that the percentage of SNP loci differing between ZM18-112 and the wild type was as high as 13.3012%,while the percentage of SNP loci differing between the other three mutants and the wild type did not exceed 0.7689%.It was believed that mutant ZM18-112 was a pseudomutant due to heterogeneous pollination or mechanical mixing,while ZM18-105,ZM18-26 and ZM18-7 had essentially the same genetic background as the wild type and were real mutants that had been mutagenized by spaceflight.

  • LI Yingying, ZHANG Haokun, JIA Haofan, GUO Jingyao, YANG Xixi, WANG Zhiliang, LI Mingna, WANG Xinrong
    Abstract (53) PDF (38) RichHTML (5)

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the biological function of BMF gene(Bcl-2 modifying factor)in the follicular development of Small-tailed Han Sheep,and to provide the theoretical basis for further exploration of its regulatory mechanism in the future.Firstly,the synchronization estrus was implemented in Small-tailed Han Sheep.Then,we used Quantitative Real-time PCR(RT-qPCR),Western Blot(WB)and Immunofluorescence staining(IF)to detect the expression of the BMF gene and its encoded protein in the ovaries at different physiological stages;subsequently,we isolated follicles of different diameters and analyzed the differences in expression of the target gene in large,middle and small follicles.The results showed that the expression of BMF mRNA was significantly higher in the ovary at 42 h after thrombectomy than at 18 h after thrombectomy(P<0.05),and the results of its encoded protein expression of BMF were basically consistent with the mRNA.BMF protein was mainly expressed in follicular granulosa cells and follicular membrane cells.We further isolated follicles and found that the expression of both the BMF gene and its encoded protein in middle follicles was significantly higher than that in large and small follicles(P<0.05).These results suggest that BMF gene may be involved in the ovarian cyclic activity and play an important role in follicular development.

  • CHEN Chun, WEI Yue, HUANG Cong, LI Guanhong, XIE Jinfang, WU Yanping
    Abstract (52) PDF (59) RichHTML (3)

    The aim was to screen key differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways and explore the molecular regulatory mechanisms of chicken skin follicle traits through transcriptomic analysis of the dorsal skin follicle tissues of Chongren partridge chicken.Total RNA of skin hair follicle tissue was extracted by TRIzol method,and transcriptome high-throughput sequencing(RNA-Seq)was performed by Illumina platform.Finally,the transcriptome sequencing was validated by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.The results were as follows:A total of 3 856 differentially expressed genes were screened,and 971 differentially expressed genes were screened in the cockerel(BGB vs YGB)comparative combinations,of these,274 up-regulated and 697 down-regulated.There were 3 529 differentially expressed genes in comparative combinations of hen(BMB vs YMB),of these,1 477 up-regulated and 2 052 down-regulated.Three highly expressed genes,KRT75,KRT6A,and KRT14,associated with skin follicle traits,were screened among the common differentially expressed genes in roosters and hens.In the significant enrichment of GO functions,516 GO terms were enriched in the BGB vs YGB and 1 020 GO terms were enriched in the BMB vs YMB.Genes were mainly focused on activities involved in cell adhesion and cell activation.Significantly enriched multiple KEGG pathways,with 8 significant KEGG pathways enriched in the BGB vs YGB and 20 significant KEGG pathways enriched in the BMB vs YMB.Three key pathways,Wnt signaling pathway,neuroactive ligand-receptor regulatory pathway and TGF-β regulatory pathway,were screened.Fluorescence quantification showed that the expression of five randomly selected differential genes in skin hair follicles was consistent with the trend towards RNA-Seq.In summary,the screened KRT75,KRT6A,and KRT14 genes may affect chicken skin follicle traits;the neuroactive ligand-receptor regulatory pathway,the Wnt signaling pathway,and the TGF-β signaling pathway are important pathways that regulate follicular traits in chicken skin.

  • MENG Quanlu, ZHANG Mingjun, SHI Jinping, FU Lingjuan, LIU Ting, ZHANG Quanwei, CHENG Shuru
    Abstract (51) PDF (37) RichHTML (5)

    To explore the association between DLK1 polymorphism and growth performance in sheep. A total of 240 sheep of different breeds (Gansu alpine fine wool sheep, Mongolian sheep, Tibetan sheep, Small tailed han sheep, 50 sheep each and Tan sheep, 40 sheep) were selected as the experimental subjects. The growth performance indexes of different breeds of sheep at different ages were measured. Blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted. DLK1 gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-SSCP combined with DNA sequencing. SPSS 20.0 software was used to analyze the correlation between different genotypes and growth performance of each sheep breed at different ages. The results showed that DLK1 gene was polymorphic in different breeds of sheep. Two alleles (A and B) and three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected, and the dominant allele and genotype were B and AB, respectively. A single nucleotide mutation (G→A) was detected at the 30 412 bp site in intron 5 of DLK1 gene. The G30412A mutation was associated with the weight and chest circumference of sheep at 1 and 3 months old. The phenotype of BB genotype sheep was better than that of AA genotype sheep. There was no correlation between the mutation sites and the body length and body height. The results of this study showed that the G30412A mutation in intron 5 of DLK1 gene existed in different breeds of sheep, and this mutation significantly affected the body weight and chest circumference of sheep at the 1 and 3 months old, which could be used as a candidate gene for the production traits of Gansu sheep breeds.

  • WANG Maocun, CAO Jiawei, ZHOU He, JIA Mingxuan, WEI Shuzhen, GONG Xiaodong, LIU Yuwei, GU Shouqin, DONG Jingao
    Abstract (51) PDF (89) RichHTML (2)

    Basic leucine zipper(bZIP)transcription factor protein is a kind of transcription factor with conservative structure and function in animals,plants and microorganisms.In order to clarify the function and mechanism of bZIP transcription factor in plant pathogenic fungi,and further determine its relationship with the growth,development and pathogenicity of the pathogen,the StbZIP9 gene was cloned from Setosphaeria turcica 01-23(GenBank No.XM _ 008032179.1).StbZIP9 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family.The analysis of the gene structure and protein characteristics showed that the DNA sequence was 788 bp in length,with an open reading frame of 726 bp,encoding 241 amino acids.The encoded protein contained a highly conserved homologous domain BRLZ in fungi.The RNA-seq data of the gene during the growth and development of the pathogen and the process of infecting the host were analyzed.It was found that the expression level of StbZIP9 was 2 to 4 times higher than that in the appressorium and germ tube period compared with the mycelium period.After 24,72 h of infection of maize leaves,the gene expression increased from scratch and continued to increase,indicating that StbZIP9 was associated with appressorium development and germ tube formation and played an important role in the process of pathogen infecting host cells.Further,bioinformatics techniques were used to predict its binding conserved motifs and regulatory target genes.The binding motif was NNTWACGTNN,including the bZIP transcription factor recognition core sequence ACGT,and the downstream target genes of StbZIP9 were predicted according to the sequence.Combined with the expression pattern analysis using the RNA-seq data,four downstream target genes(protein IDs in the JGI database were :132893,163024,162798,40466)were obtained,and the functional annotation table was obtained.The functional annotation revealed its involvement in many biological processes, such as polymerization and transport of cell wall components, host infection, and spore dormancy. It will provide the basis for further elucidation of the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of pathogen infection.

  • WANG Ben, REN Kaiming, MA Shangyu, FAN Yonghui, ZHANG Wenjing, HUANG Zhenglai
    Abstract (51) PDF (66) RichHTML (10)

    In order to select a reasonable fertilization pattern suitable for high-yielding and high-quality production of rice stubble weakly glutenous wheat,this experiment was conducted with weakly glutenous wheat Ningmai 13 and Wanximai 0638 as the test varieties,with no fertilization(CK),conventional fertilization of compound fertilizer+urea(T1),slow-release blended fertilizer(T2),loss-control fertilizer(T3),humic acid compound fertilizer(T4),and wheat formula fertilizer(T5),under the same conditions of nutrient supply,the effects on dry matter distribution and transport,filling,yield and quality of weakly glutenous wheat were analyzed.The results showed that slow-release blended fertilizer and wheat formula significantly increased the post-flowering dry matter production,and increased wheat grain filling rate,effective filling days,and grain weight compared with conventional fertilizer application.The grain yield increased by 9.27%—24.30% and 11.64%—22.98% respectively compared with conventional fertilizer.Slow-release blended fertilizer 2 years two varieties than conventional fertilization treatment of nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency increased by an average of 23.14%, 36.88%, wheat formula fertilizer two years two varieties than conventional fertilization increased by an average of 36.31%, 39.35%. Wheat formula fertilizer treatment of two wheat varieties for testing grain quality had reached the national standard of weak gluten wheat. In summary,wheat formula fertilizer can be used as one of the fertilization patterns for high-yielding and high-quality production of rice stubble weak-gluten wheat in the test area,or appropriately reduce the application amount of slow-release blended fertilizer as the fertilization pattern for high-yielding and high-quality production of rice stubble weak-gluten wheat.

  • LI Shujing, WU Jinzhi, HUANG Ming, WANG Chunping, LI Youjun, WANG Hongtao, ZHAO Wenxin, HUANG Xiuli, LI Wenna, LI Shuang
    Abstract (50) PDF (33) RichHTML (4)

    In order to study the differences in yield,accumulation and utilization of nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)among wheat varieties from different geographical origins and among high and low yield wheat varieties from the same geographical origin in dryland farming, 165 varieties from China(58),the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center(CIMMYT,42)and others abroad (65)were planted in the farm of Henan University of Science and Technology in Luoyang,Henan Province, to analyze the yield and its components,the characteristics of accumulation,distribution and requirement at maturity of N,P,K.Compared with others abroad,the grain yield,grains per spike,1000-grain weight,N,P and K physiological efficiency of CIMMYT varieties were significantly increased by 21.3%,39.1%,26.4%,33.2%,22.6% and 36.1%,respectively,while those of Chinese varieties were increased by 10.5%,18.1%,24.3%,29.4%, 12.1% and 24.3%,respectively,however,the spike number,the N,P and K accumulation in stem and leaf,the N,P,K and dry matter requirements of 100 kg grains of CIMMYT and Chinese varieties decreased significantly,moreover,the increase and decrease of CIMMYT varieties were higher than those of Chinese varieties.Compared the low-yield varieties from the same geographical origin,the yield,spike number,grain number per spike and biomass of Chinese high-yield varieties were significantly increased by 122.4%,38.7%,39.3% and 96.1%,respectively;the yield,spike number and biomass of CIMMYT high-yield varieties were significantly increased by 97.6%,68.2% and 71.7%;the yield,spike number,grain number per spike,1000-grain weight and biomass of high-yield varieties of others abroad were significantly increased by 157.2%,33.0%,43.6%,35.9% and 76.4%.For Chinese varieties,compared with the low-yield varieties, the shoot and grain N,P,K accumulations of high-yield varieties were significantly increased by 98.8%,101.0%,83.7% and 118.8%,104.7%,131.2%,as well as the N,P,K uptake efficiencies were significantly increased by 93.6%,84.6% and 70.3%,the nutrient requirements for grain N,P,K content formation were significantly increased by 102.8%,109.5% and 75.9%,but the K and dry matter requirements for 100 kg grains formation were significantly decreased by 16.8% and 11.1% respectively.For CIMMYT varieties,compared with the low-yield varieties, the N,P,K uptake efficiencies in high-yield varieties were significantly increased by 68.5%,71.4% and 63.6%,as well as the nutrient requirements for grain N,P,K content formation were significantly increased by 79.2%,81.7% and 76.5%,while the N and P requirements for 100 kg grains were significantly decreased by 10.7% and 10.3%,respectively.For others abroad,compared with the low-yield varieties, the N,P, K physiological efficiencies in high-yield varieties were increased significantly by 34.7%,30.2% and 60.6%, as well as the nutrient requirements for grain N,P,K content formation were increased significantly by 73.0%,110.8% and 52.1%,while the N,P,K and dry matter requirements for 100 kg grains were significantly decreased by 26.7%,23.6%,36.8% and 24.7%,respectively.To sum up,many characteristics of grain formation and N,P,K absorption and utilization in wheat showed significant differences among different geographical origin varieties.CIMMYT varieties had higher grain number per spike,1000-grain weight,harvest index,grain N accumulation,and P,K physiological efficiency,while others abroad had higher spike numbers,N,P,K accumulation in stem and leaf,N,K accumulation in shoot and uptake efficiency,dry matter and N,P,K requirements for 100 kg grains,and the values of most indexes of Chinese varieties were between CIMMYT varieties and others abroad.Compared with low-yield varieties,high-yield varieties from the same geographical origin had the ability to improve yield components,harvest index and nutrient uptake efficiency,while increased the nutrient requirements for grain N,P,K content formation.Therefore,the N,P,K input should be increased appropriately in the production system which aimed to high yield and high nutrient content.

  • WANG Aiping, JIANG Yuchen, FENG Yue, CHI Tian, WEN Qiang, DONG Qi
    Abstract (50) PDF (34) RichHTML (5)

    To investigate the effects of different application rates of nitrogen fertilizer on soil characteristics of spring wheat and pea intercropping,spring wheat monoculture and pea monoculture.Three planting methods including intercropping of wheat and pea(SI),sole cropping of spring wheat(SS)and sole cropping of pea(PS)were set,and four nitrogen application levels 0(N0),90(N1),180(N2),270 kg/ha(N3)were set.At 85 days after sowing,the activities of five soil enzymes,including sucrase, β-glucosidase,urease,glutaminase and phosphatase,and the contents of five soil nutrients,including total nitrogen,alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen,total phosphorus,available phosphorus and organic carbon were measured.The results showed soil sucrase activity was increased(65.51%,57.88%)by N application(N2,N3)in PS soil,and N2 level reached the maximum value.Under four nitrogen levels,the sucrase activity of SI planting pattern was significantly increased by 31.25%-94.07% compared with PS.N3 treatment significantly increased SS β-glucosidase activity(17.81%);soil urease activities in SS and SI were increased by N application,and reached the highest at N2 level,SI>SS>PS under the same fertilization;N2 significantly increased the glutaminase activities in SS,SI and PS soils(26.95%,67.05%,55.03%,respectively).Soil phosphatase of SS,SI and PS all reached the highest level in N2,and SI was significantly higher than SS and PS(increased by 128.35%,337.21%,respectively).Nitrogen application could increase soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen,total phosphorus and available phosphorus contents,among which alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen and available phosphorus reached the highest at N2 level;soil sucrase activity was very significantly correlated with the urease, phosphatase, and significantly correlated with the available phosphorus content. Soil urease activity was very significantly correlated with phosphatase activity and alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen content, and was significantly correlated with total nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Soil phosphatase activity was very significantly correlated with total nitrogen, available phosphorus content, and significantly correlated with alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen. The total nitrogen content of soil was very significantly correlated with alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen.There was a significant interaction between nitrogen treatment and planting mode pattern on soil urease,glutaminase,phosphatase activities,soil total phosphorus,available phosphorus contents.In conclusion,180 kg/ha was the best nitrogen application rate,and intercropping was better than monoculture under the same nitrogen application rate.

  • XIAO Hong, HE Zhen, TIAN Qi, HUANG Xinmiao, LIAO Weidong, HUANG Tinghua, YAO Min
    Abstract (49) PDF (27) RichHTML (6)

    The enhanced green fluorescent protein gene(EGFP)was used to characterize Salmonella typhimurium strain 14028(Sal-14028)to study its tracer role in porcine alveolar macrophages(3D4/21),and firstly,the EGFP was transferred into Sal-14028 by electroshock method and obtained green fluorescent positive and stable strain,named Sal-pPpagC-EGFP.Then,the growth characteristics of the fluorescent strain and the wild strain(WT)were compared under the same conditions,and the virulence of the fluorescent strain was examined by mouse infection test to determine whether the insertion of the EGFP gene had any significant effect on the virulence of the fluorescent strain,so as to examine the biological characteristics of the fluorescent strain,and analysis the localization of fluorescent strains in the phagocytic lysosomes of porcine alveolar macrophages(3D4/21)using fluorescence microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence.The results showed that EGFP-labeled Salmonella typhimurium emitted strong green fluorescence under fluorescence microscopy at different time points,and the fluorescence carried was not affected by resistance selection and could be stably inherited.The trend of the growth curve of the fluorescent strain Sal-pPpagC-EGFP was basically the same as that of the wild strain under the same culture conditions.In addition,the LD50 calculated by the modified Kou method was not significantly different from that of the wild strain(P>0.05),indicating that the insertion of EGFP gene had no significant effect on the virulence of the fluorescent strain.After the fluorescent strains infected porcine alveolar macrophages,labeled strains were observed in the phagolysosomes,and the number of strains showed an increasing trend with the increase of time.It showed that the fluorescent strains had no significant changes in biological traits other than having luminescent properties.These results suggested that the construction of Sal-pPpagC-EGFP provided an effective tool to further reveal its infestation pathogenic process.

  • HAN Haoyuan, LI Tao, LI Shikai, SONG Xiaoyu, LI Jun, HA Si, ZHAO Jinyan, WEI Hongfang, QUAN Kai
    Abstract (48) PDF (26) RichHTML (2)

    To investigate the effects of GJB6 and PRKAA1 genes on the reproductive performance of Huai goats,122 Huai goats with different lambing number were selected as research objects.The primers were designed based on the reference sequences of GJB6 and PRKAA1 genes from the NCBI database.Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)were screened by PCR and sequencing methods.The genetic diversity,population genetic parameters and association analyses between different genotypes and lambing number were conducted.As a result,two SNPs (g.50694819 C>T and g.50694816 T>C) were detected in GJB6 gene,and both SNPs were synonymous mutations.Three SNPs(g.33691489 T>C,g.33693395 A>T and g.33693100 T>C)were detected in PRKAA1 gene,and they were all located in non-coding regions.The results of polymorphic information content indicated that g.50694819 C>T locus of GJB6 gene and g.33693100 T>C locus of PRKAA1 gene showed low degree of polymorphism,g.50694816 T>C locus of GJB6 gene,g.33691489 T>C and g.33693395 A>T loci of PRKAA1 gene showed moderate degree of polymorphism.The χ2 test showed that the five loci were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.The results of the association analysis between different genotypes and lambing number for the two SNPs from GJB6 gene showed that the differences were not significant,indicating that these two SNPs were not suitable for multiple lambing traits selection in Huai goats.The lambing number produced by goats with the TC genotype at g.33691489 T>C of PRKAA1 gene was significantly higher than goats with the CC genotype,and the lambing number produced by individuals with the AT genotype at g.33693395 A>T was significantly higher than goats with the AA,TT genotypes(P<0.05).Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed a strong linkage equilibrium between the g.33691489 T>C and g.33693395 A>T loci(D'>0.8,r2>0.33).Haplotype correlation analysis showed that the lambing number of goats with haplotype TCA was significantly higher than that with haplotypes CTA,CTT,and TTA(P<0.05).The results showed that Huai goats with the TC genotype at the g.33691489 T>C locus,the AT genotype at the g.33693395 A>T locus and TCA haplotype of PRKAA1 gene had higher lambing number,indicating that these two SNPs could be used as candidate molecular markers for lambing number selection in Huai goats.

  • 2023, 38(6): 0-0.
    Abstract (47) PDF (44)
  • LU Yan, MA Mingdong, CAO Hui, LI Yuanyuan
    Abstract (47) PDF (37) RichHTML (3)

    Ardisia crenata Sims is a traditional Chinese medicine plant belonging to Myrsinaceae family.The oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin is regarded as the main active ingredient accumulated in the root.In order to explore the molecular basis of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins,the Illumina HiseqTM 4000 high throughput sequencing method was used to analyze the transcriptome of 3-year-old plants of A.crenata treated with sterile water and 2 mmol/L SA.The transcriptome data of roots were obtained,and GO classification,KOG functional annotation,KEGG metabolic pathway analysis,protein function annotation analysis,differential gene analysis and discovery of key genes in metabolic pathways were completed based on Blast.A total of 41.63 Gb Clean data were obtained,102 491 Unigenes were assembled by de novo splicing with an average length of 831 bp,and the annotation rate was 50.21%.Through differential analysis of genes responding to SA,a total of 3 417 differentially expressed genes(DEGs)were found,of which 2 725 were up-regulated and 692 were down-regulated.DEGs were significantly enriched in secondary metabolite biosynthesis,metabolic pathways,amino and nucleotide metabolism,Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis,carbon metabolism pathways.Metabolic pathways related to triterpenoid saponin in A.crenata included the pathways of terpene skeleton biosynthesis(ko00900)and sesquiterpene and triterpene biosynthesis(ko00909).A total of 8 key enzymes and 11 differentially expressed Unigenes were screened.Under salicylic acid treatment, the differential expression of HMGR, HMGS, MVK, GGPS, SS, and SQE genes was significant in MVA pathway of terpene skeleton biosynthesis, while the differential expression of DXS, DXR, MCT, CMK, MDS, and HDR genes in MEP pathway was not significant. The gene expression of beta-amyrin synthase(β-AS),the key enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleanolane pentacyclic triterpene precursors,was down-regulated,as was the expression of the post-modification genes CYP450s(CYP72A67).The change trend of qPCR value was consistent with that of FPKM value of RNA-seq.It is speculated that SA affected the accumulation of triterpenoid saponins by inducing the expression of key enzyme genes in the MVA pathway,and the enzyme genes in MEP pathway may participate in the synthesis of secondary metabolites in other pathways.

  • ZHAO Yuanyuan, JIN Jiawen, CHEN Shuo, ZHANG Shuai, JIN Yuwei, JIANG Jiayi, HAO Xiangrui, ZHANG Delong, CHEN Qing
    Abstract (47) PDF (21) RichHTML (7)

    Soil phosphorus(P)cycle are varied in different land use soils.The transformation of soil organic P by hydrolyzing by enzymes is an important process in soil P cycling.The exogenous carbon(C)and nitrogen(N)application can influence on the biological process of soil P,which could play a key role in improving soil P bioavailability.In order to study the effects of exogenous C and N on soil organic P and extracellular enzyme activities in different land use soils,four soils from greenhouse vegetable field,grain field,grassland and forest were collected to conduct the incubation experiment.For each soil,four treatments were designed,including control(CK),glucose(G,500 mg/kg soil),potassium nitrate(N,300 mg/kg soil),glucose and potassium nitrate(GN,500 mg/kg glucose soil and 300 mg/kg potassium nitrate soil).The results showed that the soil organic P in greenhouse vegetable field and forest was increased after adding carbon source,increased by 89.7%,40.6%,respectively,compared to control treatment;with the addition of nitrogen sources,the available P in greenhouse vegetable soil increased by 14.2%,while that in forest soil decreased by 14.0%;compared to control treatment,the activity of alkaline phosphatase in grassland and forest soil decreased by 35.9%,25.5% with the input of carbon source,while that in greenhourse vegetable field and grain field soil had no significant effect;compared to control treatment, the β-glucosidase activity of four soils were increased by adding C and N, and the difference was significant in greenhouse vegetable field and grassland soil; based on the addition of carbon source,N addition reduced the cumulative release of CO2 in grassland and forest soils by 19.7%,16.5%,respectively,but had no significant effect on that of greenhouse vegetable field and grain field soil.Therefore,in greenhouse vegetable field and grain field soil,the soil extracellular enzyme activity increased significantly after the application of exogenous carbon and nitrogen,and the mineralization of organic phosphorus into inorganic phosphorus was more.The content of soil organic carbon was the main factor affecting the mineralization of organic phosphorus in soil;in grassland and forest soil,the application of exogenous carbon and nitrogen reduced the activity of alkaline phosphatase and slowed down the mineralization process of organic phosphorus,so the activity of phosphatase was the main factor affecting the mineralization of organic phosphorus in the soil.

  • CHEN Yihao, KONG Lili, HOU Yunpeng, YIN Caixia, ZHANG Lei, ZHAO Yinkai, LIU Zhiquan
    Abstract (47) PDF (40) RichHTML (7)

    In order to explore the effects of different planting densities and potassium(K)application rates on dry matter accumulation and translocation,yield and K use efficiency of maize in the typical black soil region of Northeast China,the two-year continuous located experiment was studied the effects of different planting densities(D1:5.5×104 plants/ha,D2:7.0×104 plants/ha and D3:8.5×104 plants/ha)and K application rates(K0,K40,K80,K120 and K160)on dry matter accumulation and translocation,K use efficiency and yield of maize in Gongzhuling City of Jilin Province.The results showed that there was a significant or extremely significant interaction between planting density and K application rate on dry matter accumulation of maize.The maximum and average accumulation rates of dry matter in D2K120 treatment were at the highest values,and the translocation amount and contribution rate of dry matter remained at higher levels.K recovery efficiency(REK),agronomic efficiency(AEK)and partial factor productivity(PFPK)at the same planting densities decreased with increasing K application rate,and the values reached the highest in D2 under the same amount of K application.Under the same K application rate,the maize yield in D2 was at the highest value.The average yields in two years under D2 were increased by 6.9%,3.0% than D1 and D3,respectively.At the same density,maize yield was significantly improved due to K fertilizer application.Among them,the yield increasing was no longer significant exceeding 80 kg/ha of K application rates under D1,and it was no longer significant exceeding 120 kg/ha of K application rates under D2 and D3.According to fitting a linear-plateau model,the appropriate ranges of K application rates were 72-80 kg/ha,104-115 kg/ha,105-116 kg/ha under D1,D2 and D3,respectively.Under the condition that K application rate in D2 was increased by 44.5% than that in D1 and was equal to that in D3,the maize yield in D2 was increased by 9.8%,3.2%,and REK was increased by 4.1,4.9 percentage points than D1 and D3,respectively.In conclusion,the planting density of 70 000 plants/ha and K application rate of 104-115 kg/ha are appropriate in the typical black soil region of Northeast China.

  • XU Dongmei, LIU Tingting, LIU Yiming, LIU Yufen, LIU Peng, ZHAO Wenge
    Abstract (47) PDF (37) RichHTML (6)

    In order to explore the biological function of LEPR gene in amphibians,we infected Rana dybowskii with Aeromonas hydrophila(Ah)to establish an inflammatory model,and analyzed expression profile of LEPR gene after Ah infection.Firstly,the LEPR gene was cloned by RT-PCR technology and bioinformatics analysis was performed,and then the inflammation model of Rana dybowskii was constructed.The histopathological changes during infection were observed by hematoxylin eosin staining(HE staining),and the differences of tissue expression of LEPR gene in physiological and infectious states were analyzed by qRT-PCR.Finally,the changes of LEPR protein expression in kidney,skin and muscle tissues were verified by immunohistochemistry staining.The results showed that the length of LEPR gene sequence of Rana dybowskii was 3 604 bp,and its open reading frame was 3 405 bp,encoding 1 134 amino acids.Subcellular localization showed that the LEPR protein was a membrane protein with a primary transmembrane domain.The homology analysis confirmed that the homology between Rana dybowskii and amphibians was more than 52.6%,indicating that LEPR was less conservative.Based on qRT-PCR results,LEPR mRNA was expressed in the heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney,skin,muscle and stomach of the healthy Rana dybowskii,and its relative expression in skin tissue was significantly higher than that in other tissues.After Ah infection,the LEPR gene was significantly up-regulated in different tissues,but the response time and level were different.Immunohistochemical results showed that the change trend of LEPR protein expression in kidney,skin and muscle was basically consistent with that of qRT-PCR.The strong response of the LEPR gene in the skin tissue also indicates that it may participate in the infection process,which lays a foundation for further expanding the immunological function of the amphibian LEPR gene.

  • WANG Biao, SONG Shijia, LI Dongxiao, DONG Weixin, ZHANG Yuechen
    Abstract (45) PDF (35) RichHTML (1)

    In order to explore the effects of melatonin on the growth and development of adzuki bean seedlings under salt stress,a phytotron experiment was conducted with Baohong 876 as the material and four treatments:CK(Clear water),S(60 mmol/L NaCl),MT(50 μmol/L melatonin)and S-MT(60 mmol/L NaCl and 50 μmol/L melatonin).The growth indexes,photosynthetic indexes,mineral ion contents and antioxidant enzyme activities of adzuki seedlings were analyzed using classical physicochemical determination.The results showed as follows:under salt stress,compared with CK treatment,the growth of adzuki bean seedlings was significantly inhibited,chlorophyll content,net photosynthetic rate(Pn),transpiration rate(Tr),stomatal conductivity(Gs)and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci)were significantly decreased;the contents of Na+ in leaves,stems were significantly increased.Meantime,the content of Ca2+ in leaves was significantly increased while the content of Mg2+ was significantly decreased,and the ratio of Na+/K+ was significantly increased.The contents of MDA and H2O2 increased significantly,which damaged the selective permeability of membrane lipid.Compared with S treatment,the plant height,leaf area,biomass,and total root length of adzuki bean seedlings were significantly increased under S-MT condition.Meantime,chlorophyll content,leaf Pn,Tr,and Ci were increased.The contents of Na+ and K+ in leaves,stems were significantly decreased,the content of Mg2+ in leaves was significantly increased and Ca2+ was significantly decreased,and the Na+/K+ ratio was decreased.The contents of MDA, O 2 - and H2O2 decreased.The levels of SOD,POD and CAT activity in leaves and roots were increased.Under normal conditions,the application of melatonin could promote the growth of adzuki bean seedlings,improve the photosynthetic capacity of seedlings,and increase the content of soluble protein.Spearman correlation analysis was performed on 15 representative indicators,and it was found that total root length,chlorophyll content,net photosynthetic rate,and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly or extremely significantly negatively correlated with Na+/K+ ratio and ROS.In summary,under salt stress,melatonin can directly and indirectly reduce H2O2 content and maintain the stability of membrane lipid permeability by activating the antioxidant enzyme activity of adzuki bean seedlings,thus maintaining the Na+/K+ balance in plants.Meanwhile,H2O2 and Ca2+,as signaling molecules,have a synergistic effect in the regulation process of melatonin regulating intracellular ion balance,thereby improving the salt tolerance of plants.

  • YUAN Huijun, ZHANG Ruiyan, GUAN Yuchen, YU Shiman, XU Yanying, MA Qianguo, BAO Jingting
    Abstract (44) PDF (31) RichHTML (7)

    To investigate the function of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G11(ABCG11)in xerophytic economic shrub Lycium barbarum ssp. Bianguo,using the Lycium barbarum ssp. Bianguo as the material. The cDNA sequence of Lycium barbarum ssp. Bianguo LbABCG11 gene was obtained by RT-PCR and RACE method, the sequence patterns were analyzed by bioinformatics software. Quantitative Real-time PCR(qRT-PCR)was used to analyze the expression patterns of LbABCG11 in different organs of Lycium barbarum ssp. bianguo under salt treatment,osmotic stress and abscisic acid(ABA)treatments.The results showed that LbABCG11 gene contained 2 971 bp in full length and a 2 130 bp open reading frame,encoding 710 amino acids.The protein contained six transmembrane regions, the calculated molecular weight, isoelectric point, adipose index, instability index and average hydropathicity was 79.39 ku,8.42, 89.63, 35.52, 0.070, the encoded protein chemical formula was C3590H5577N935O1027S35. LbABCG11 is a stable alkaline hydrophobic protein.The protein contained a nucleotide-binding domain(NBD)and a transmembrane domain(TMD),which were arranged in the form of NBD-TMD.LbABCG11 was a white-brown complex (WBC)half-size molecular transporter.The secondary structure of the protein was mainly composed of α-helix and random coil, accounting for 45.21% and 33.66%, respectively, which was consistent with the predicted results of the tertiary structure. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LbABCG11 had closer genetic relationship with ABCG11 from Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum barbarum, but has low homology with ABCG11 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Chenopodium quinoa. LbABCG11 gene was expressed in some organs of Lycium barbarum ssp. bianguo,including leaves,stems and roots.The LbABCG11 expression level was induced by NaCl,osmotic stress and ABA,manifesting that LbABCG11 was involved in the stress response of xerophytes.

  • 2023, 38(3): 0-0.
    Abstract (43) PDF (97)
  • XIONG Xiang, HE Yong, LIU Huanhuan, LIU Zhien, TIAN Zhihong
    Abstract (43) PDF (41) RichHTML (5)

    To further explore the biological function of rice polyembryo candidate gene OsPE,Oryza sativa ssp.Japonica cv.Nipponbare and Indica cv.Basmati 370 was taken as the research materials, and the mature leaves of the test materials under normal growth conditions were employed.Bioinformatics,RT-PCR,TA cloning,semi-quantitative,and qPCR were used to identify and analyze the splicers of OsPE.The bioinformatics analysis showed three kinds of variable splices of OsPE in Japonica rice and no variable splices in Indica rice.But the existence of three variable splices of the OsPE gene was identified in Japonica rice.Two new variable splice variants were found in Indica rice through RT-PCR amplification with specific primers,combined with TA cloning and sequencing verification.Subsequently,the semi-quantitative and qPCR results showed differences in the expression of the variable splices of the OsPE gene.Moreover,the expression intensities are as follows:OsPEc>OsPEa>OsPEb,the gene had the same expression trend in different rice varieties.Finally,the evolutionary analysis and functional prediction of the protein encoded by the OsPE gene showed that the OsPE protein was highly conserved in Gramineae,especially in Oryza L.(percent identity was higher than 99%).It needs to be further studied whether this gene was involved in regulating rice's stress response,cell division,and apoptosis but not the regulation of rice polyembryony production.To sum up,the OsPE gene was highly conserved in Gramineae,especially in Oryza L..This gene had the same splicing pattern in Japonica and Indica rice.Its variable splices had different expressions under normal growth conditions,but the expression trend was the same,OsPEc spliceosome dominate the function of the OsPE gene.It needed to be further studied whether this gene was involved in regulating rice's stress response,cell division,and apoptosis but not the regulation of rice polyembryony production.

  • TANG Jun, DAI Xiang, LI Guifei, MU Bing, WANG Feng, YANG Yiyang
    Abstract (43) PDF (22) RichHTML (6)

    The NPF transporter family plays an important role in plants transporting nitrate nitrogen.To reveal the sequence characteristic of NPF genes,the DNA and cDNA sequences of the nitrogen transporter CsNPF5 gene of tea plants were amplified by using PCR amplification,with full-lengths of 2 096,1 440 bp,respectively.Sequence analysis suggested that the gene contained three exons and two introns,with an open reading frame(ORF)of 1 440 bp,encoding 479 amino acids,having a relative molecular mass of 53.12 ku,an isoelectric point of 7.13 and a PTR2 Pfam domain at the N-terminal end of the encoded protein;subcellular localization analysis indicated that the encoded protein was localized in the cytoplasm;sequence alignment result showed that the CsNPF5 protein had high homology with the Chinese kiwifruit NPF protein,with a similarity of 79.54%;cluster analysis indicated that CsNPF5 and its homologous proteins were classified into three evolutionary branches,and CsNPF5 clustered into the same branch with the homologous protein NPF18 from Chinese kiwifruit.Meanwhile,the qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of CsNPF5 was differentially up-regulated in leaves under 0-48 h of nitrogen treatment;up-regulated expression abundance of gene responded faster with increasing NO3- concentration;the peak expression of CsNPF5 in tea leaves appeared after 24 h at 2 mmol/L NO3- treatment,which indicated that the gene expression was induced by nitrogen.

  • YU Jinping, ZHANG Wei, LI Qi, BAI Penghua, CUI Xinyi, LIU Yixue
    Abstract (42) PDF (49) RichHTML (7)

    In order to excavate the key genes in wheat which were resistant to glufosinate-ammonium stress and analyze family members chromosome distribution and expression pattern.Winter wheat Jinnong 6 was selected as the research object and different concentrations of glufosinate-ammonium was used in our study and observed symptoms of wheat after treatments.Total RNA was extracted from wheat leaves at 0,3 and 9 h after treatment.Transcriptomic sequencing technology was used to analyze and excavate the key genes in wheat.To confirm genes expression,protein structure of their family members and expression pattern.The results showed that TraesCS4A02G044000 was up-regulated induced by glufosinate-ammonium stress according to transcriptome analysis.Sequence analysis showed that TraesCS4A02G044000 was located in the 4th homologous gene A genome of wheat.The protein domain analysis showed that the protein encoded of TraesCS4A02G044000 had a signal peptide,a DUF568 and a b561.Twelve genes containing DUF568 and b561 domains were excavated from the genome family members,which were located in the 4th,5th and 7th homologous groups.The expression pattern analysis showed that TraesCS4D02G265000,TraesCS4B02G265100 and TraesCS4A02G044000 located in chromosomes A,B and D of the 4th homologous group which encoded cytochrome b561 were up-regulated obviously in wheat under glufosinate-ammonium stress. TraesCS4A02G044000 and its homologous genes encoding cytochrome b561 were significantly up-regulated under glufosinate-ammonium stress, indicated that b561 had a positive response to glufosinate-ammonium stress and participated in the metabolism of glufosinate-ammonium in wheat.

  • HUANG Guanrong, YIN Xuegui, LU Jiannong, ZHANG Liuqin, LIU Chaoyu, ZHANG Xiaoxiao, LIN Haihong, ZUO Jinying
    Abstract (42) PDF (31) RichHTML (5)

    Effective spike number is an important component of castor yield.In order to reveal the genetic basis and mining candidate genes of effective spike number,the QTLs conferring effective spike number per plant(ESNPP)and number of effective primary branch spike(EPBSN)were mapped by genotyping with SSR primers and by the 2 detection methods(CIM and ICIM-ADD)in the populations F2 and BC1 (F1×P2)derived from 2 parents with significant phenotypic differences,and QTL remapping was conducted in S1 population by the same method.A total of 9/5(CIM/ICIM-ADD,the same below) QTLs were identified in the F2 population,including 3/2 and 6/3 underlying ESNPP and EPBSN,with a phenotypic variation explained(PVE)of 6.70%/11.87% and 25.15%/13.87%,respectively.The mapping results in BC1 population were generally consistent with those in F2 population.Among them, qESNPP3.1 and qEPBSN3.1 were stable QTLs with contribution rates close to 10%,and the latter was detected again in S1 population with a PVE of 13.27%;the stable QTLs were overlappingly located in the marker interval RCM915—RCM950,and together constituted a main-effect QTL cluster underlying the effective spike number.Two candidate genes,Rc-US03g04880 and Rc-US03g05950,were annotated from the marker interval,which were differentially expressed in multiple branching tissues of both parents.The above results provided essential molecular markers for marker-assisted selection of the effective spike number and necessary candidate genes for its genetic and physiologic mechanism study in castor.

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