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  • SHI Sheng-qing, LEI Jing-pin, HU Yong-jian, LI Liang-jun, WU Jiang-hui
    Abstract (1414) PDF (113597) RichHTML
    The study was done to provide the theoretics for the further study of VOCs(Volatile organic compounds) on the selection of insect-defence species,mechanism of insect-defence,ecological control,and ecological restoration of forest. The current advance was reviewed of the species of VOCs in trees and its functions of VOCs on insects. Tree VOCs had dual roles in control of herbivore-insect: attracting the insects to locate and attack host trees,and providing defensive system for trees,and included isoprene,monoterpene and other reactive VOCs,et al., whose emissions were affected by biotic and abiotic factors. VOCs' functions on insects included the attraction and repellency of insects and its attraction to natural enemies. However,it is difficult to isolate and identify the specific VOCs to insects,which needs to discover the key elements regulating the emission of VOCs at the molecular level. Finally,the foreground of VOCs on ecological controls of tree pests suggested that it will be theoretical and practical for the new methods of defending and controlling insects,and selection of insect-defence trees by the' bridge' of VOCs.
  • SUN Feng-cheng, FENG Yong, SU Er-hu, ZHANG Lai-hou, ZHAO Rui-xia, LIU Zhi-xiong, SHI Hai-bo
    Abstract (733) PDF (71957) RichHTML
    200 hybrid corn combinations had been gained by the design of uncompleted diallel crossing NC II,aecording to 5 standard testing varieties(B73,M017,Dan340,Huangza04 and Ye478),which represented main hybrid dominant groups in the north of China,and 40 inbred lines of main corn varieties in Inner Mongolia.Based on plan· ted verifications,the yield combining abilit and yields of F1 had been analyzed,and the genetic relationship had been discussed in this study,either.Experiments show that internal population(DOM),A population(Reid)and population(non-Reid)are the main inbred lines in the Inner Mongolia;the higher GCA effect exist in M3401,Ba816,MZY, K12,and M9271,etc,11 inbred lines,which are better breeding materials.Lan Langpingsitou,M9271 Lanpingsitou and Reid Lan are the main modes of hetemsis.In the experiments to test heterosis of these 200 is more possible to gain fine varieties or combinations from M3401×Huangza04,K12×M017,etc seven combinations,the SCA values and yields are higher.
  • SUN Feng-cheng, FENG Yong, YU Zhuo, ZHAO Rui-xia, ZHANG Lai-hou, SU Er-hu, LIU Zhi-xiong, SHI Hai-bo
    Abstract (1176) PDF (27350) RichHTML
    In order to define the relationship among the agronomic characters and yield and nutrition qualitative of maize population, 12 maize populations was studied with the method of grey correlation degree analysis. The results showed that the most relative agronomic characters to maize yields were seed rate, grain numbers per row, kernel diameter, plant height, and 100-seed weight, etc; grain numbers of kernel, 100-seed weight, grain numbers per row, seed rate, and kernel row number were directly bound with content of crude protein, crude fat, crude starch, and lysine. The results of grey relativity among main agronomic characters showed that high seed rate and 100-seed weight should be paid more attention on the breeding selection of maize yields and nutritious qualities, and the selection of kernel row number, grain number per row and kernel diameter also need to be laid some stress on, ensuring appropriate plant height. This study provide scientific basis for the maize breeding selection on high yield and quality.
  • XING Hao-ran, LIU Li-juan, LIU Guo-zhen
    Abstract (997) PDF (3586) RichHTML
    Cell is the fundamental unit of living organism,proteins with different functions distributed in cellular compartments,including plasmolemma,nucleus,cytoplasm and organelles like mitochondria,chloroplast,Golgi,and endoplasmic reticulum etc.Protein subcellular localization is one of the key questions for functional genomics.The techniques used for subcellular localization of plants protein include fusion reporter gene localization,immunohistochemical localization,2D combined with mass spectrometry,marker enzyme-assisted localization and bioinformatics prediction.The development and application of high-throughtput protein subcellular localization technology stimulated the establishment of protein subcellular localization database.In model plant Arabidopsis thaliana,the number of proteins with localization data is over 4000.
  • LU Wenlong, CAO Yiping, ZHANG Fusuo
    Abstract (508) PDF (2825) RichHTML
    The chemical extraction was used to study the effect of organic acids on phosphorus release from different synthetic phosphate compounds.It was indicated that phosphorus release was significantly stimulated for all of 5 synthetic phosphate compounds tested,and positively correlated with the concentration of organic acid.The ability of organic acids in mobilizing phosphorus from synthetic phosphate followed the order:citricoxalictartaricmalic acid.The extent of phosphorus mobilized from synthetic phosphate compounds followed the order:Ca2-P>Ca8-P>FePO4>Ca10-P>AlPO4.
  • ZHAODeng-chao, WANGJun-yi, HANChuan-ming, CUIShu-ying, HOULi-qun
    Abstract (485) PDF (2549) RichHTML
    The paper aimed that analyzing the fat composition and the differences of fatty acids composition and contentappear in different walnut varieties kernel by the method of gas chromatography(GC).The results showed that the fatcontents were about 66 % in all of the walnut kernel.12 kinds of fatty acids,including Tetradecanoic(C14∶0), Palmitic(C16∶0), Palmitoleic(C16∶1n7), Heptadecanoicn(C17∶0), Cis -10 -Heptadecenoic Heptadecanoicn(C17∶1n7),Stearic(C18∶0),Oleic(C18∶1n9c), Linoleic(C18∶2n6c), α-linolenic(C18∶3n3),Arachidic(C20∶0),Cis -11 -Eiscosenoic(C20∶1),Docosanoic(C22∶0)were detected in the six walnut varieties kernels.The carbon numbers of the fattyacids were mainly between 16 and 18.The fatty acids in walnut kernel mainly included Polyunsaturated fatty acid andMonounsaturatedfatty acid,less saturated fatty acid.The varieties of Qinglin and Yuanlin had the highest and the lowestLinoleic acid contents,reached to 42.19 g/100g and 36.12 g/100g,respectively.
  • WANG Feng-ru, WANG Zhi-yong
    Abstract (583) PDF (2034) RichHTML
    Brassinosteroids ( BRs) are essentional homones that play important roles in the growth and development of plant. Extensive molecular genetic and biochemical studies of BR signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana have illustrated a BR signal transduction pathway from ligand percept ion on the cell surface to gene expression in the nucleus. But there are still gaps in the pathway and many signaling steps remain unclear.
  • WANG Shi-qiang, GU Chun-mei, ZHAO Hai-hong
    Abstract (786) PDF (2007) RichHTML
    The biological degrading lignocellulose mechanism's research receives the attention day by day,and the degeneration enzyme mechanism carries on the function the report to be many,however,lignocellulose natural structure is complex,its biodegradation process is a complex zymology process,needs many kinds of enzymes the coordination to do uses for to complete. After many year research,various countries research worker proposed that the screening method on the lignocellulose degrading bacteria,the domestic and foreign scientific research workers explored the Screening Method on many kinds of lignocellulose degrading bacteria and the screening culture medium,has provided the shortcut for the Screening on the lignocellulose degrading bacteria,sped up the Screening work step on the degrading bacteria. The research progress in the lignocellulose biological degrading was reviewed from the aspects such as the mechanisms of biological degrading and the screening method on the degrading bacteria. The research issues to be widened and deepened in the lignocellulose biological degrading were also put forward.
  • WANG Ri-ming, WANG Li-min, WANG Si-qing
    Abstract (422) PDF (1991) RichHTML
    Following the principles of dualistic classification,the pedicel posture introduced as the top grade classificatory standard in classification of Cymbidium hybridum. The ordinal grades were color of flower,the diameter of flower,the shape of labellum etc. The imported 28 Japanese cultivars were divided into two groups (vertical pedicel and pendent pedicel), five teams (red flower,orange flower,yellow flower,green flower,white flower), three types (large flower,medium flower,small flower), two forms (tapering labellum and smooth abellum). In numerical classification,41 characters of 17 cultivars were observed. The numerical values were used in clustering by UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic average). In this taxonomical system,the diameter were seemed as the first grade guide. And the flower color was the second. The the Cultivars Classification could provide a reasonable guidance for the introduction and exploitation of Cymbidium hybridum.
  • ZHAO Jun-liang, WU Dong-tang, WANG Xiu-ying, LI Gai-zhen, WU Yi-lun
    Abstract (441) PDF (1981) RichHTML
    Meiosis is crucial in sexual reproduction. It has been shown that poor homologous synapeis 1(phsl)ire-quired for homologous clmomosome pairing and for prevent synapsis between nonhomologous chromosomess. Promoter ofphsl was isolated by PCR from Arabidcpsas genome in order to study the copression of phsl,thereafter phsl and its promotor were cloned onto copression vector including green fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein. At last, corerstructed vectors were transformed into agrobacterlum so that the vectors are to be transformed into Arabadcpsis.
  • DUAN Yun-feng, WANG You-ning, LI Xia,
    Abstract (527) PDF (1829) RichHTML
    In order to facilitate the process of plant stomatal development and physiology study, we report a simplified method for observing stomata by using transparent tape to shave off mesophyll cells and obtain epidermis from leaf.Compared with other methods: by tearing or adhering, this method is simple, efficient and wide applied. It has a good application on soybeans, wheat, corn and other crops. It is suitable for studying different developmental stages, distribution,dynamics and morphological studies of stomata.
  • ZHANG Feng-feng, XIE Feng-xing, ZHAO Yu-jie, ZHOU Ke, LI Ya-ling
    Abstract (555) PDF (1658) RichHTML
    The Bacillus subalis,isolated from the mud and water of shrimp ponds,was studied on purification of stim2 ulant aquaculture wastewater. The results indicated that when the B. subalis was applied in stimulant aquaculture wastew2 ater,the removing rate of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen reached above 99 % after four days,pH value obviously de2 creased,but dissolved oxygen content and S2 - content was changed indistinctively. Therefore,B. subtilis can improve wa2 ter quality obviously on a certain extent.
  • XIE Xin-hua, LI Xiao-fang, XIAO Xin, LIU Zhi-xia
    Abstract (508) PDF (1587) RichHTML
    In different concentrations of sodium carbonate,alum,salt or sucrose,the viscosity curve of waxy rice starch was measured by Brabender viacometer to study the effects of these factors on starch paste properties.The result showed that adding sodium carbonate,alum,salt or sucrose could increase the temperature of gelatinization and the hot paste stability,and decrease the retro-gradation of waxy rice starch.Sodium carbonate,alum and salt,except sucrose,had significant influences on the paste properties.
  • ZHAO Xiao-dan, SHI Hong-zhi, QIAN Hua, YANG Xing-you, JIN Dong-mei, WANG Rui-yun, YANG Yuan-yuan
    Abstract (606) PDF (1523) RichHTML
    Contents of neutral aroma constituents and alkaloids were compared in 5 types of tobacco(fluecured,burley,Oriental,Maryland and sun-cured)from Sichuan. Results showed that:The content of total and reducing sugar(28. 36%,24. 52%)were the highest and total nitrogen lower in flue-cured,the contents of the total and?reducing sugar in Oriental which had the least content of total nitrogen(1. 79%)were less than the flue-cured and?the sun/air-cured tobacco with higher nitrogen and less sugar. The content of nitrogen-nicotine ratio and sugar-nitrogen ratio in flue-cured tobacco was the most suitable and the ratio of potassium to chlorine of all different types of?tobacco was greater than 4,meeting the characteristics of high-quality tobacco leaf. Classification contents of neutral?aroma in Wanyuanwuyan were more higher than other kinds of sun-cured tobacco. Except sun-cured tobacco,the?contents of products degraded by carotene and neophytadiene(63. 29,731. 92 μg/g)in flue-cured were more higher?than other types of tobacco while the products of aromatic amino acid metabolism,the products degraded by cembrane and the products of browning reaction were highest in Oriental. The contents of all kinds of aroma component?in Maryland were closer to the burley but at a high level of solanone. The analysis can provide theoretical foundation?for the prescription design of Tobacco Blend Grouping of Chinese Type Cigarette. Chemical components and neutral?aroma components had abroad variations and the proportion of the groups with chemical components were also dissimilar in different types of tobacco which causing the major factors of the aroma style and smoking quality.
  • LU Qing, DONG Jian-zhen, CAO Wei-ping, WANG Jin-yao, FENG Shu-liang
    Abstract (505) PDF (1486) RichHTML
    With putting forward the Integrated Pest Management(IPM),the application of the entomogenous fungi in preventing the pest of agriculture and forestry is becoming more and more extensively,and Beauveria bassiana as a microbial insecticide has been taken more attention on research and application in the world.This text reviewed the research of cultivation of B.bassiana from the nutrition sources,temperature and humidity conditions etc.
  • GONG Ya-jun, SHI Bao-cai, LU Hong, ZHANG Sheng-li, WEI Lei
    Abstract (553) PDF (1480) RichHTML
    The developmental zero,effective accumulative temperature(EAT),and fecundity for three species,namely,Aphis craccivora,Acyrthosiphon pisum and Megoura japonica,were studied.The results showed that the developmental zero of A.craccivora,A.pisum and M.japonica were(6.05±1.44)℃,(5.69±1.72)℃,and(4.02±2.22) ℃.The EAT of the three species were(106.63±9.19),(113.01±2.98),and(131.45±29.84)℃ day-degree respectively.The range of fit temperature for three species is 19-23℃.Under 19℃ all of three species can lay more number of nymphae than that at other temperatures and A.pisum has the highest fecundity among the three species,69.5 nymphae on average laid by a female in her whole life.
  • CHENG Ji-dong, AN Yu-lin, SUN Rui-fen
    Abstract (522) PDF (1473) RichHTML
    The gene P5CS (1905 bp) was amplified via PCR using pBI P5CS-F129A plasmid as template and cloned into pBST vector. The Bam HⅠ/ SalⅠfragment from the recombinant plasmid pBST/P5CS was ligated directively between CaMV35S promotor and NOS terminater of the expression vector pCHF3 without GUS gene. The plant expression vector pCHF3/ P5CS was transfered into Agrobacterium tumefaciems strain LBA4404 by freeze-thaw method,and the expression binary plasmid was further identified by PCR. The results showed that pCHF3/P5CS vector was constructed successfully.
  • LI Yun-li, HOU Xi-lin, LI Zhi-qiang, BAI Hong-tong, SHI Lei, JIANG Chuang-dao
    Abstract (519) PDF (1447) RichHTML
    Anthocyanins contents,gas exchange,chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics and reflectance spectroscopy of leaves under different light intensity were investigated in purple basil leaves.The results indicated that the leaves became thick under the high light and became thin under the weak light.Compared with the purple basil grown under the weak light,the chlorophyll and anthocyanins content per leaf area were significant increased under the high light.In addition,the plant grown under the high light,the light compensation point(LCP) and light saturation point(LSP)were significantly raised;the apparent quantum yield(AQY),net photosynthetic rate(Pn),maximal photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm) and photosystem II capability index(PI)sharply increased;the efficiency of open centers of photosystem II(Fv′/Fm′),photochemical quenching(qP)and actual photosystem II efficiency(ΦPSII) gradually enhanced,while non-photochemical quenching(NPQ) decreased;the photochemical reflectance index(PRI) of leaves were slightly down regulated.On these bases,we concluded that light intensity to regulate photosynthetic capacity by way of influencing leaves thickness,specific leaf area,pigment content,photosystem II activity;The enhanced of photosynthetic capacity and anthocyanins contents is beneficial to relieve strong light stress in purple basil leaves.
  • DENG Li-qing, ZHANG Jun-min, ZHAO Qing-yu, WANG Jia-qi
    Abstract (440) PDF (1440) RichHTML
    Collecting 22 different stareas from 8 different sources throughout the country,detecting the general indicators,starch content and gelatinization degree of starch,and then studying on the slow-release of starea in vitro,detecting the melamine and cyanuric acid in starea.The results showed that:the general indexes,starch content,gelatinization degree of the stareas from different sources in China were widely varying.We can assess the quality of starea by the release of NH3-N in 30 minutes in vitro.There were no melamin in stareas,the content of cyanuric acid which may be related with the content of cyanuric acid in urea was higher.Thus,the quality of the starea in China is a mixed bag,some of the products can not be slow releasing,we need to build the quality evaluation system for starea and regulate the market of starea.There were no risk of melamine in use of starea,but we should pay more attention to the content of cyanuric acid in starea.
  • JIANG Ya-hui, BU Deng-pan, YANG Hong-jian, WANG Zhi-sheng
    Abstract (570) PDF (1419) RichHTML
    The content of unsaturated fatty acid in ruminant products such as meat and milk is related to the biohydrogenation in rumen,and rumen microbe play a major role in the process of biohydrogenation.In the following sections we would provide background on the common unsaturated fatty acid in ruminant diet,the main microbe refer to the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid,the metabolic pathway of unsaturated fatty acid and its effect on the rumen microbe.It maybe provide a useful tool to improve the content of unsaturated fatty acid in ruminant meat and milk.
  • Yian Liangcai, Li Jinchuan
    Abstract (448) PDF (1389) RichHTML
    Taking ecology as direction, wheat ecological division as base, wheat adaptability and ecological characteristic as basis, wheat ecological classification system is suggested to consist of wheat climatic synusium, geographic ecotype, cultivation ecotype and variety type, to correspond with wheat ecological division. And the common wheat is divided into five climatic ecological groups and twenty geographic ecotypes, that is:I. North temperate zone spring wheat climatic ecological type, which includes three spring wheat climatic ecotypes to be located in northeast plain, Inner Mongolia prairie and northwestern Ningxia and Gansu;Ⅱ. Yellow一Huai Hai River warm temperate zone winter wheat ecological group, which includes six winter wheat ecotypes as follows : Hai River plain, Loess plateau, Jiaodong-Liaodong seacoast, North China plain, middle reaches of Yellow River and Huaibei plain;Ⅲ. South subtropic spring wheat climatic ecological group, which includes seven spring wheat ecotypes as middle and lower reaches plain of Yangtze River, Qin-Ba hilly area, Southern hilly area, Sichuan basin, Yunnan plateau, Guizhou plateau and South China plain;Ⅳ.Xinjiang inland winter spring wheat chlimatic ecological group, which comprises Xinjiang both spring wheat and winter wheat ecotypes;Ⅴ. Qinghai and Tibet plateau wheat climatic ecological group, which includes both ecotypes of Qinghai plateau and Tibet plateau.
  • YUE Yongli, YU Haiquan
    Abstract (478) PDF (1369) RichHTML
    The promoter/enhancer cassette of mouse adipocyte-type fatty acid binding protein(FABP4) was widely used as the adipocyte specific element.To detect the effect of mFABP4 promoter on gene expression in bovine cells,5.9 kb mFABP4 promoter fragment was cloned from mouse liver genome and identified by digestion and sequencing after ligated to pMD19-T vector.By digestion of enzyme EcoT 22I the non-core promoter fragment was deleted from the 5.9 kb fragment and another 2.3 kb core promoter fragment was obtained.The 5.9 kb and 2.3 kb fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning site of plasmid pDs-Red 2-1 by enzyme Sac Ⅱ,respectively.As a result the vectors,pMF5.9-Red and pMF2.3-Red,were constructed successfully.By lipofection,the constructed pMF5.9-Red and pMF2.3-Red vectors were transfected into bovine adipose-derived stem cells and bovine embryo fibroblast cells,respectively.24 h after transfection,Real-time PCR was applied to detect the transcription of red fluorescent protein in transfected cells.Results showed that the sequence of cloned 5.9 kb fragment was correct,and the 5.9 kb and the 2.3 kb fragments were correctly ligated into vectors.The mRNA of red fluorescent protein was both detected in transfected bovine adipose-derived stem cells and bovine embryo fibroblast cells,and the expression level displayed 2 fold higher in pMF2.3-Red than that of pMF5.9-Red.In conclusion,this study constructed the expression vector pMF5.9-Red and pMF2.3-Red with 5.9 kb or 2.3 kb fragment of mouse FABP 4 gene as promoter region could initiate the transcription of foreign genes in bovine cells and the transcription efficiency by 2.3 kb promoter fragment was higher than that of 5.9 kb promoter fragment.
  • CHENG Jin-bo, WANG Jia-qi, LI Shan-shan, ZHEN Yun-peng, LIU Guang-lei, BU Deng-pan, LIU Kai-lang
    Abstract (425) PDF (1331) RichHTML
    The technology for functional milk products is a major difficult issue in the milk products industry.The objective in this study is to study the effects of different heat treatments on the IgG and lactoferrin in the milk,which are major functional proteins in the milk. According the common heat methods in the milk products industry,we totally choose 12 heat treatments(the interaction of temperature and time). The results in this experiment indicated that the homogenization in the milk products processing could improve the activity of IgG and lactoferrin in the milk. The heat treatments(the interaction of temperature and time) could significantly affect the activity of IgG and lactoferrin in the milk. Taking the consideration of IgG and lactoferrin together,the heat treatment(70℃ to 75℃,15 s) could be used in the large-scale production of them in the milk products industry.
  • WANG Jian-lin, QI Hua, FANG Quan-xiao, YU Gui-rui
    Abstract (397) PDF (1315) RichHTML
    Primary productivity by photosynthesis is the support and basic drive for the beginning and evolution of ecosystem productivity. Photosynthesis usually changed with variation of environmental conditions. In this study, we used leaf level gas exchange method (by Licor-6400) to study the diurnal changes of photosynthesis in rice, soybean and maize at different developmental stage, and we found that: There was noon depression of photosynthesis for all C3 plants at all developmental stages. Such depression was owing to stomatal and non-stomatal effects separately, or combined. The stomatal effects were caused by the high temperature, which resulted feedback inhibition effects owing to the increase of transpiration. The responses of C3 crops (rice, soybean) to light were different in the morning and afternoon. The light use efficiency was higher in the morning and apparent quantum yield owing the photosynthetic feedback inhibition, contrasting to that in the afternoon. The stomatal or non-stomatal effects and feedback inhibition effect were the main reasons to "hysteresis". While, there was no apparent noon depression C4 crop (maize), as well as "hysteresis", showing great acclimation of C4 crop to high temperature.
  • LIANG Jian-zhong, GU Ran, GAO Hong-liang, SUN Min, CHANG Zhong-yi
    Abstract (391) PDF (1313) RichHTML
    Rheological properties of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides was studied in this paper.The viscosity of SSPS of different conditions was main researched.Meanwhile,we have contrasted the rheological properties with other common stabilizers.The results showed that the viscosity of SSPS decreased with increasing temperature,salts amount and decreasing concentration;increased with increasing sugar amount and pH.With the contrast of other stabilizers,the viscosity of SSPS was the relatively low.The acid beverages with SSPS have a slight and refreshing flavour.
  • WANG An-ping, LU Yun-feng, ZHANG Jun-min, ZHAO Qing-yu, WANG Jia-qi, TIAN Ke-xiong
    Abstract (440) PDF (1284) RichHTML
    This experiment was designed to study the nutritional composition and gossypol content of cottonseed meal(CSM) and cottonseed protein(CSP) produced from different areas in China. 5 of CSM and 5 kinds of CSP were collected from different areas in China,and then their nutrient composition and gossypol content were determined.The result showed that: the percentage of crude protein(CP), ether extract(EE), acid detergent fiber(ADF)in CSM were 39. 28%,0. 28%,21. 60%,respectively. the percentage of CP,EE,ADF in CSP were 51. 96%,0. 75%,13. 29%,respectively. In all the nutritional composition,the content of EE and calcium(Ca) were the two highest,while the content of CP was the lowest. And the free gossypol(FG) content of CSM and CSP were 1021. 14mg /kg and 687. 75 mg /kg,respectively. These results indicated that: the content of CP was stable while the content of EE and Ca had a large variation in the CSM and CSP from different areas; the FG content of CSM was higher.
  • Abstract (272) PDF (1270) RichHTML
  • WU Zhenfang, CHEN Wenguang
    Abstract (369) PDF (1266) RichHTML
    Domestic pigs are raised for the human consumption of fresh m eat and processed meat products, including of demands of meat quantity and meat q uality. With the development of pig industry in our country, people began to pay attention to pig meat quality. The paper introduces the study progress on pig meat quality.
  • LI Yong, HUANG Xiao-fang, DING Wan-long
    Abstract (405) PDF (1236) RichHTML
    The root of plant is an important organ conferring material and energy exchange between plant and outside environment, and study root exudates have very important significance to clear the interaction between plants and environ??ment. In this paper, root exudates related contents in recent years were summerized, which including components, producing approach, affecting factors of root exudates and their effects on plant growth and plant rhizosphere micro??ecology.Finally, methods and directions of root exudates study in the future were expected.
  • ZHANG Weihong, AN Zhe, FAN Xuefeng, FENG Yueqi, YANG Wenxiang, LIU Daqun
    Abstract (655) PDF (1231) RichHTML
    In order to study the function and mechanism of the resistance gene of wheat leaf rust,seeds of wheat TcLr19 was treated by EMS.The leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits were investigated and phenotypic mutants were identified in M1 and M2.A total of 367 individual plants were obtained in M1 with different concentrations of EMS.According to the emergence rate,seed rate and mutation rate,EMS 1.0% was considered the optimum concentration.In 2 359 M2 mutant,a total of 38 phenotype mutations were screened out with 1.61% mutation rate,and a total of 53 susceptible mutations to Puccinia triticina were screened out with 2.25% mutation rate.A total of 146 susceptible plants were obtained in 459 M3 susceptible populations,especially M36-2,M333-8,M333-9,M333-11,M344-4 and M396-8,and the frequency of susceptible mutation were more than 70%.Furthermore,Lr19 molecular marker-assisted selection was also used in order to guarantee the reliability of the results in the test.The results showed that EMS treatment was an effective method in screening of mutants susceptible to P.triticina.The result not only provided important genetic resources for wheat leaf rust resistance gene cloning and functional genomic research,but also provided new germplasms in wheat breeding.
  • ZHAO Xi-heng,LI Jin-cai,NIXIMURA Yasuyo
    Abstract (498) PDF (1200) RichHTML
    In order to develop the techniques of lisianthus bolting promotion in summer nursery,autumn and winter flowering cultivation(Eustoma grandiflorum(Raf.) Shinn.),effects of low temperature vernalization treatment of seeds and nursery night temperature after vernalization treatment on bolting were studied.Low temperature vernalization treatment on imbibed seeds of lisianthus promoted germination and bolting,the effect of 7-10℃ 35 d dark treatment for bolting was notable.After the low temperature vernalization treatment of imbibed seeds,normal seedlings bolting were more likely to occur during the nursery of day 30-35℃ and night 20-23℃ temperature management.But the nursery of 23-26℃ or above can cause devernalization.These results show that cultivation techniques of low temperature vernalization treatment on seeds and control of nursery night high temperature can effectively prevent rosette,and promote bolting in summer nursery,autumn and winter flowering cultivation of lisianthus.
  • HAN Chang-zhi
    Abstract (723) PDF (1197) RichHTML
    Anthracnose is one of the major leaf diseases of many plants in the world, which pathogen is destructive to a vast variety of plants important to forestry. In the biological characteristics, life cycle and phylogeny, genefor pathogen were reviewed in order to further research the pathogen and make effective control strategy of the diseases in this study.
  • ZENG Meng-qian, JI Hai-lian, LI Jiu-yun, SANSEN Jianpatong
    Abstract (554) PDF (1148) RichHTML
    The paper summarized briefly the formative history for the conception of heterotic group and their heterotic pattern in maize(Zea may L), and analyzed the import factors leading to the successful development of maize heterotic group and heterotic pattern. The some research programs and relevant problems were included in discussion.
  • YU Ke-li, MENG Qing-min, ZOU Jin-hua
    Abstract (423) PDF (1146) RichHTML
    The effects of different concentrations of Cd2+ on seedling growth, chlorophyll contents and ultrastructures in maize were investigated using water culture method.The results indicated that the growth, chlorophyll contents and ultrastructures were not obviously affected at low concentration of Cd2+ ( 10-6 mol/L).At 10-5 mol/L Cd2+, the growth and chlorophyll contents decreased, swollen chloroplasts and irregular thylakoid were found in some leaves cells.In root cells, cell membrane systems were damaged significantly.At higher concentration of Cd2+ ( 10-4 mol/L), the seedling growth was inhibited significantly.Some cellular organelles were damaged seriously, and even led to cell disintegration in root cells.The mechanism of Cd2+ toxicity was briefly discussed.
  • LIU Jian-gao, ZHANG Jun, YIN Yu-long, LIU Qiang
    Abstract (281) PDF (1108) RichHTML
    The interest of animal nutritionists in resistant starch (RS) is increasing and it has led to an extensive investigation of the contribution of resistant starch to the non-digestible carbohydrate component of the diet and its functions. Factors influenced the content of RS include: the type of plant, lipid, protein, processing condition etc. Colonic fermentation, bacterial growth, fecal bulking, transit time and the energy value of foods are all affected by the presence of resistant starch. This article will be focused on these functions and factors and provide some evidence on the reasonable utilization of resistant starch in the diet of animals.
  • XU Ling-na, WANG Yang-dong, CHEN Yi-cun, ZHOU Guan, ZHANG Xiao-ping
    Abstract (319) PDF (1100) RichHTML
    The content of total sugar and total phenols were determined to be 75.20 and 32.80 mg/g,15.75 and 0.57 mg/g respectively in leaves and kernels of tung tree.On that basis,high-quality total RNA of leaves and kernels were respectively extracted by modified TRIzol method and modified CTAB-LiCl method,and the effects of the above methods,Guanidinium idothiocyanate method and NOGEN RNAprep pure kit method were compared.The results showed that not only the OD260/OD280 value of 1.9-2.0 of the kernel of RNA isolated by modified TRIzol method stabilized,but also the bands of 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA were clear and complete,and higher yields was even more important.The total RNA of kernels isolated by modified CTAB-LiCl method were degradation in some degrees,and small molecule in the RNA extracted by Guanidinium idothiocyanate method could not be removed fully.Moreover the total RNA of kernels with DNA and degradation in some degrees could be obtained via NOGEN RNAprep pure kit method.In above four methods,only modified CTAB-LiCl method could extract the higher quality total RNA of leaves of tung tree.For these reasons,modified TRIzol method and modified CTAB-LiCl method could be regarded as preferred method for the RNA isolated respectively from leaves and kernels of tung tree.
  • ZHANG Li-rong, YANG Wen-xiang, LIU Da-qun
    Abstract (446) PDF (1086) RichHTML
    Virus induced gene silencing(VIGS)offers a rapid and high-throughput technical platform for gene function analysis using Barley stripe mosaic virus(BSMV)-based vectors in wheat.In this paper,we report optimization of BSMV induced gene silencing in NIL TcLr24 in order to carry out VIGS in wheat.
  • ZHANG Yi, RUAN Jiu-xiao, MA Xiao-meng, FU Lu-lu, QIAO Yue-e, DUAN Su-juan, MENG Ping, LI Cheng-wei
    Abstract (683) PDF (1076) RichHTML
    In this research,the partial cDNA of Heterodera glycines Ichinohe troponin C(Hg-tnc)gene and FMRFamide-like peptides(Hg-flp)were cloned and construct virus induced gene silencing(VlGS)vectors. The target?genes Hg-flp and Hg-tnc can be obtained from H. glycines by RT-PCR and then ligated to tobacco rattle virus(TRV)?vector pYY13. Then the constructed vectors were transformed into DH5α and identified by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis indicates that the sequences of H. glycines Hg-tnc and Hg-tnc were approximately 1 000 bp and 700?bp in length and we successfully constructed recombinant vectors pYY13-Hg-flp and pYY13-Hg-tnc. This work laid?the foundations for soybean resistance breeding and the function reseach on Hg-flp and Hg-tnc.
  • WANG Wen-sheng, LUO Yun-bo, SHI Zhi-ping, QIAO Run-lin
    Abstract (311) PDF (1058) RichHTML
    Attenuation rate of ozone atmosphere in storage store at 0.5,5,10,15,20 VC was determined.The result showed that attenuation rate of ozone apparently became lower as the temperature decreased.
  • Jin Tongming, Cui Hongchang
    Abstract (406) PDF (1055) RichHTML
    The feasibility of non destructive quantitative determination of sugar and acid in intact apple by near infrared spectrometer(NIRS)was investigated.Through examination of the second derivatives of the spectra,we found that 914nm,950nm,897nm,and 912nm are the first characteristic wavelengths of sucrose,glucose,fructose and malic acid,respectively.Compared with the calibration data by high performance liquid chromatography,the results obtained at these wavelengths bear the multi correlative coefficients of 0.997,0.992,0.992,0.996 correspondingly,and the standard errors for the test samples are 0.085,0.057,0178,and 0.021,respectively.This indicates that NIRS is sufficiently precise and reliable for practical use in the quantitation of sugars and acids in intact apples.
  • PU Yan, LIU Chao, LIN Qi, LI Jiyang, LIU Xiaodong
    Abstract (414) PDF (1045) RichHTML
    In order to provide more convenient and efficient restriction enzyme site for the construction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system in the future,the multiple clone site of pBluescript Ⅱ SK(+) and pCAMBⅠA1300 vectors were modified.DNA sequences showed that site-directed mutagenesis were successfully implemented in both pBluescript Ⅱ SK(+) and pCAMBⅠA1300 vectors.The four clone sites of pBluescript Ⅱ SK(+) about Xho Ⅰ, Eco R Ⅴ, Sma Ⅰ, Sac Ⅱ were transformed to Nhe Ⅰ, Mfe Ⅰ, Nsi Ⅰ, Pac Ⅰ respectely;Two clone sites of pCAMBⅠA1300, Sac Ⅰ and Sal Ⅰ were changed to Nsi Ⅰ, Pac Ⅰ.Thus,lay solid foundation for further use on CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing vector.
  • LEI Yuhua, YAN Zhifen, YAN Yuping, WEI Jiankun
    Abstract (602) PDF (1027) RichHTML
    As one of the cytoskeletons, microfilament is important in many cell functions. In recent years, evidences show that microfilament is regulated by the signal transdution. There are a extracelluar matrix (ECM)-plasma membrane (PM)-cytoskeleton (CTK) continuum in animal cell. The intracelluar or extracelluar signals may be transmitted bidirectionally, that is from the ECM to the CTK and vice versa. Recent evidences also show that plant cell may have a cell wall (CW)-plasmalemma (PM)-cytoskeleton (CTK) continuum. This continuum is similar to and funtionally parallels that of animal systems. We also described the main signaling pathways that regulate the microfilament cytoskeleton.
  • ZHANG Yi-dong, HUANG Dan-feng, NIU Qing-liang, ZUO Kai-jing
    Abstract (416) PDF (1022) RichHTML
    A 1330 bp cDNA fragment of K+ channel gene MIRK (Melon Inward Rectifying K+ Channel) was isolated from leaves of muskmelon (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus Naud.). The nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence analysis displayed that the cDNA fragment was located in the 5'-terminal of MIRK gene and contained six transmembrane segments S1-S6 and a GYGD (Gly-Tyr-Gly-Asp) motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MIRK was belonged to the KAT1 sub-family and most close to the SIRK of Vitis vinifera. The results of semi-quantitive RT-PCR displayed that MIRK was preferentially expressed in leaves and fruits, and also expressed in female flowers and shoots, but nearly not expressed in roots, indicating that MIRK might play a key role in the muskmelon development.
  • WANG Yi-qin, YANG Xing-hong, LI Bin, TONG Yi-ping, LI Zhen-sheng
    Abstract (417) PDF (1013) RichHTML
    In order to investigate the relationships among leaves at different posit ions, photosynthetic rate of flag leaf and grain yield, thirty-three wheat varieties( lines) which have differences among leaf characteristics, harvest index and yield were studied as materials.The results indicated that the correlat ions between the top-three leaf area and single plant biomass, economic yield were significantly positive.However, there were no significant correlat ion between the area of other leaves located on the base position single plant biomass, economic yield. A posit ive association was found between photosynthetic rate of flag leaves and biomass,economic yield, but correlation was not signif icant. However, the product of photosynthetic rate of flag leaves and leaf area was significant ly and posit ively correlated with biomass and economic yield. In addition, there was a signif icantly positive correlation between biomass and economic yield.
  • ZHANG Wan-ping, LIU Ren-jie, JIANG Yan, WAN Chang-lei
    Abstract (276) PDF (1001) RichHTML
    This study investigated the effects of soaking time,pregermination temperature and growth temperature and moisture on the yield and quality of several vegetable sprouts.It showed that the optimum soaking time for Adzuki bean is 24 h,and the temperature is 20-25℃.The combination of 28℃ and 70%-90% moisture is the best condition for producing Mung bean sprouts.For Adzuki bean,soaking for 30h and pregerminating at 20℃,and growing at 28℃ along with 90% relative moisture are the best conditions.Pine willow seeds require 18 h for soaking and 30℃ for pregermination,and 28℃ in combination with 70% relative moisture will facilitate the sprout growth.However,the optimum conditions for Sunflower seeds are soaking for 18h,pregerminating at 25℃,growing the sprouts at 25℃ and 90% moisture.Under optimized conditions,the dry weight of Sunflower sprout is the highest while its crude fiber content is the lowest;however,both Mung bean and Adzuki bean sprouts contain significantly higher sugar content compared to others,whereas the Vc content in Mung bean sprout is the highest.The whole N content in Pine willow sprout is highest,while Adzuki bean sprout contains highest whole P and K content among all species tested.
  • YAOJue, YUXiao-ying, QIUShou, LIDa
    Abstract (377) PDF (998) RichHTML
    Drought affects plant growth seriously, this paper introduces the plant drought resistance mechanism andresearch development in the shape structure of roots; the water content of leaf tissue, the changing of chlorophyll contentand carotenoid; osmotic potential and the activit ies of osmotic regulate material, as praline( Pro) , superoxide dismutase(SOD) , abscisisic acid( ABA) and glycinebetaine; the advents and affects of regulatory proteins and function proteins;and drought resistance genetic engineering under drought stress.
  • ZHENG Hai-xia, WANG Yu-guo, FENG Zhi-fu
    Abstract (493) PDF (995) RichHTML
    The test of Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay is very simple in theory.But to successfully carry out gel shift experiments,it needs to optimize the parameters.Through a combination of T7 RNA polymerase and T7 Promoter for testing proper buffer was selected.The experimental results showed 5 × binding-Buffer 1 was more suitable for the test;TBE running2buffer was better than TAE and TGE buffer;0.× TBE buffer was the best concentration amang there electrophoresis buffer.
  • WANG Jun-bin, WANG Hai-feng, WANG Hai-ying, REN Jian, ZHANG Shao-ying
    Abstract (423) PDF (983) RichHTML
    In this study, an effective method for quantitative analysis of jasmonic acid ( JA) using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC2MS)was reported.The tobacco leaves were used asmaterials in this study. Samples were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate.Then the extracts were further purified with C18 cartridges.The methyl esters of each frac2 tion were performedwith diazomethane and then measured byGC2MS. The results showed that the authenticMeJA and in2 ternal standard could be measured using GC2MS after extraction and purification were performed. Sequential elution from the C18 cartridges were analyzed with GC2MS and the results showed that JA was eluted in 40% and 60% methanol. In response to mechanical wounding, JA accumulation in tobacco leaves exhibited a rapid and transient increase, and subse2 quently declined to the levels of unwounded leaves.The results indicated that JA content was measured accurately using this method, and the repeatability was good.
  • SUN Shi-you, LIU Meng-chao, ZHANG Guo-yin, RU Shu-hua, HAN Bao-wen, WANG Ling, JIA Liang-liang
    Abstract (412) PDF (966) RichHTML
    In order to improve the economic efficiency of nitrogen and reduce agricultural pollution,a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilizations on soil nitrate N distribution and accumulation,yields and fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency under winter wheat summer maize cropping system in the Ziya River Basin.The results showed that the distribution and accumulation of the soil inorganic nitrogen was mainly nitrate N after wheat-maize rotation cycle.The soil nitrate content increased With the increasing nitrogen fertilization.The nitrate N in 0-40 cm depth of soil of conventional fertilization was significantly higher than the optimal fertilization and control treatments at corn harvesting.Compared with conventional fertilization,the residual nitrate N in 0-1.2 m depth of optimized fertilization,optimized fertilizer+organic fertilizer,optimized fertilization+straw,slow controlled fertilizer+organic fertilizer decreased 43.55%,26.53%,40.82% and 42.89%,28.96%,38.28%,32.52% respectively.The yields of winter wheat summer maize increased slightly.The optimized fertilizations significantly increased fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat and summer corn,which increases 18.94%-51.20% in winter wheat season,and 13.77%-43.68% in summer corn season.Compared with conventional fertilization,optimized fertilization and controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer measures improved economic and environmental benefits significantly.The nitrogen fertilization measures were recommended.
  • SHA Ai-hua, WANG Ying, LIU Zhi-wen, CAI Ming, YUAN Ping-gai, CHEN Xian-cheng
    Abstract (347) PDF (963) RichHTML
    Flowering time in plant changes seasonally in response to daylength, the molecular mechanism about the seasonal change of flowering time is revealed by isolation of genes related to photoperiod response in Arabidopsis and rice. Measurement of daylength in plant is controlled by the expression of CONSTANS(CO). COcan integrate the light signal into circadian clock and regulates the expression of FLOWERING FLOWERING LOCUS T(FT) which induced floral. Here we review the significant advances about plant photoperiodic response controlling flowering time.
  • WANG Si zheng, WANG Fang xiao, XUAN Li feng
    Abstract (383) PDF (957) RichHTML
    The paper is one part of study of fauna in china with Fulgoroidea. Fulgoroidea in Hainan Province is exclusively evaluated and Summarized.
  • ZHAOJi-rong, LUOShu-zhen, ZHANGZeng-yan, LIUHong-xia
    Abstract (327) PDF (950) RichHTML
    cDNA -AFLP is a new technique of fingerprinting of mRNA,and its high reproducibility,accuracy and reliability,so that it comprehensively analyse organism transcriptome,this technique is widely applied in gene expression research about analyzing differential expression,genetic marker analysis and identifying genes.With development and apply of this technique ,many achievement were obtain in research.The paper summarizes the principle,technical features,prospect and appropriate present situation of the technique.
  • LI Yi, HU Shang-lian, LU Xue-qin, JIANG Yao, HUANG Sheng-xiong, LI Xiang-qian
    Abstract (314) PDF (944) RichHTML
    Phylogenetic trees of cellulose synthase(CesA)gene from 89 sequences of CesA in 15 species including plants and lichen and alga published on the Genebank were generated by MEGA3.1.Based on the information of model plant CesA′s gene regulated the biosynthesis of primary or secondary wall,the function of some unknown genes could be speculated from the trees.The study also found that the CesA genes of Bambusa oldhamii shared the high identity and close phylogenetic relationships with that of maize and barley.The changes of Cys,Ala,Gly and Ser content were greater than that of others in the variable region of CesA′s primary structure.The exchanges between Cys and Ala or Ser or Val in the same site were found in the variable region.
  • ZHOU Zhang-le, WANG Zhen-ying, PENG Yong-kang
    Abstract (470) PDF (933) RichHTML
    RAPD was used to analyze the genome DNA of cultivate variety wheat Jing 411. The results are steady and clear. In this paper we preliminarily discuss the factor of stability and reliability which effect the results of RAPD reaction.
  • Yu Huasheng, Nan Chenghu, Tian Liangcai
    Abstract (434) PDF (929) RichHTML
    Wheat ecological division system was suggested to consist of wheat climatic ecological region, geographic ecological region, cultivation ecological region and variety distribution region.And the common wheat area was divided into 5 climatic ecological regions and 20 geographic regions in China, that is Ⅰ"North temperate zone spring wheat.climatic ecological region,which covers three spring .wheat geographic ecological regions including Northeast, North and Northwest of China.ⅡYellow,Huai and Hai River warm temperate zone winter wheat climatic ecological region, which covers six of winter wheat geographic ecological regions as follows:northern late maturing area, Loess Plateau, Jiaodong-Liaodong seacoast, North China Plain,middle reaches of Yellow River and Huaibei Plain.Ⅲ South subtropics (tropics)fall or winter sowing spring wheat climatic ecological region, which covers six fall sowing spring wheat geographic ecological regions as middle and lower reaches plain of Yangtze River, Qin-Ba hilly area, Southern hilly area, Sichuan basin, Yunnan and Guizhou Plateau, and one winter sowing spring wheat geographic ecological region in South China.Ⅳ Xinjiang inland winter/spring wheat climatic ecological region, which covers two geographic ecological regions :North Xinjiang spring winter wheat and South Xinjiang winter spring wheat.Ⅴ Qinghai and Tibet Plateau spring winter wheat climatic ecological region,in which two geographic regions as Qinghai spring Wheat and Tibet winter spring wheat were included.
  • WANG Shu-qi, HAN Xiao-zeng, QIAO Yun-fa, YAN Jun, LI Xiao-hui
    Abstract (660) PDF (921) RichHTML
    In this paper, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen application on nodule growth,nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybean( Glycnie max L.).The results showed that nitrogen application affected nodule forming, growth and nitrogen fixation capacity significantly, nodule dryweight and nodule number showed atrend of increasing first and then declining,while nitrogenase activity and leghemoglobin concentration showed the trend of continuosly declining.Proper N application improved nodule growth,however N deficiency or excessive N use restrained nodule growth.There was an order of N100> N200> N50> N25> N0 for nodule dry weight and nodule number.At different growth stages,nodule dryweight showed a trend of increasing first and then declining from seedling stage to podding stage,and for nodule number was flowering stage> seedling stage.N application significantly decreased nitrogenase activity and leghemoglobin concentration with N rates increasing,showed an order of N0> N25> N50> N100> N200, suggested that N application decreased the efficiency of nitrogen fixation.The difference analysis showed that there was a signifi2 cant difference between N application(N25, N50, N100 and N200) and no N(N0) treatment.Therefore,from the view of the balance between N fertilization and nitrogen fixation,proper N application not only makes the best of nitrogen fixation function which economizing N fertilizer application but also obtaining higher output of soybean.
  • TAO Bu, LIU Bin, SI He-long, ZHAO Bin, XING Ji-hong, DONG Jin-gao
    Abstract (470) PDF (918) RichHTML
    hrpgene is one of important pathogenitygenes in phytopathogenic bacteria,usually in cluster. The size,g+ C contents and BlastP of the constitutedgenes of 14 completed sequenced phytopathogenic bacterias in this article compare. It find that these size ofgene clusters among 18-24 kb,made up by 22-28genes. Theg+ C con-tents is lower in the Pseudomonas and Erwiniagenus,but higher in the Xanthomonas and Ralstoniagenus. Moreo-ver,everygenus has its own unique hrpgene cluster,such as in the Pseudomonas are hrpZ1,hrpA1,hrpVgenes. In the Erwiniagenus are hrpT,hrpV,hrpAgenes. In the Ralstoniagenus are hrpZ,hrpX,hrpY,hrpVgenes. In the Xan-thomonas are hrpE,hrpD6,hpaA. Among thesegenes,hrpA1,hrpA,hrpY,hrpE respectively belong to Pseudomonas spp,Erwinia spp,Ralstonia spp and Xanthomonas spp,encode type Ⅲ pilus,thesegenes maybe act as important function in pathogens recognize host progross.
  • LIU Fen, YU Xiu-mei, LIU Da-qun,
    Abstract (370) PDF (913) RichHTML
    In order to check the quality of total RNA isolated by NaAc/ethanol precipitation,total RNA of radicle,young leaves,young stems,immature seeds from wheat and flowers from different plant genus were extracted and checked.The results showed that total RNA obtained had good integrity and high purity.And the expression profiles of four frequently used house-keeping genes(GAPDH,Actin,Rubisco,Ubiqutin)were analyzed by normalization with Tubulin gene.The results of the amplification showed that the transcripts of the selected house-keeping genes were different at different time points of wheat leaves inoculated by leaf rust pathogens,moreover,the copy numbers of each house-keeping gene were inconsistent in wheat leaves.PCR amplification shows that NaAc/ethanol precipitation can meet with demands of down stream experiment of common molecular biology and is an ideal method of plant total RNA extraction.
  • LIU Xiao-rong, TAO Cheng-guang, LU Shu-wen, YANG Guo-dong
    Abstract (329) PDF (912) RichHTML
    This paper summarizes research situation and progress of genotypes, microspores development, media types, carbon source, hormone, additives, pretreatment and culture conditions on anther culture of tomato all of the world.
  • YANG Yan-rong, ZHAO Jin, LIU Meng-jun
    Abstract (387) PDF (893) RichHTML
    Bearing branch is the basic fruiting units of Chinese jujube.Understanding the biological characteristics and growth of bearing branch is important to improve quality and yield of jujube fruits.Therefore,the concept,the biological characteristics,the sorts and the growthing of bearing branch were summarized.And the relation of bearing branch and fruiting was also reviewed.At last,the main problems which need to study furtherly were also outlined.
  • LI Wen-yang, YIN Yan-ping, SHI Xia-qing, YAN Su-hui, WANG Zhen-lin
    Abstract (452) PDF (891) RichHTML
    Two types of starch granule A and B type starch granule were separated in wheat grain in this study.The starch composition contents and pasting properties in starch granules were studied and compared. The resultshowed that amylose content of A type starch granule was significantly higher than that of B type starch granule,andamylopectin content of A type starch granule was significantly lower than that of B type starch granule. Thus the ratioof amylose to amylopectin of A type starch granule was high compared with B type starch granule. RVA parametersincluding peak viscosity though viscosity breakdown peak time and pasting temperature of B type starch granulewere significantly higher than those of A type starch granules. These may be due to B type starch granules were well-set compared with A type starch granules.
  • JIA Zhi-ying, LI Fei, LI Chi-tao, SHI Lian-yu
    Abstract (364) PDF (890) RichHTML
    Songpu common carp is a breeding variety.In order to maintain the genetic diversity of the variety for a long time,the genetic structure of the fish was studies with 29 polymorphic microsattelite loci.The study showed that in the 194 sampled individuals,166 alleles were detected,the average number of effective allele is 5.724 1,average PIC is 0.584 9,and average expected heterozygosity is 0.572 2,which indicated that the new variety has a relative high genetic diversity.Hardy-weinberg equilibrium analysis showed that the population was in disequilibrium mode,which indicated that artificial selection had a great effect on the population.Bottleneck analysis illustrated that the population has experienced bottleneck effect recently.The effective population size was 69.8 with linkage disequilibrium method.The study illustrated that the variety has rich genetic diversity,but the population structure was disequilibrium and bottleneck effect has happened.Therefore,it′s necessary to take measures for reservation of the genetic diversity of the new variety.
  • LIU Xiaodong, LIU Chao, JIAO Binbin, DAI Peihong, SU Xiujuan, LI Yue
    Abstract (499) PDF (886) RichHTML
    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stress,which limits the geographical distribution and yield of crops.CBF regulon plays a major role in freezing tolerance.CBF2,one of the components of the CBF regulon,has a negative role in freezing tolerance.In this study,two SALK mutants whose T-DNA insertion are both within the promoter of CBF2 gene,cbf2-1 and cbf2-2 were identified by qRT-PCR method.Results showed that the level of CBF2 gene expression in the two mutants reduced.CBF2 gene expression was induced by low temperature in cbf2-1 mutnat.However,the degree of induction was lower in cbf2-1 compared with the control.The effect of induction by low temperature was lost in cbf2-2.Analysis of freezing tolerance showed that the less degree of induction,the stronger freezing tolerance of plants and the higher the expression of downstream cold-responsive genes.More important thing was that although freezing resistance of the two CBF2 gene mutants were improved,their flowering time and seed yield per plant did not change significantly compared with the wild type plants.All the results indicate that CBF2 may be an ideal candidate target gene for crop breeding of freezing tolerance by genome editing technology.
  • ZHOU Xiao-li, TANG Wen-jie, KONG Xiang-feng, YIN Yu-long, GENG Mei-mei
    Abstract (306) PDF (884) RichHTML
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementing arginine on nutrient di- gestibility,plasma biochemical parameters and concentrations of free amino acids (AA) in Huanjiang mini-pigs. (Method)Ten Huanjiang mini-pigs with body weight (BW) of (18.9 ±2.4) kg were used and randomly assigned into 2 groups (5 replicates with one pig per group),representing supplementation with 0.83% arginine (experi- ment group) or 1.73% alanine (isonitrogenous control group) in a basal diet for 7 days. Daily feed intake,initial and final empty stomach BW were recorded,respectively;fecal samples were collected from day 5 to 7 for determi- ning the digestibility of routine nutrient by TiO2 indicator;blood samples were collected into heparin-coated tubes at the end of the trial for analyzing biochemical parameters and concentrations of free AA, respectively. (Result) Re- suits showed that argiuine supplementation increased the average daily gain and ratio of gain to feed ( P 〉 0.05 ), as well as the apparent digestibilities of dry matter(P 〈0.05) and crude protein(P 〉0.05),compared with the con- trol group;the plasma concentrations of AMM and alanine in pigs fed arginine-supplemented diet decreased ( P 〈 0.05 ),while of the total protein, aspartate, glutamate and threonine increased ( P 〈 0.05 ), as well as the total AA, branched chain AA/Aromatic AA, essential AA/nonessential AA ( P 〉 0. 05 ), in comparison with the control group. (Conclution)These findings suggested that dietary supplementing arginine could increase digestion and ab- sorption of some nutrients,improve contents of some essential AA, which resulted in the increased protein synthesis and healthy growth of Huanjiang mini-pigs.
  • DENG Yan-ming, YE Xiao-qing
    Abstract (544) PDF (879) RichHTML
    The research progress of distant hybridization in the field of plants breeding in recent years was reviewed comprehensively. The characteristics and mechanisms of post, ertilization barriers were analyzed on the view of embryo abortion and hybrid sterility. Meanwhile,the effective methods to overcome these barriers were mainly reviewed,including embryo rescue ( Ovary ovule and embryo culture) to prohibit its abortion to restore its fertility and other methods such as chemical treating and back}rossing. At last,doubling chromosomes,the future research emphasis in this field was suggested as revealing the molecular mechanism of embryo abortion in distant hybridization by using the proteomics combined with molecular physiological methods.
  • ZHANG Li, HE Hong-ju, ZHAO Xue-zhi, CHEN Cui-rong, ZHENG Peng-jing
    Abstract (497) PDF (878) RichHTML
    Glucosinolates composition and contents were evaluated in radish seedlings of 20 genotypes including three groups- autumn-white radish, spring-white radish and cherry radish. The total glucosinolate content varied with the groups. The autumn-white varieties had the highest total glueosinolate content, followed by spring-white varieties and cherry radishes. Nine types of glucosinolates were identified in the radish seedlings. And the aromatic glucosino- lates were reported in radish for the first time. The main glucosinolate in autumn-white radish and spring-white rad- ish was 4-methylthio-3-butenyl-glucosinolates which made up 45% -77% of the total amount. In cherry radish,the indol-3-mehtyl glucosinolate was the predominant glucosinolate which made up 42% -72% of the total amount. 4- methyhhio-3-butenyl-glucosinolates,the main glueosinolate in white radish seedlings,is benefit for human's health as a detoxification in the hepatoma cell line.
  • ZENG Guang-juan, LI Chun-min, ZHANG Xin-zhong, CHEN Dong-mei, ZHAO Yong-bo, DONGWen-xuan
    Abstract (618) PDF (873) RichHTML
    In order to develop an efficient protein extraction method suitable for SDS - PAGE analysis,five protocols for protein extraction in apple leaf,trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation (TCA),modified Tris - HCl extraction,phenol extraction methanol/ ammonium acetate precipitation,DTT/ acetone and Tris - HCl extraction were compared.The extracts were separated by SDS - PAGE method followed by silver staining. The results showed that the modified Tris-HCl extraction presented the highest resolution of 3. 243μg/μL and the maximum bands of 41 strips with the 5μL sample volumes basing on the increased amount of PVPP and the extracting solution as well as prolonged 30 min of protein precipitation with cold acetone.Dynamic changes of proteins in leaves from different nodes in apple seedlings (Jonathan ×Golden Delicious)were analyzed with the improved Tris - HCl extraction method,six protein bands were detected with the molecular weight 71.9,60.5,52.6,41.1,35.3,18.5 kDa respectively and the bands were clear with a light background.So the improved Tris - HCl extraction was the most appropriate method for apple leaf SDS - PAGE analysis。
  • BAI Zhi-ying, LI Cun-dong, SUN Hong-chun, WU Tong-yan
    Abstract (413) PDF (869) RichHTML
    The chlorophyll content and corticoid content of Chinese Spring(CS)-Synthetic 6x substitutions and parents cultivars Chinese Spring (recipient) and Synthetic 6x ( cbnor) under the drought conditions and control treatments indifferent developing stages were measured. The results indicated that the chlorophyll content of SA,5B chromo substi-tution lines and the corticoid content of SB chromosome substitution line were significantly higher than Chinese Spring at0. OS or 0. 0l level from booting to grain filling stage under normal condition,while the chlorophyll content of 3A,4Dchromosome substitution lines and the corticoid content of 2A and 4D chromosome substitution lines were significantlyhigher than Chinese Spring at 0. OS or 0. 0l level under drought stress. It was concluded that the genes of controllingchlorophyll and corticoid content were probably located on SA,5B and SB chromosomes respectively under normal condi-tion,and that of controlling chlorophyll content and corticoid content were probably located on 3A,4D and 2A,4D chro-mosomes of Synthetic 6x respectively under drought stress.
  • Abstract (252) PDF (868) RichHTML
  • SHI Jin-ge, LI Zhan-jie, YANG Tie-zhao
    Abstract (345) PDF (867) RichHTML
    The changes of enzyme activities of peroxidase(POD)and catalase(CAT),the content of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)and the disease occurrence were studied after the tobaccoLeaves were treated with salicylic acid(SA),then were inoculated with cucumber mosaic virus(CMV)the next day.The results showed that,after 21 d of inoculation with CMV,the disease indexes of tobacco plants treated with SA was lower than CK,and the activity of CAT decreased,while the activity of POD and the content of H2O2increased in the plants treated with SA.The results indicated that salicylicacid could induce the tobacco resistance to cumuber mosaic virus.
  • LI Guo-peng, HE Hong-yan, NI Zhang-guang, ZHANG Lin-hui, XIE De-hong, YU Yan-chun
    Abstract (317) PDF (859) RichHTML
    Fruits after havest are st ill alive, so they would have many physiological and biochemical changes. This article summarized the changes including respiratory, ethylene, aroma, relative enzyme, softening and fruit inclusion, and at the end, point out the field for further research
  • LIU Mingchi, KOJIMA Takayuki, TANAKA Munehiro, CHEN Hang
    Abstract (363) PDF (857) RichHTML
    With the decreasing of fruit water content,the fresh size and titratable acidity decrease and fruit hardness,soluble solid-acid ratio,soluble sugar content and color indexes increased.The effect of fruit water content on sucrose,glucose and fructose was different.Fruit water content has a significant correlation with soluble solid content (r=-0171)and soluble solid-acid ratio(r=-0161).
  • LIU Shi-lun, LI Yong, FU Jun-fan, DING Wan-long, FANG Huan-min
    Abstract (469) PDF (856) RichHTML
    Optimal solid??state fermentat ion conditions were studied according to the sporulation quantity of Tricho??dermaviride isolate Tv04??2 by simple factor and orthogonal experiments.The most optimal medium was formulated as following: 250 mL erlenmeyer flask contained 20 g of equal quality of maize powder and wheat bran mixture, 0. 1 g FeSO4,7 mL water and 4 mL inoculum.The fermentat ion process was at a fluctuant temperature of 25, 20 and 28 for 2 days,respectively. Under this optimal medium and fermentation process, the spore concentrat ion of 4×109cfu/ g can be ob??tained, and which accelerated the production and applicat ion of Trichoderma viride strain with high antagonistic activity ofginseng root diseases.
  • WANG Song-feng, WANG Ai-hua, CHENG Sen, SUN Fu-shan, TANG Yu, SUN Shuai-shuai, WANG Quan-ming
    Abstract (547) PDF (850) RichHTML
    Flue-curing characteristics of the new flue-cured tobacco variety NC55 introduced from abroad,which included changes of discoloration property under dark condition, pigments, water content and activity of polyphenol oxidase( PPO) were studied, with Zhongyan 100 as control, in order to find out the flue-curing characteristicsof NC55, a new flue-cured tobacco variety introduced from abroad. The results showed that NC55 performed rapidyellowing and good easy curing potential under dark condition. And the time which was from complete yellowing tocome into browning was longer of NC55 was longer than Zhongyan 100. NC55 had low speed of browing and goodendurable curing potential. The chlorophyll and carotenoid of NC55 declined rapidly, but the degradation was lowerthan Zhongyan 100 during curing. The color change during the yellowing stage of Zhongyan 100 was in accordancewith water removal. PPO activity of NC55 was lower during the early days of curing, and it would not occur browningreaction. Appearance quality and economic characters of NC55 in cured tobacco leaves were much better thanZhongyan 100.
  • YANGChun-yan, YAOLi-bo, LIUBing-qiang, ZHANGMeng-chen
    Abstract (473) PDF (845) RichHTML
    A review of the mainly research methods and advances in soybean quality breeding in China and abroad was made.And the stratagem for soybean quality breeding in China were discussed as well.
  • XIE Feng xing, ZHAo Yujie, ZHoU Ke, ZHANG Feng feng, LI Ya ling
    Abstract (489) PDF (841) RichHTML
    Bacillus subtilis used as probiotic was widely applied to the aquiculture to purify the water with the needs of healthy breeding. In this paper twelve Bacillus subtilis strains were isolated from activate sludge of breeding shrimp pond,breeding fish pond and polluted river. H4and H5with high amylase activity were screened from the isolated strains by amylum degradation experiment and the activities of amylase were 38. 66,37. 10 U/ mL,respectively. The mean of ul2 traviolet continuous induced mutation was used on H4and H5. The results showed that the extracellular amylase activities of first mutant strains H4Ⅰ and H5Ⅰ were 41. 36 and 41. 32 U/ mL,which were 107 % and 111 %of initial strains. While the extracellular amylase activities of second mutant strains H4Ⅱ a,H5Ⅱ a and H5Ⅱ b were increased to 147 %,136 % and 135 % of initial strains,and the activities of amylase were 56. 95,50. 47 and 50. 02 U/ mL,respectively. The results indicate that ultraviolet continuous induced mutation would be in favor of the amylase producing of mutant strain.
  • CHENG Hong-liang, CHEN Jia-fa, DING Jun-qiang, WU Jian-yu
    Abstract (430) PDF (836) RichHTML
    Natural and artificial mutants are as valuable resources for functional genomics and molecular breeding.A leaf-color mutant was identified in progency of a maize inbred line 4H8.Under natural conditions,it was virescent and growed slowly at seedings,then wilted to die gradually.A set of segregating populations derived from two inbred lines,the parents 4H8 and 40-6,were used to study the genetic mechanism of virescent leaf in maize.The result demonstrated that the trait of virescent leaf in the inbred line 4H8 was governed by a recessive gene(vl1),which was mapped on the long arm of chromosome 1 by SSR analysis,the vl1 was flanked by two SSR markers umc1323 and umc1709,with the genetic distances 2.1 cM and 10.3 cM,respectively.The results will be useful for cloning and functional analysis of it.
  • WANG Ran, HAN Han, ZHANG Hui, BAO Hong-duo, WANG Tian
    Abstract (630) PDF (831) RichHTML
    To isolate and characterize the lytic bacteriophage that might be used in prevention and treatment of porcine postweaning diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 (ETEC-K88). E. coli expressing the K88 adhesin on their surface is a common cause of diarrhea in newborn and weaned piglets. Mixtures of 3 strains of ETEC K88 were used as hosts for isolation of phages in sewage from 22 pig farms. The isolated phage was characterized at the microbiological and molecular levels. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI), one-step growth curve, Thermo- and pH stability,lytic effective in vitro of the isolated bacteriophage were investigated. One phages that lysed ETEC K88 was isolated by double-layer agar plate method and named PK88-4. The phage produced large, clear plaques. The electron microscope showed the phage had necks and contractile tails and therefore belonged to the Myoviridae. The estimated genome size was about 60 kb and the restriction enzyme fragments suggested that it was dsDNA. The optimal MOI was 0. 01. The phage was stable at pH 5 - 10 and under 60℃, and could kill 100% host strain within 2 hours with MOI higher than 0. 001. The new isolated phage, named PK88-4, are potential candidates for prophy- laxis and therapy of porcine post-weaning diarrhea due to ETEC K88.
  • LI Zhi-gang, LIU Xiao-jing, ZHANG Xiu-mei, SUN Jia-ling, NIU Zhen,
    Abstract (415) PDF (817) RichHTML
    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of freezing irrigat ion with saline water in winter on the dynamics of soil salinity and moisture in coastal saline soil. Four irrigat on amounts (0, 90, 135 and 180 mm)with the shallow brackish groundwater (15 g/L) were exploited in this experiment in winter. Results showed that top soillayer was well desalinized with freezing irrigation in the next spring when soil freezing layer thawed. The desalinizing ratiois 12. 7%, 73. 8% and 80.9% in 90, 135 and 180 mm irrigation treatments, respect ively. However the no irrigationtreatment showed intensive salinization in spring. The possible reason is that the ice layer restrains the freezing and thaw??ing process of the saline soil and the leaching effect of fresh water produced from the melted saline ice.
  • CHEN Xiao-jun, WANG Jing-dong, YIN Yan-bo, MA Hong-wen, SONG Yu-xia
    Abstract (360) PDF (816) RichHTML
    Fgr gene is a major effect gene that controls fragrance trait in rice.The aim of this study was to establish a tetra primer ARMS PCR method for the detection of Fgr.According the sequence of the fragrance rice material,were four primer designed for detection fragrance rice Fgr in 0.8% agarose electrophoresis.The result showed that the method was efficient in detection Fgr and provided the better method for MAS.
  • Wang Yibo, Wang Zhenhua, Wang Yongpu, Zhang Xin, Lu Lixing
    Abstract (379) PDF (806) RichHTML
    According to the combining ability,heterosis,pedigree relations and morphological,physiological and genetic characteristics,as well as the practice of breeding,the maize germplasm of China were divided into five heterosis groups and nine sub groups,i.e.improved Reid,Lancaster (Mo17 and Zi 330 sub groups),Sipingtou,Ludahonggu and others (subgroups such as:germplasms from foreign hybrids;selected germplasms,Suwan germplasm and other low latitude germplasm).The limited availability of germplasm,the division and utilization of heterosis groups,and the improvement of germplasm were discussed.
  • DAI Xi-mei, HUANG Qun-ce, QIN Guang-yong, LI Guo-ping
    Abstract (512) PDF (804) RichHTML
    The formation and development of embryo sac in the diploid and its autotetraploid of rice cultivar IR36 was examined using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy.Some particular types of embryo sacs,such as those with three-nucleare,six-nucleare and nine-nucleare,and degenerated ones,were found in diploid rice.These types of embryo sacs were not reported before.The mechanism for the formation of these specific embryo sacs is not clear and needs to be studied further.Our results provide some scientific references for better understanding the development of rice embryo sac.
  • WANG Wei-juan, LU Xiu-yun, LI Bao-qing, GUO Qing-gang, LI She-zeng, MA Ping
    Abstract (449) PDF (801) RichHTML
    Sixty-seven strains of Rhizoctonia solani were isolated from diseased cotton seedlings sampled from 22 main counties of cotton production in Hebei province. They were divided into two anastomosis groups through hypha mating with standard strain. The frequency of AG-4 was 91. 04% of the tested strains,which indicated that AG-4 was the major anastomosis group of R. solani in Hebei province. While the frequency of AG-2 was 1. 50%.The other five strains belong to non-fusion strains,accounting for 7. 46% in frequency. 6 vegetative compatible groups of AG-4 strains were determined by their behaviors on MPDA (maltose peptone dextrose agar) II medium.Pathogenicity assays of the 67 strains were conducted on cotton seedlings under greenhouse condition. Results demonstrated that AG-4-A displayed the strongest pathogenicity,and AG-2 was the second,whereas AG-4-E and AG-4-F showed the mild pathogenicity and did not cause dead cotton seedling. The pathogenicity of different anastomosis groups and their vegetative compatibility groups as follows: AG-4-A > AG-2 > AG-4-B > AG-4-C > non-fusion > AG-4-D > AG-4-E > AG-4-F.
  • YU Yi, YANG Qi-chang, ZHAO Jiao-jiao, LIU Wen-ke
    Abstract (378) PDF (800) RichHTML
    Lettuces of red, purple and green leaves were planted with hydroponics, and the spectral absorbance and nutritional quality of the lettuces were studied. The results showed the curves of the photosynthetic pigments absorbing spectrum for three leaf-color lettuce cultivars were the same. Spectral absorbance of the three kinds of lettuces were higher at 330一380 nm,380一500 nm and 640一690 nm,among which the absorbance at 330一380 nm was the highest. Spectral absorbance of green leaves lettuce at high absorbed spectrums were remarkably lower than that of red and purple lettuce. And the red lettuce had a spectral absorbance peak at 380 nm. All kinds of photosynthetic pigments of red lettuce and purple lettuce were significantly higher than green lettuce. However there was no significant difference on biomass yield. The differences of the concentrations of phenol, flavonoid,rouble surgar,ascorbic acid between three kinds of lettuces were unremarkable,but the concentrations of anthocyanin differed great1y , as the sequence of red lettuce>purple lettuce>green lettuce.
  • ZHENG Jin-hui
    Abstract (403) PDF (799) RichHTML
    In order to obtain stable high yield of alkaline protease strains,producing alkaline protease strain was treated by tablet mutagenesis method for mutagenic treatment.The results showed that by using milk tablet and Folin measuring enzyme activities,alkaline protease strains were produced from chicken dung upon sample.The strain by nitrosoguanidine(the NTG mutagenesis)and use of rifampicin resistant strains screened two variants,whose protease activity was 34 times and 65 times of the starting strain.Consequently,mutagen nitrosoguanidine could produce high yield of alkaline protease strains.
  • ZHAOGuo-xian, ZHANGXiao-yun, ZUOXiao-lei, JICheng, MAQiu-gang
    Abstract (363) PDF (797) RichHTML
    This experiment was to investigate the effect of Glucose Oxidase on and serum biochemical parameters oflaying hens. 180 twenty- six- week- old Hyline layers were randomly allotted to 5 treatments, Laying Hens in treatments??, ??, ??, ?? and ?? received basal diets with the addit ion of 0, 0. 1%, 0. 2%,0. 3%, 0. 4% glucose oxidase. The resultsshows that laying hens fed the addition of 0. 1%, 0. 2%,0. 3%, 0. 4%glucose oxidase, compared with the control group, theegg product ion increased by 11??01%( P > 0??05),12??34%( P > 0??05),16??06%( P< 0??01),13??79% ( P< 0??05) ; the broken(soft) eggshell rats decreased by 32??77% ( P> 0??05),33??45%( P > 0??05),49??66%( P < 0??05),33??11%( P> 0??05) ;the additions of 0??3% and 0??4% glucose oxidase significantly enhance( P < 0??05) the feed conversion ratio. Laying hensfed the addit ion of 0??2%~ 0??4% glucose oxidase significantly increased the serum ALB, and had the trend of increasingthe in serum GLO, Ca,P,AKP, GPT and GOT, and reducing the serum CHOL and TG, but the differences were not signif-icant( P> 0??05) .The addition of 0??4% glucose oxidase significantly reduced the levels of CK( P< 0??05) .
  • ZUO Wen-bo, WU Jing-li, YANG Qi, ZHANG Jia-nan, LIU Gui-ru
    Abstract (418) PDF (795) RichHTML
    In order to find the relation between root activity, root soluble sugars, and their drought resistance, 22 winter wheat varieties which mainly planted in the north of China were detected.The result displayed Chang 6878, chang 4378, Baomai 9, Henong 825 and Zhonghall 1 10 got a high drought index among the 22 varieties.In filling mediam negative correlation was discovered between root soluble sugars and drought index.So we speculated that drought resistance varieties under drought stress can synthesis the root soluble sugar then transport them to ear filling, for the purpose of replenish the drought caused by insufficient amount of photosynthetic products.
  • ZHANG Min, ZHANG Ji-jun, LIU Jun-jie, LIU Na, LI Hong
    Abstract (335) PDF (794) RichHTML
    This paper studied the cultivation characteristics and mating reaction of the monokaryotic mycelia ofPholiota microspora and analyzed the effect of parthenocarpy to the yield in farm cultivation. Results showed that P.microspora belongs to bipolar factor system and the two factors were almost 1:1,monokaryotic mycelia characterizedby polymorphism;Parthenocarpy could be found in P. microspora but this could lower the biological efficiency. In thisexperiment the biological efficiency of fruit from monokaryotic mycelia which were normal in hyphal growth was 20%lower than that from dikaryotic mycelial. We suggested that parthenocarpy should be avoided in cultivation.
  • Song Jinyao, Meng Qingxiang, Liu Yongjun
    Abstract (341) PDF (791) RichHTML
    The physical and chemical properties of peroxidase(POD)in leaves of apple tree were researched by taking apple strain Qingfu 13 as samples.The results suggested that the POD might be divided into two types:the acidic(optimum pH 6.0)and the basic(optimum pH 9.0)enymes.At optimum pH different buffer systems could affect the POD activity.The enzymes are heat stable,and can keep the activity at 80℃ for 2~3 min and at 55℃ for 72 h.The substrate test results revealed that the POD of apple leaves could impel H2Oto oxidize phenol and amine compounds.
  • PAN Yi-ou, LIU Lin-lin, ZHANG Ju-hong, ZHANG Jing, AN Shao-li, XU Peng, JIN Jun-ling, LIU Zhi-wei, XI Jing-hui
    Abstract (338) PDF (785) RichHTML
  • WEN Peng-fei, XING Yan-fu, NIU Tie-quan,gAO Mei-ying, NIU Xing-yan
    Abstract (401) PDF (783) RichHTML
    In this paper,the 5-year oldgrapevines of Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were subjected to reg-ular UV-C irradiation,and the effect of UV-C on the fruit quality formation and accumulation of polyphenols during berry development were studied. The results showed that the pattern of fruit quality formation and accumulation of polyphenols were not changed,but the fruit quality and content of polyphenols in mature berry were changed signifi-cantly by the regular UV-C irradiation. Under the moderate UV-C irradiation,no obvious changes in single berry weight,content of organic acid,and total phenol were observed,but the content of anthocyanins,total sugar were in-creased,and the accumulation of flavonoids and flavanols were induced significantly in mature berry,which sugges-ted that there was obvious improving in fruit quality. In addition,the effect of UV-C on the fruit quality formation and accumulation of polyphenols were development and dose-dependent.
  • WANG Di, LI Shao-wu, YIN Jia-sheng, LU Tong-yan
    Abstract (331) PDF (783) RichHTML
    Two kinds of microecologics(named M-Ⅰ and M-Ⅱ),which were based on the Bacillus subtilis and had already been developed and applied in the practice,were selected to determine their influence on several digestive enzymes in grass carp.M-Ⅰ was used to mix with the feeding and M-Ⅱ was poured into the water of the ponds.Four groups were set in this study,including the control group,M-Ⅰ group,M-Ⅱ group,and the combination group of these two microecologics.After the usage of microecologics for 3 months,the amylase,protease and lipase of the livers and intestines were determined and compared with each other.The results indicated that M-II preparations,which mainly functioned on regulating the water quality,did not affect the three digestive enzymes in grass carp,while M-I preparations,which could promote digestion and growth of fishes,were found to greatly improve the enzyme activities.In addition,the mix usage of M-Ⅰ and M-Ⅱ were proved to play a role in both regulating the water quality and promoting digestion,which would further promote the growth and reproduction of grass carp.Therefore,it could be concluded that microecologics were benefit for the rapid and healthy growth of grass carp farmed in the ponds.
  • SUN Zhi-hua, TAI Li
    Abstract (350) PDF (780) RichHTML
    The source of dry flower raw materials is extensive.It is easy of store and transport and liked deeply by consumer.Creating in your own why and being ornamentation for a long time.So dry flower with broad development prospects.
  • KANG Jing-min, LIU Kun, LIU Yan, ZHANG Yi, LI Cheng-wei, TAN Guang-xuan
    Abstract (580) PDF (771) RichHTML
    To seek out the V.dahliae proteins involved in the interaction of plant with V.dahliae, a yeast two-hybrid library of V.dahliae was constructed using SMART technique.Results showed that the titer of cDNA library was 5.2×107 cfu/mL, the library contained 3.9×107 cfu independent clones, the size distribution of insert fragments ranged from 0.5-2.0 kb, and the recombination rate was about 96%.These data demonstrated that the library could meet the requirements of standard cDNA library, which laid a foundation for screening the interaction proteins from V.dahliae.
  • GUO Shang, WANG Xiu-ying
    Abstract (286) PDF (768) RichHTML
    Effects of the temperature,nutrition and storage on the vigor power of the watermelon pollen were studied through the pollen cultivation and microscope observation.The results were showed as follows:the germinating temperature of the watermelon pollen is 8-48℃,8℃ and dry environment was advantage to pollen storage for short times.The lower temperature and longer time of treatment was disadvantage to the germination of pollen.The germination of the big and nourishing bud is better.The study provides a reference for the productive practice and scientific research.
  • Zhao Yongliang, Song Tongming
    Abstract (323) PDF (768) RichHTML
    The review outlines the developmental history of chemical mutagenesis,and gives a detailed introduction to chemical mutagenesis characteristics,treatment methods and treatment effects in maize.It is also briefly introduced that mutants induced by chemical mutagens have some potential value in solving some basic biological problems and possible application in plant breeding.
  • LIU Xiao-dong, CAO Cai-xia, MU Jin-gui, WANG Ming-qiu, LIU Xue-min, WANG Yu-hai, CHEN Feng-min
    Abstract (413) PDF (764) RichHTML
    According to phenomena that many deploid crops consist in nature, polyploid vegetable crops were researched by researchers come from China, Japan, Soviet Union, Sweden, German and so on. It had have a certain extentprogress. Researchers of all over the world researched inducing aberrance on Chinese cabbages in middle of 20th century,including physical radialization, chemical, cuvette asepsis seedling etc.At last all of them losted for their low fertility. Re??searchers of ICC ( Institute of Cash Crops, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences) had momentous progresson polyploid Chinese cabbages breeding by select ing common deploid Chinese cabbage varities that including 2n gameteand crossed with contrived induce polyploid varities. All of them were authenticated by appearance, microspore, stoma, cellobserving. Some polyploid Chinese cabbages varieties were bred and applicated for product ion. Application foreground ofpolyploid Chinese cabbage were analysed and some advices on breeding were given.
  • Yu Guohua, Man Huimin, Zhang Guoshu, Zhan Shumin, Luo Wenxi
    Abstract (373) PDF (764) RichHTML
    This experiment dealt with the influence of CO2 at the concentrations of 200,350,500,700 and 1000 mg/kg on photosynthetic and respiratory rates and RubisCO activity. The results showed that the CO2 enrichment did increase the photosynthetic rate of upper leaves of cucumber, especially under intensive light conditions. The response of photosynthetic rate to the different CO2 concentrations appeared low at the beginning, then higher and finally lower. The respiratory rates of these leaves increased rapidly with the enrichment of CO2, until 6 min. Later all dropped to their lowest levels despite the CO2 concentrations, from when there was no notable effect of CO2 concentrations on the respiratory rates. The photosynthesis rate was positively correlated with the atmospheric and intercellular CO2 concentrations. Generally the stomatal conductance was not a factor to inhibit photosynthetic at high CO2 concentrations. The RuBP carboxylase activity was enhanced while RuBP oxygenase activity and also the ratio of the former to the latter decreased. Nevertheless,when the CO2 concentrations were over 500mg/kg,the activity of RuBP carboxylase increased slightly.
  • WU Huan-huan, LI Ruo-nan, ZHANG Yan-cai, HUO Xi-liang
    Abstract (422) PDF (757) RichHTML
    This article analyzed the existing problems and the present situation in the production and using of the fertilizer in China and analyzed the requirement for developing slow/controlled release fertilizers. By comparing with the developing state and the trend of slow/controlled release fertilizers abroad, the article discussed the developing state of slow/controlled release fertilizers in our country, and discussed the directions and the problems requiring to be breached in the area of slow/controlled release fertilizers.
  • RAO Gui-zhen, XIAO Bo
    Abstract (241) PDF (750) RichHTML
    Jingzhou white cucumbers were grafted on Shiyan long pumpkin( Cucubita moschata Duch.), Jingzhou green towel gourd( Luffa cylindrica Roem. ) and round bottle gourd( Lagenaria leucantha Rusby ),respectively.The growth vigour and early yield of the grafted cucumber seedlings and own root seedlings were studied.The result showed that there were significant differences among grafted cucumber on different rootstocks.The growth vigour of the grafted cucumber seedlings on long pumpkin rootstocks is superior to that of its own root seedlings;The grafted cucumber seedlings on round bottle gourd has not only early maturing,but also much significant early yield than that of its own root seedlings;But the white cucumber were grafted on the green towel gourd,they were extremely incompatible,its growth vigour and early yield were inferior to that of its own root seelings,meanwhile,all of its fruits were malformed.
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