In order to explore the optimal water saving and efficiency model of wheat under different irrigation technologies and water-nitrogen coupling, an experiment was carried out with three irrigation technologies, such as conventional irrigation, sprinkler irrigation(PG)and drip irrigation(DG), four irrigation amounts of B1,B2,B3 and B4, and two nitrogen application amounts C1 and C2, and the same non-irrigation treatments (B1C1 and B1C2) were carried out with three irrigation technologies, therefore there were 20 treatments. The winter wheat cultivar Zhengmai 103 was used as the testing material. The results showed that irrigation significantly increased the SPAD value, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and yield of winter wheat. The highest values of SPAD were 51.1 and 52.1 with B2C2 treatments in conventional irrigation and sprinkler irrigation technologies, respectively, while the highest value of SPAD was 51.8 of B2C1 treatment under drip irrigation technology. The highest net photosynthetic rates and grain yields of winter wheat were all the B2C1 treatments under three different irrigation technologies, the net photosynthetic rates reached to 13.84, 14.44,14.22 μmol/(m2·s), respectively; and the yield reached to 10 802, 10 559,10 641 kg/ha, separately, in conventional irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation technologies. The irrigation water use efficiency and irrigation benefit increased with the decreasing in irrigation amount (except the irrigation efficiency under common irrigation). The highest irrigation water use efficiency of conventional irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation technologies were all the B4C1 treatments, reaching to 227.8, 247.4,249.7 kg/m3, respectively. The highest irrigation benefit of sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation technologies were all the B4C2 treatments, reaching to 66.3,69.0 kg/m3, respectively. However, the highest irrigation benefit was 47.5 kg/m3 of B3C2 treatment under conventional irrigation technology. The results also showed that there were no significant differences in photosynthetic characteristics, irrigation water use characteristics and yield of the winter wheat between water-saving irrigation technology and conventional irrigation technology under relatively sufficient irrigation water (B2 and B3) conditions. However, under low irrigation water (B4) conditions, the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, irrigation water use efficiency, irrigation benefit and yield of winter wheat in the water-saving irrigation technology were significantly higher than those of conventional irrigation technology. Comprehensively considered irrigation water use characteristics and yield of the winter wheat, the B4C1 with sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation technologies were the optimal water saving and efficiency model.