Special Issue

Soil fertilizer
This special topic selects papers related to soil fertilizer published in Acta Agriculurae Boreali-Sinica , involving water and fertilizer papers on wheat, maize, rice, multigrain crops, vegetables, melons and fruits, etc.Click on the relevant paper to open the web page and download the full text. In order to quote and share for readers, each article contains a complete citation format in Chinese and English (including international DOI number) and a proprietary  QR code. Long press the  QR code of the article to open the web page of the article and realize mobile sharing at the same time. Thank you for downloading, quoting, forwarding and sharing.
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  • WANG Xiaolong, ZHANG Zhengwen, SHAO Xuedong, ZHONG Xiaomin, WANG Fucheng, SHI Xiangbin, ZHANG Yican, WANG Haibo
    Abstract (27) PDF (13) RichHTML (1)

    To provide a theoretical basis for the high-quality production and precise fertilization of Merlot grapes,through the determination of the mineral element content of each growth and different tissue parts,and the nutritional diagnosis and analysis based on the quality index formed by the phenolic substances in the fruit.The comprehensive quality index of fruit phenolics,namely CI value,was calculated by Topsis analysis method.By comparing the correlation between content of various mineral elements in different growth stages/ tissues and CI value,the nutritional diagnostic factors are determined.In order to provide a theoretical basis for the high-quality production and precise fertilization of Merlot grapes,high-CI vineyards were classified by CND method.The results showed that there was a significant synergistic and antagonistic relationship among the mineral elements in the leaves,petioles and fruits of the Merlot grapes.VS_F_N,MS_F_P,VS_F_K,VS_L_Ca,FBS_F_Mg,VS_F_Fe,FBS_L_Mn,MS_F_Zn,FBS_P_Cu,VS_P_B,FBS_L_Mo were selected as plant nutrition diagnostic factors.The quality index inflection point value of high-CI vineyards was 0.735 5,of which 7 orchards met this condition,accounting for 14.58% of the overall sample.According to the mineral element content range of Merlot plant within high-CI vineyards,the appropriate values of nutritional diagnostic factors were:N(8.85—11.81)mg/g,P(1.98—4.26)mg/g,K(14.97—20.70)mg/g,Ca(35.57—68.83)mg/g,Mg(3.69—15.51)mg/g,Fe(70.96—103.26)mg/kg,Mn(166.20—277.67)mg/kg,Zn(10.71—20.27)mg/kg,Cu(9.54—14.90)mg/kg,B(11.44—17.07)mg/kg,Mo(0.69—1.60)mg/kg.The nutritional diagnosis of high-CI vineyards showed that the K,Ca,Mn,and Mg in Merlot plants were on the low side.The obtain the highest fruit quality index as the goal,the recommended fertilizer rates per hectare were N 62.25 kg,P2O5 46.50 kg,K2O 0.00 kg,CaO 56.25 kg,and MgO 46.50 kg.Ca and Mg fertilizers should be applied in small amounts and multiple times;we should strengthen the management of water and fertilizer in the orchard to increase the absorption of K element by the tree.Through foliar spraying,the lack of Mn elements can be appropriately supplemented.

  • ZHAI Lichao, ZHANG Lihua, ZHENG Mengjing, LÜ Lihua, SHEN Haiping, YAO Haipo, JIA Xiuling
    Abstract (43) PDF (38) RichHTML (3)

    In order to explore the responses of kernel position effect of summer maize to plant density and its carbon and nitrogen metabolism characteristic,field experiments were conducted during 2020 and 2021 growing reasons at Dishang Experimental Station,Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. Three plant densities(PD1:60 000 plants/ha;PD2:75 000 plants/ha;PD3:90 000 plants/ha)were arranged,with the objectives to study the effect of plant density on grain filling and kernel weight ratio of inferior and superior kernel and its physiological characteristics of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Compared with the superior kernel,the response of inferior kernel to plant density was more obvious,significant differences in grain-filling rate and kernel weight of inferior kernel were observed since 20—25 d and 30—35 d after pollination,respectively. As the plant density increases,the kernel weight ratio of inferior to superior kernel significantly decreased,PD3 decreased the kernel weight ratio of inferior to superior kernel by 8.45% on average,compared to that of PD1. The single plant dry matter accumulation significantly decreased as the plant density decreased,this was mainly due to the significant decrease of post-silking dry matter accumulation. The analysis of carbon and nitrogen metabolism of kernel showed that the increased plant density exacerbate the difference in starch and protein contents between inferior and superior kernels;and the increased plant density also exacerbate the difference in SPSase,ADPGase and GS activities between inferior and superior kernels,which mainly attributed to the significant decrease in SPSase,ADPGase and GS activities of inferior kernel. In conclusion,the increased plant density exacerbate the kernel position effect of summer maize,this was related to the lower grain-filling rate and kernel weight of inferior kernel since mid-grain filling stage,the lower grain filling rate in inferior kernel under dense planting was not only related to the insufficient post-silking dry matter accumulation,and it was also closely related to the lower activities of SPSase,ADPGase,and GS in inferior kernels.

  • LIU Shuai, XU Xuexin, ZHAO Jinke, QU Wenkai, HAO Tianjia, MENG Fangang, JIA Jing, ZHAO Changxing
    Abstract (50) PDF (34) RichHTML (1)

    In order to explore the effects of the combination of nitrogen application rate and nitrogen application period on the photosynthetic characteristics,senescence characteristics,grain filling characteristics and yield of leaves at ear position of summer maize under the integrated condition of drip irrigation,summer maize variety Zhengdan 958 was selected as the test material.Under the condition of 210 kg/ha,top dressing treatment at jointing stage,belling stage and flowering stage(A1),top dressing treatment at jointing stage and belling stage(A2),top dressing treatment at jointing stage and flowering stage(A3);under the condition of 180 kg/ha,top dressing treatment at jointing stage,belling stage and flowering stage(A4),top dressing treatment at jointing stage and belling stage(A5),top dressing treatment at jointing stage and flowering stage(A6);the traditional border irrigation was set as the control CK,and the total nitrogen application was 240 kg/ha,CK1 was topcoated with nitrogen fertilizer at jointing stage at one time,and CK2 was topcoated with nitrogen fertilizer at jointing stage and belling stage respectively,with a total of 8 treatments.The results showed that compared with CK1,A1 and A4 treatments not only maintained LAI and SPAD values in the late growth stage of summer maize,but also significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes(SOD,POD and CAT),and effectively inhibited the content of peroxide MDA,so as to delay the aging process of its leaves and protect the functional structure of leaf cells.Therefore,the summer maize under this treatment maintained efficient photosynthetic characteristics in its later growth stage,promoted the grain filling rate,and then increased the number of grains per ear and 1 000 grains weight,so that the maize yield was significantly improved.The yield difference between A1 and A4 treatments was not significant difference,but the nitrogen application rate of A4 was reduced by 14.3% compared with A1,which reduced the input of nitrogen fertilizer and saved the input cost.It was the recommended treatment in this experiment.

  • LI Xia, LUO Lihui, ZHOU Ya, YANG Dingqing, WANG Peng, LI Sen
    Abstract (52) PDF (53) RichHTML (8)

    In order to study the effects of straw returning on soil active organic carbon components and carbon cycle related enzyme activities in rice-rape rotation farmland of Chengdu Plain,we carried out 3-year straw returning field experiment(2017—2020),including no straw(CK),chemical fertilizer alone(NPK),50% straw returning and chemical fertilizer(SR1),100% straw returning and chemical fertilizer(SR2),200% straw returning and chemical fertilizer(SR3).We measured soil physical-chemical properties,soil organic carbon content(SOC),soil labile organic C fractions,carbon cycle related enzymes,and their correlations.The results showed that straw returning could effectively improve soil physical-chemical properties,soil available nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium contents.Compared with CK treatment,straw returning treatments significantly increased SOC,ROC,DOC,and MBC contents by 5.05%—8.55%,18.40%—36.80%,35.76%—66.93% and 27.20%—52.10%,respectively.In general,higher returning dosage resulted in higher C content.On the other side,compared with CK and NPK,straw returning treatments significantly increased soil cellulase,β-glucosidase,catalase,polyphenol oxidase.The activities of soil cellulase,β-glucosidase,and polyphenol oxidase under SR2 treatment were the highest,which were significantly higher than SR1 treatment by 16.25%,8.49%,and 14.69%,respectively.The catalase activity of SR3 treatment was the highest,which was significantly higher than that of SR1 treatment by 25.10%(P<0.05).There were significant positive linear correlations among soil SOC,labile SOC fractions,and carbon cycle related enzyme activities.Consequently,full straw returning has been proved of the most efficient way of improving active organic carbon components,carbon cycle related enzyme activities,and promoting the improvement of soil quality in rice-rape rotation farmland of Chengdu Plain.

  • CHEN Qiuyuan, ZHAO Shuaibing, LIANG He, LIU Ye, CUI Yanni, PENG Ting, ZHAO Quanzhi, ZHANG Jing
    Abstract (34) PDF (15) RichHTML (2)

    Tillering stage and jointing—booting stage are important for the formation of panicle number and spikelets per panicle of rice,respectively.Nitrogen application affects the formation of panicle number and spikelet per panicle.Bacteria involve in soil nitrogen cycle.Two high-yield rice varieties,Y Liangyou 900 and Zaofengyou 69,were used to study the difference of soil bacterial number and community structure between tillering stage and jointing—booting stage,and the relationship between them and soil nitrogen,rice yield under two application ratios of nitrogen fertilizer(7:3 and 6:4 application ratios of basic tiller fertilizer to panicle-spikelet fertilizer).The results showed that there were significant differences in the structures of dominant bacterial groups in paddy soil between the tillering stage and jointing—booting stage,which were mainly Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes,Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria.The relative abundance of Chloroflexi at the tillering stage was 6.16 percent points higher than that at the jointing—booting stage.The relative abundance of Acidobacteria at the tillering stage was 2.65 percent points higher than that at the jointing—booting stage.The relative abundance of Proteobacteria at the jointing—booting stage was 0.69 percent points higher than that at the tilling stage.The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes at the jointing—booting stage was 1.09 percent points higher than that at the tillering stage.The results of correlation analysis showed that rice yield was significantly negatively correlated with the number of soil bacteria at the tillering stage,but significantly positively correlated with the number of bacteria and total nitrogen content in the soil at the jointing—booting stage.There was a significant positive correlation between the number of effective panicles and the number of soil bacteria at the tillering stage.The number of spikelets per panicle was significantly positively correlated with the ammonia oxidation potential at the tillering stage and the jointing—booting stage.Redundancy analysis(RDA)showed that the bacterial community structures were affected by many factors.The contents of soil ammonium nitrogen and the ammonia oxidation potential were the main factors affecting the bacterial community structures at the tillering stage and the jointing—booting stage,respectively.The function prediction of FAPROTAX further indicated that the denitrification in the 7:3 treatment at the tillering stage was enhanced,especially in the soil of Y Liangyou 900.Therefore,increasing the number of soil bacteria at the tillering stage could enhance the number of effective panicles.Ammonia oxidation involved by soil bacteria at the jointing—booting stage can promote the increase of spikelets per panicle in rice.For the high-yielding rice varieties,Y Liangyou 900 and Zaofengyou 69 under different nitrogen application ratios,the formation of yield,effective panicle number and spikelets per panicle is closely related to soil bacterial number,community composition and ecological function.

  • LI Wenxiu, DAI Li, WANG Lihuang, FANG Baohua, WANG Xuehua
    Abstract (51) PDF (27) RichHTML (23)

    In order to find out the regularities of formation of panicle grain characteristics of multi-panicle type and large-panicle type varieties to increase rice yield.The conventional field experiments method were conducted to use the multi-panicle type varieties Yueyou 9113(Y9113),the large-panicle type varieties Tianyouhuazhan(TYHZ)and Wufengyou T025(WT025)as test materials.To study the differences in carbon and nitrogen metabolism and yield composition of main stem,functional leaves and young panicles during the young panicle differentiation stages of multi-panicle type and large-panicle type varieties.The results showed that the activities of key enzymes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism(SPS,AMS,NR and GS)and soluble sugar and soluble protein content of the main stem,functional leaves and young panicles of large-panicle type varieties were higher or significantly higher than multi-panicle type varieties in the main young panicle differentiation stages.In the second branch and spikelet primordia differentiation stage,which the number of grains increased rapidly,the soluble protein content of functional leaves and soluble sugar content and GS activity of young panicles of Wufengyou T025 were significantly higher than Yueyou 9113 by 6.77%,35.07% and 20.10%,and the SPS activity of main stem and GS activity of young panicle of Tianyouhuazhan were significantly higher than Yueyou 9113 by 46.72% and 7.81%.In the meiotic stage of the pollen mother cell,which the spikelets are prone to degeneration and the number of grains decreases,the soluble protein content of functional leaves and soluble sugar content and soluble protein content of main stem of Wufengyou T025 were significantly higher than Yueyou 9113 by 9.88%,21.20% and 16.20%,and the soluble sugar content of main stem and SPS activity of functional leaves of Tianyouhuazhan were significantly higher than Yueyou 9113 by 14.67% and 28.55%.Under the conditions of this experiment,compared with the multi-panicle type varieties,the stronger carbon and nitrogen metabolism during the young panicle differentiation stage was one of the mechanisms of the large-panicle formation of the large-panicle type varieties.

  • FU Jingfeng, LUO Shangke, CHENG Yi, ZHANG Jun, WEI Sheng, ZENG Tao, CHEN Du, WEI Pengcheng, ZHENG Yingxia, SONG Bi
    Abstract (93) PDF (107) RichHTML (38)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of nitrogen application rate on the grain yield,nitrogen accumulation and use efficiency of spring maize under different film mulching methods,and to provide a theoretical basis for efficient nitrogen application management of spring maize film mulching in high altitude area of Guizhou.Field trials were carried out from 2018 to 2019.The plots were arranged in a split-plot design.The main plots were assigned to the film mulching methods(wide film and narrow film) to be studied and divided into subplots according to the five nitrogen application levels(0,80,160,240 and 320 kg/ha).To study the effects of different film mulching methods and nitrogen application rates on yield,nitrogen accumulation,transport characteristics and utilization efficiency in different organs of spring maize.Film mulching,nitrogen application rate and their interaction significantly increased the yield of spring maize.The results showed that compared to narrow film mulching,wide film mulching not only increased the yield of spring maize by 17.8%,but also significantly enhanced the nitrogen accumulation and the retransfer of nitrogen accumulated before silking,then significantly increased the grain nitrogen accumulation.Moreover,compared to narrow film mulching,wide film mulching achieved significantly higher NUTE,NUPE,AEN,NPFP and NUE values showing increases of 4.9%,21.4%,23.5%,12.2% and 4.23 percentage points,respectively.Nitrogen application realized the synergistic growth of grain yield and plant nitrogen accumulation of spring maize,and could significantly affect nitrogen absorption,accumulation and transport.As the N application rate increased,the N translocation and the contribution rate of nitrogen transfer from vegetative parts to grain after silking could be effectively promoted,as well as enhanced.However,the nitrogen use efficiency,including the NDGPE,NHI,NUTE,NUPE,NUE,AEN,NPFP of spring maize,significantly decreased by increasing of N application rate.The regression analysis had shown that the optimal yield and nitrogen application rate for wide film mulching were reduced nitrogen application by 55 kg/ha and increased yield by 12.3% compared with narrow film mulching.The combination of wide film mulching and suitable nitrogen application rate was beneficial to the plant accumulation and absorption of nitrogen,so as to achieve high yield and nitrogen productivity,and then achieve the purpose of saving fertilizer and increasing yield.Considering the grain yield,N accumulation,transport and N use efficiency of spring maize,the reasonable N application rate of wide film mulching for spring maize in high altitude and other similar ecological zones in Guizhou was 160 kg/ha,which yield could reach 11 404.3 kg/ha.

  • LI Qiang, KONG Fanlei, YUAN Jichao
    Abstract (528) PDF (48) RichHTML (28)

    To increase crop yields,reduce the application of chemical fertilizers,and improve nutrient utilization efficiency,N-efficient maize cultivars were screened and popularized. An understanding of nitrogen uptake,utilization,and field balance in maize cultivars with contrasting nitrogen efficiency response to N management is essential for efficient breeding and cultivation of maize to produce fodder and bio-energy. To determine the effects of N management on these factors during maize cultivation,a two-year field experiment was conducted in 2015 and 2016 in a subtropical semi-humid climate zone. The results showed that the proportion of N in the stem plus sheath and leaves in ZH311 during VT and R6 was significantly higher than that of XY508. In addition,the N accumulation into grain post-silking(NAG)and contribution of NAG to grain(CNAG)of ZH311 were significantly higher than those of XY508,while the N redistribution rate(NRR)and contribution of NRA to grain yield(CNRA)of ZH311 were significantly lower than those of XY508. The higher proportion of N in the vegetative organs of a N-efficient cultivar,ZH311,led to a significantly higher N accumulation in each stage than that observed for the N-inefficient cultivar XY508. The N accumulation advantage of ZH311 was higher after silking than before silking. The high post-silking N accumulation of ZH311 inhibited the pre-silking N transport that determines the N transport rate and contribution rate to grain of pre-silking N accumulation,which were significantly lower than those of XY508. Meanwhile,the N uptake efficiency,N recovery efficiency,and N partial productivity of ZH311 were significantly higher than those of XY508. Compared with that of XY508,the root system of ZH311 could more effectively absorb and utilize inorganic N in the 40-80 cm soil layer,reduce N deposition,and significantly decrease apparent N losses. The differences in apparent N losses between the two cultivars were mainly elicited post-topdressing. In summary,ZH311 has not only a higher yield per unit area than XY508,but also lower N losses,consequently reducing environmental risks.

  • NIU Runzhi, ZHU Changwei, JIANG Guiying, YANG Jin, LUO Lan, SHEN Fengmin, LIU Fang, LIU Shiliang
    Abstract (56) PDF (46) RichHTML (34)

    To select the optimum tillage mode for the fluvo-aquic soil in North Henan,a three-year field experiment was carried out during 2016 to 2019. The experiment was designed with five combinations of three different tillage practices in wheat season as continuous rotary tillage(RT-RT-RT);deep tillage-rotary tillage-rotary tillage(DT-RT-RT);deep tillage-rotary tillage-strip rotary tillage(DT-RT-SRT);deep tillage-strip rotary tillage-strip rotary tillage(DT-SRT-SRT);deep tillage-strip tillage-rotary tillage(DT-SRT-RT). The photosynthetic indexes,soil available nutrients,and wheat yield were measured and analyzed under different treatments. The results showed that compared with RT-RT-RT,photosynthetic characteristics under different rotation tillage treatments improved. Compared with RT-RT-RT,the net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance under DT-SRT-RT increased by 10.85%,7.83%,respectively. The chlorophyll content increased gradually with the growth stage under DT-SRT-RT,and it was significantly higher than that under RT-RT-RT at the filling stage,with an increment of 16.52%. The content of available nitrogen,available phosphorus,and available potassium in the 0-50 cm soil layer increased under treatments with rotation tillage. Additionally,the spike number,grains per spike,1000-grain weight,and yield of wheat under DT-SRT-RT were higher than those under RT-RT-RT,therein,the yield under DT-SRT-RT was the highest with an increment of 14.64%. The correlation analysis showed that the net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with wheat yield,which reached significant level at the flowering period. The contents of nitrate nitrogen,ammonium nitrogen,available phosphorus,and available potassium in surface soil were significantly positively correlated with wheat yield. Generally,for the fluvo-aquic soil area in North Henan,the photosynthetic characteristics of wheat,soil available nutrients content and the components of yield were improved by rotation tillage modes,and therein,the DT-SRT-RT was the optimum one.

  • JIA Jianping, LI Jinhong, YU Jingwen, YU Xiyue, PENG Deliang, LI Huixia, HUANG Wenkun
    Abstract (27) PDF (10) RichHTML (23)

    In order to explore the control effect of nitrogen fertilizer on soybean cyst nematode disease,pot experiment and field experiment were carried out to analyze the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the egg hatching,nematode development of soybean cyst nematode and the yield of soybean. Four nitrogen application levels were set as 0.016,0.032,0.048,0.064 g/kg soil,respectively,to analyze the effect of soil eluviating solution and root exudate solution on egg hatching. In the field experiment,four nitrogen application levels were set as 22.50,56.25,67.50,78.75 kg/ha,respectively,to analyze the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the development of nematode. Treatment without nitrogen fertilizer was used as a blank control in all experiments. The results of pot experiment showed that both soil eluviating solution and root exudate solution could significantly improve egg hatching inhibition rate of H. glycines after nitrogen fertilizer application. The soil eluviating solution of 0.032,0.064 g/kg soil had the best inhibition effect on H. glycines egg hatching,reaching at 34.21% and 29.31%,respectively,the root exudate solution of 0.064 g/kg soil had the best inhibition effect on egg hatching of H. glycines,reaching 55.09%. The field experiment showed that proper application of nitrogen fertilizer could significantly decrease cyst number but increase soybean yield. Treatment with 56.25 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer had the best control effect on nematodes and the highest yield of soybean,with cyst number decreased by 25.29% and the yield of soybean increased by 14.75%. However,the number of nematode in the control increased by 30.77%. Therefore,application of nitrogen fertilizer is an economical and safe control method to improve the yield and quality of soybean.

  • LI Wanxing, LI Dan, LI Xiaoxia, CAO Jinjun, JIN Kunpeng, HAN Wenqing, SU Xiumin, WANG Jiao, HUANG Xuefang, LIU Yongzhong
    Abstract (76) PDF (60) RichHTML (41)

    In order to select rotation crops suitable for tomato in southeastern of Shanxi Province,we planted six cropsrotation patterns,namely maize(LVZm),zucchini(LVCp),peanut(LVAh),green onion(LVAf),okra(LVAe),and cucumber(LVCs),taking treatment with continuous tomato cultivation(LLLe,CK)as control. The changes in the microbial community structure and diversity in the ITS1 region of soil fungi were analyzed by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technology. At the same time,the quality indicators(soluble total sugar,organic acid content,sugar-acid ratio,Vc content,soluble protein,soluble solids,lycopene content,nitrate)and yield indicators(single fruit weight,yield)of the following tomatoes were measured. The results showed that Ascomycote was the dominant phyla in the 7 treatments,and the species and abundance were quite different,LVCs,LVZm,LVAh and LVAe increased the diversity index of fungal,while LVCp decreased the index. LVZm had better taste;LVAe and LLLe had the highest Vc content;no significant difference in soluble protein content;the content of soluble solids were the highest in LLLe and LVCp;the content of lycopene was highest in LVCp;LVAe had the highest nitrate content. The yields significantly increased in LVAe and LVCp patterns,and the quality of single fruit significantly increased in LVCp rotation. Principal component analysis(PCA)showed that the scores of quality and yield among different patterns from high to low were LVCp>LVAe>LLLe> LVAh>LVAf> LVZm>LVCs. In summary,crop rotation changes the soil fungal community structure,affects the index of the fungal,the quality and yield of tomatoes in subsequent crops. Based on various factors,zucchini and okra are the dominant rotation crops suitable for the growth of local tomatoes.

  • LIU Jianling, WU Jing, JIA Ke, LIAO Wenhua, LÜ Yinghua, MA Junyong
    Abstract (330) PDF (23) RichHTML (44)

    This study investigated the dynamics of soil phosphorus,yield responses to soil phosphorus and phosphate fertilizer in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in the last decades,which was important for the scientific application of phosphate fertilizer in continuous high-yielding cropping.A combined method that included in situ phosphate fertilizer experiment under different soil fertility conditions,the analysis of changes of soil available P since 1978,the response of yield to phosphate fertilizer was used.Average content of soil available P of winter wheat-summer maize rotation area was 22.43 mg/kg,and the soil available P of the piedmont plain of Taihang mountain was greater than the alluvial plain.During 1996-1999,the soil available P content of the the piedmont plain and the alluvial plain was 15.09,11.90 mg/kg in cultivated land,respectively,the application rate of P2O5 in the winter wheat season of the rotation system was 180 kg/ha;the soil P supply capacity for winter wheat in these two regions piedmont were 83.9%,75.8%,respectively,and for summer maize they were 83.3%,89.7%,respectively.Under the condition of winter wheat straw returning,soil P surplus of these two regions was estimated to be 52.8%,55.4%,respectively.During 2010-2012,the soil available P of the piedmont plain of Taihang mountain was 27.22 mg/kg,the application rate in winter wheat and summer maize season were 108,60 kg/ha,respectively.The soil P supply capacity in winter wheat season was 84.6%,90.1% in summer maize season.Soil P surplus was estimated to be 6.7% in winter wheat season,and soil P of deficit was estimated to be 47.1% in summer maize season without straw returning.The application rate of P2O5 for the maximal yield production of winter wheat and summer maize were calculated according to the yield responses of winter wheat and summer maize to the P fertilization rates at multiple sites during 2002-2006 and 2012-2016.For winter wheat they were 107.3,125.1 kg/ha,respectively,and for summer maize they were 52.0,58.9 kg/ha,respectively.The accumulated P increaded the yield of winter wheat and summer maize for excess application 3 time of P fertilizer in 3 years 6 crop.The recommendation of P2O5 rate for winter wheat and summer maize with wheat straw returning were 90-100 kg/ha and 30 kg/ha,respectively,and they were 100-120 kg/ha and 45 kg/ha without wheat straw returning.

  • CAI Fengle, MA Xin, WANG Shuaili, LU Liangtao, SHAO Ruixin, LI Hongping, ZHAO Yali, MU Xinyuan, ZHAO Xia, LI Shuyan, LIU Tianxue
    Abstract (48) PDF (25) RichHTML (16)

    Clarifying the regulation effect of nitrogen on grain development under heat stress at blister stage of maize is of great significance for rational fertilization,relieving the harm of heat and realizing high and stable yields.The effects of amount of nitrogen application(90,180,270 kg/ha,marked as N90,N180,N270)on the grain development and yield under heat stress during blister stage of maize were investigated by using Xianyu 335(XY335)and Zhengdan 958(ZD958)as materials and setting heat treatment(T)and control(CK).The results showed that heat stress broke the balance of endogenous hormones in maize grains, resulting in the decrease of abscisic acid (ABA) content in the grains of N180 and N270 of two maize varieties and auxin (IAA) content in the grains of N180 and N270 of ZD958; Soluble acid invertase activity (SAI) of upper grains was decreased, grain volume expansion and dry matter accumulation were blocked, abortion rate was increased, grain number per ear was decreased, and yield was significantly decreased. The heat-sensitive variety XY335 was more affected by heat stress than the heat-resistant variety ZD958.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,the negative effect of heat stress on corn grains development was intensified.Under heat stress,the ABA/GA3 of XY335 and ZD958 decreased,the IAA and ZR contents increased,the grains volume and dry matter were more severely reduced,the abortion rate was significantly increased by 25.55,29.31 percentage points and 15.45,24.49 percentage points,respectively,the grains number per spike was decreased by 42.89%,52.68% and 20.95%,35.25%,respectively,and yield was significantly decreased by 44.29%,52.04% and 26.41%,39.94% respectively,under medium(N180)and high(N270)nitrogen treatments compared with low nitrogen(N90)treatment.Therefore,reasonable nitrogen application rate(N90)could alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on corn grain development and reduce yield loss.

  • JIAO Jinlong, LI Youqiang, WU Ling, SHANG Jing, GAO Shibin, LIU Hailan, WU Yuanqi, LIN Haijian
    Abstract (440) PDF (13) RichHTML (10)

    In order to investigate the effect of fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer on the yield and quality of silage corn and soil nutrient,in 2019 and 2020,the effects of fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer on agronomic traits,yield, quality,soil nutrient content and fertilizer utilization rate of silage corn were studied.As a result,the yield of silage corn was significantly affected by different fertilization treatments,and the yield of mixed application of organic fertilizer and slow control fertilizer reached 55 084.75 kg/ha,dry matter production reached 24 192.11 kg/ha.There was no significant difference in yield between slow controlled fertilizer constant and slow controlled fertilizer reduction of 20%,that was,excessive fertilization had no significant effect on yield.The accumulation of N,P and K under T2 treatment was 234.83,173.75,35.72 kg/ha,and significantly higher than other treatments.The maximum nitrogen fertilizer productivity of silage corn under T4 treatment was 166.46 kg/kg,and the maximum nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency under T1 treatment was 0.80 kg/kg,which indicated that the mixed application of organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer could improve the productivity of silage corn.After T4 treatment,the crude fat content of silage corn was the highest,and the application of organic fertilizer could increase the crude fat content of silage corn,and also increase the content of acid washing fiber.The yield of silage maize was correlated with urease,catalase and available phosphorus content,the correlation coefficients were 0.845,0.798,0.784.The results showed that fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer application in Southwest China could significantly improve the yield and quality of silage corn,which was beneficial to the protection of farmland ecological environment and the sustainable utilization of soil fertility.

  • SONG Zhi, GUO Xinsong, FAN Zhongqing, HONG Pizheng, CHEN Shigeng, LIU Tongxin, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Hong, DING Fangjun, ZHAO Jinbiao
    Abstract (43) PDF (32) RichHTML (55)

    In order to study the application method of humic acid on grapes and find out the optimal proportion of carbon such as humic acid instead of organic fertilizer,the plot experiment was carried out with simple chemical fertilizer fertilization mode as control(CK treatment)for two consecutive years.Based on farmers' fertilizer practice(FFP treatment),3 ratios of carbon such as humic acid instead of organic fertilizer were set:10% carbon substitution(T1 treatment),20% carbon substitution(T2 treatment)and 30% carbon substitution(T3 treatment).Their effects on grape yield,quality and soil nutrients were studied,and the optimal substitution ratio was screened by principal factor analysis.The results showed that the yield of T2 treatment was the highest for two consecutive years,but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 treatment.Single cluster weight and single fruit weight in T1,T2,T3 treatments were significantly higher than those in CK treatment,but there was no significant difference between FFP treatment and T1,T2,T3 treatments;on the whole,the contents of soluble solids,soluble sugar,titratable acid and vitamin C in humic acid treatment instead of organic fertilizer were better than those in other treatments.Through correlation analysis,soil available potassium,organic matter and acid phosphatase were positively correlated with grape yield.Available phosphorus,available potassium,organic matter and acid phosphatase in soil were very significantly correlated with soluble solids,soluble sugar and vitamin C content of grape.Regulation of these soil indexes was the way to increase grape yield and quality by replacing organic fertilizer with humic acid;through principal factor analysis,there were 2 principal factors with eigenvalue greater than 1 in 2019 and 2020,the cumulative contribution rate of variance of 2 principal factors reached 88.864%-91.470%,and T2 treatment was the highest comprehensive score for two consecutive years.On the whole,carbon such as humic acid instead of 20% organic fertilizer was the optimal proportion.

  • CHEN Chao, MI Wenhai, JU Jing, WU Lianghuan, ZHAO Haitao
    Abstract (16) PDF (16) RichHTML (9)

    In order to study the effects of different fertilization pattern on the soil aggregates composition,the contents of total organic carbon and its components,and to clarify the optimal fertilization pattern for improving soil fertility in yellow clayey paddy soil.Based on the long-term fertilization experiment in Jinqu Basin,four treatments were conducted,including no fertilizer,chemical fertilizer alone,chemical fertilizer combined with cattle manure and chemical fertilizer combined with straw.The results showed that chemical fertilizers plus cattle manure resulted in the highest percentage of >0.250 mm aggregate,increased by 7.1,11.0 percentage point compared to the chemical fertilizers alone in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm,respectively.By contrast,there were no significant differences in the composition of aggregate between chemical fertilizers plus straw and chemical fertilizers alone.On the other hand,chemical fertilizers plus cattle manure showed significantly higher in soil total organic carbon content,particulate organic carbon content in the surface soil,increased by 18.7%,98.7%,respectively.The order of POC/SOC value in the surface soil was as follows:chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure > chemical fertilizer plus rice straw> chemical fertilizers alone ≈ no fertilizer.Compared with the single application of chemical fertilizers,the combined application of chemical fertilizers and cattle manure or straw increased the relative absorption peak intensity of 1 030 cm-1,indicating that the relative content of polysaccharides was higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers treatments.Overall,the combined application of chemical fertilizers and cattle manure was the best practice for improving soil structure and soil carbon pool.

  • LU Xiaoyue, WANG Ziye, HAN Jianwei, XU Lu, ZHANG Xiaofei, HAN Jie, WANG Zhigang, LIU Yue, SUO Xiangmin, YAN Aihua
    Abstract (52) PDF (5) RichHTML (34)

    In order to clarify the mechanism of pyroligneous acids improving replantation soil,the effect of pyroligneous acids treatment on plant growth was studied by field experiment using apple rootstock-Malus micromalus as experimental material.The main physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities of soil in July and October were analyzed based on Illumina high-throughput sequencing to analyze the changes of microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil.The results showed that compared with the control,the annual increase of plant height,ground diameter and leaf area of Malus angustifolia seedlings were significantly increased after 100-fold pyroligneous acids irrigation.Pyroligneous acids root irrigation treatment significantly increased the contents of main nutrients and enzyme activities in the soil of replanting disease.The contents of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium were 1.31,1.38,1.20,1.60 and 1.65 times of CK1,respectively in July,and 1.12,1.03,1.58,1.40 and 1.25 times of CK2 in October,respectively.Sucrase and urease activities increased significantly in July and October.Pyroligneous acids increased the microbial diversity of rhizosphere soil in summer and autumn.Under CK and pyroligneous acids treatments in July and October,the top five dominant gates of rhizosphere bacteria were Proteobacteria,Acidsobacteria,Gemmatimonadetes,Chloroflexi and Rokubacteria;at the genus level,they were mainly uncultured_bacterium_c_Subgroup_6, uncultured_bacterium_f_Gemmatimonadaceae, uncultured_bacterium_o_Rokubacteriales, RB41 and MND1. The top five dominant gates of rhizosphere fungi were Ascomycota,Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota,Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota.At the genus level,they were mainly Cladosporium,Mortierella,Ilyonectria,Guehomyces and Fusarium.According to the correlation network map,the beneficial bacteria RB41 and uncultured_bacterium_f_Gemmatimonadaceae in the rhizosphere and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium and Ilyonectria were negatively correlated with other populations.Pyroligneous acids root irrigation can increase soil nutrients and enzyme activity,increase soil microbial diversity,improve soil microbial community structure,promote plant growth,enhance plant resistance and reduce the harm of replanting disease.

  • ZHANG Zongxiang, HUANG Zhengrong, WU Xuefan, LIU Nannan, LI Xiaoxiao, DONG Zhaorong, SONG He
    Abstract (506) PDF (22) RichHTML (19)

    Yield and nitrogen accumulation of maize will decline under soil acidification,but the physiological mechanism is not clear.Field experiment was conducted with four different soil acidity gradients:nautral acid(pH=7,CK),weak acid(pH=6,T1),medium acid(pH=5,T2)and strong acid(pH=4,T3),comparing yield,nitrogen accumulation,grain protein content,nitrogen metabolism-related enzyme activities,gene expression,nitrate nitrogen,ammonium nitrogen,soluble protein,free amino acid content in leaf and stem of maize.The results showed that compared with CK,the yield of T1,T2 and T3 treatments declined by 4.2%,30.7% and 52.3%,respectively.Grain number per spike decreased by 1.8%,28.1% and 42.8%;grain protein content showed a downward trend with T3 treatment significantly reduced by 14.5%.At the big flare stage,with the increase of soil acidity,nitrogen accumulation in leaves showed a downward trend,it was significantly decreased in T2 and T3 treatment by 28.1% and 56.2%,respectively.In stem,the nitrogen accumulation increased firstly and then decreased.Compared with CK,T1 treatment was significantly increased by 33.1%,and T3 treatment significantly decreased by 65.4%.At the big flare stage, the activities of nitrate reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase in leaf and stem under T3 treatment were significantly higher than those in CK, while the activities of glutamine synthase in leaf were significantly decreased. The amino acids in stem decreased first and then increased.With the increase of soil acidity,the expressions of ZmGln2 and ZmFd-GOGAT were up-regulated,which promoted the assimilation of NH 4 + released by photorespiration and NH 4 + produced by NO 3 - reduction;the down-regulated expression of ZmGln1.2-ZmGln1.4, ZmNADH-GOGAT2 in leaf and ZmNADH-GOGAT1 in stem decreased the assimilation of NH 4 + released by catabolism.By up-regulating or down-regulating the expression of relevant genes,maize could promote the production of more free amino acids and soluble proteins during nitrogen metabolism to resist acidification stress,but also reduced the nitrogen accumulation,resulting in lower yield and grain protein content.

  • TAI Jicheng, HAN Meiqi, YANG Hengshan, ZHANG Yuqin, MA Jinhui, GUO Xiaoxu
    Abstract (21) PDF (7) RichHTML (8)

    In order to explore a new way to reduce nitrogen and increase efficiency of spring maize,in the agricultural high tech demonstration park of Horqin district,Inner Mongolia,two different ratios of reduced urea gradients and corresponding combined application of urea ammonium nitrate solution(UAN)were set in comparison with conventional topdressing urea(CK1,570 kg/ha)(N1U treatment 225 kg/ha urea + 75 kg/ha UAN and N2U treatment 375 kg/ha urea + 75 kg/ha UAN),the effects of shallow drip irrigation with reduced urea application combined with compared with CK treatment,N2U treatment did not reduce the yield of spring maize when the total nitrogen input was reduced by 25.12%.The total nitrogen input of N1U treatment decreased by 51.42%,and the yield decreased significantly.The total dry matter accumulation of N2U treatment was also significantly higher than that of CK treatment,and increased by 12.84%-16.40% and 6.05%-9.76% at silking stage and mature stage,respectively.Compared with CK,the total nitrogen accumulation in the mature stage increased by 20.55%-42.29%.N2U treatment did not reduce the yield of spring maize under the condition of 25.12% reduction of total nitrogen input,and it was a more reasonable fertilization mode of shallow buried drip irrigation for maize under the same soil fertility in the Xiliaohe plain.

  • SHI Ailong, WANG Lihuang, LI Wenxiu, WANG Xuehua
    Abstract (26) PDF (6) RichHTML (10)

    In order to determine the appropriate nitrogen application level and irrigation mode for rice production in Hunan double cropping rice area,a randomized block design was adopted.Lingliangyou 942 and Lingyouhuazhan were used as early and late rice materials respectively.Three nitrogen application levels of N1-N3(150,120,0 kg/ha for early and late rice respectively)and three irrigation modes of W1-W3(water layer irrigation,wet irrigation and dry wet alternating irrigation for early and late rice respectively)were set.The effects of different water and fertilizer synergistic treatments on agronomic characters and yield of Double-cropping Hybrid rice were studied.The results were as follows:The increase of nitrogen fertilizer could significantly improve the SPAD value of rice, but the SPAD values of N1 and N2 were similar in early and late rice as a whole, while the irrigation method was W3, which could not only maintain a high SPAD in early and late rice, but also avoided late green and late ripening. Rice leaf area index (LAI) was directly proportional to the amount of nitrogen applied to a certain extent. The LAI values between N1 and N2 were similar in the whole growth period of early rice and the early growth stage of late rice, but N1 was higher than N2 in the late growth stage of late rice, while irrigation methods had little effect on the LAI value of early and late rice, mainly W3 was slightly higher. The increase of nitrogen fertilizer could significantly promote the accumulation of dry matter mass of rice. Except that the dry matter mass per plant of early rice at milk stage was N2 higher than N1 and the dry matter mass per plant of late rice at full heading stage was N1 higher than N2, the dry matter mass per plant of early and late rice at other stages was N1 and N2 similar, which showed that nitrogen reduction would not significantly have reduced the dry matter mass per plant of paddy rice on the whole. The irrigation method had little impacted on early rice and great impacted on late rice. The overall dry matter mass per plant of early and late rice increases better with W3, W2 followed. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer application could significantly improve the theoretical, actual yield and effective panicle number of rice, but they were similar in N1 and N2. Compared with the control group N3, the actual yield of early and late rice N1 and N2 increased by 53.21%-59.64% and 21.65%-32.68% respectively, indicated that the effect of nitrogen reduction and yield increase in early rice was obvious, and the poor effect of nitrogen reduction and yield increase in late rice was mainly because high nitrogen was not the nitrogen application level of conventional late rice.There was no significant difference between irrigation methods and yield and yield components. Under the cooperation of water and fertilizer,N2W2,N2W3 treatment could make early and late rice obtain higher leaf SPAD and LAI. Under the factors of dry matter accumulation, yield and yield components, the effect of N2W3 treatment was better for early rice, and N1W3 treatment was better for late rice. In conclusion, N2W3 treatment of early rice could not only met high yield, but also saved fertilizer and water;although N2W3 treatment of late rice performed better in SPAD and LAI, its dry matter accumulation and yield performance were lower than N1W3 treatment, so N1W3 treatment of late rice had obvious yield increasing effect. Therefore, from the perspective of economic and ecological benefits, under the alternative mode of dry and wet, the nitrogen application rate of early rice was 120 kg/ha and that of late rice was 150 kg/ha, which could give full play to the interaction effect of water and fertilizer. They had good yield increasing potential, which was more conducive to the growth and development of rice and increased yield.

  • ZHANG Panpan, SHAO Yunhui, LIU Jingbao, QIAO Jiangfang, LI Chuan, ZHANG Meiwei, ZHAO Xia, HUANG Lu
    Abstract (390) PDF (41) RichHTML (24)

    This study investigated the accumulation and distribution of dry matter,nitrogen(N)and zinc(Zn)of summer maize under N and Zn fertilization,to provide a basis for reasonable application of zinc fertilizer and combined fertilization.Split-split design was used with three N rates(90,180,225 kg/ha N)as the main factor,two Zn rates(0,4.5 kg/ha ZnSO4·7H2O)as the second factor,two varieties(ZD958 and GSY66)as the third factor.The effect of N and Zn application on the grain yield,dry matter accumulation dynamic and N and Zn absorption,accumulation and distribution of each organ of different maize varieties by field experiment.The results showed that the grain yield achieved 9.77,10.42 t/ha under the N rates of 180,225 kg/ha,respectively,increased by 18.0% compared with 90 kg/ha.The treatment of 225 kg/ha N had the highest plant dry matter accumulation after silking,while the treatment of 90 kg/ha had higher ratio of cob and grain dry matter at the mature stage.Highest N concentration in each organ,Zn concentration in the stem and N and Zn accumulation in the leaf and grain were obtained in the treatment of 225 kg/ha,while highest Zn concentration in the sheath,bract and grain and ratio of grain N and Zn were found in the treatment of 90 kg/ha.No effect was found in the grain yield and dry matter accumulation and distribution under two Zn treatments.Zn application significantly increased N and Zn concentration and accumulation but decreased distribution ratio of grain N and Zn by 6.93,6.86 percentage points,respectively.Relative to GSY66,ZD958 had higher grain yield and dry matter ratio,and increased dry matter by 29.2% at maturity.Besides this,ZD958 decreased grain N and Zn concentration by 8.9% and 5.3%,respectively,but improved grain accumulation and distribution ratio.Correlation analysis showed that grain yield and N concentration in the stem,leaf and grain were significantly positively correlated.There was also a significantly or extremely significantly positive correlation between Zn concentration in the leaf and N concentration in the sheath and grain,between Zn concentration in the cob and N concentration in the sheath,cob and bract.These results suggested that combination of N and Zn fertilizers could increase yield and plant dry matter accumulation,enhance the N and Zn absorption and accumulation in each organ especially grain,but decrease distribution ratio of N and Zn in the grain.

  • CAO Bing, WANG Xuexia, NI Xiaohui, CHEN Yanhua, WEN Fangfang, LIU Zifei, ZHANG Mengjia, ZUO Qiang, ZOU Guoyuan, ZHANG Xuelian
    Abstract (69) PDF (26) RichHTML (24)

    In order to explore a simple and efficient nutrient management method for open field head lettuce production,a field experiment was carried out in lettuce planting park of Beijing suburb.No nitrogen(CK),conventional fertilization(CF),conventional fertilization with 20% rate reduction of N,P and K(-20%CF),as well as controlled release blended fertilizer with 20% rate reduction of N,P and K(-20%CU)were included in this experiment.The effects of single basal application of controlled-release blended fertilizer on yield,quality,nutrient absorption,physiological characteristics of leaves,and soil nitrate nitrogen residue were investigated.The results showed that compared to CF,the total yield and economic yield of lettuce of-20%CU were increased by 2.32% and 3.28%,respectively;nitrate content of lettuce was significantly decreased by 29.98%.During the growth period of heading lettuce,the chlorophyll content and nitrogen metabolism enzyme activities(glutamate synthase,nitrate reductase,nitrite reductase,glutamate synthase,glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthase)of the leaves of heading lettuce treated with controlled release blended fertilizer at different growth stages(seedling stage,rosette stage,middle heading stage and harvest stage)were not different from those of conventional fertilization.At harvest,the residual nitrate content in 0-100 cm soil of all treatments was generally not high,but the treatment of controlled-release blended fertilizer had a certain risk of nitrate leaching.In conclusion,single basal application of controlled release blended fertilizer with application rate reduction can significantly improve the quality of lettuce,the premise of stabilizing the yield of head lettuce.It has great prospective in large-scale production of head lettuce.

  • ZHOU Liping, ZHAO Qiu, ZHANG Xinjian, NING Xiaoguang, YUAN Liang, LI Yanting, ZHAO Bingqiang
    Abstract (83) PDF (24) RichHTML (27)

    Reducing fertilizer application and increasing efficiency is of great significance to ensuring the sustainable development of agriculture.Research on the impact of new-type synergistic compound fertilizers on rice nutrient absorption and yield will help ensure the food security.Four treatments which were conventional compound fertilizer(CG),synergistic compound fertilizer(ZZ),conventional compound fertilizer reduction by 20%(80% CG),and synergistic compound fertilizer by 20%(80%ZZ)was set.The results showed that:Compared with the conventional compound fertilizer treatment,the synergistic compound fertilizer treatment could increase the fresh weight,plant height,SPAD value and root volume of rice at tillering stage,jointing stage,heading stage,filling stage and maturity stage.At the maturity stage,the fresh weight,plant height,SPAD value and root volume of rice plants treated with the synergistic compound fertilizer increased by 11.71%,1.29%,8.02% and 46.48%,respectively.The rice plant treated by the synergistic compound fertilizer reduced by 20% treatment increased by 2.29%,0.31%,3.70% and 4.09%,respectively.Compared with the conventional compound fertilizer treatment,the synergistic compound fertilizer treatment could increase the dry matter weight of stems and leaves and the dry matter weight of grains by 24.46% and 21.39%,respectively.The synergistic compound fertilizer treatment to increase the dry matter weight of rice stems and leaves and the dry matter weight of grain was 6.07% and 8.15%,respectively.Compared with the conventional compound fertilizer treatment,the nitrogen content of rice stems and leaves and the nitrogen content of grains under the treatment of synergistic compound fertilizer increased by 10.68% and 36.96%,respectively.The phosphorus content of rice stems and leaves increased by 26.51% and 11.24%,respectively.The phosphorus content of rice grains treated with synergistic compound fertilizer increased by 10.39%,and the phosphorus content of rice grains treated with synergistic compound fertilizer reduced by 20% decreased by 5.41%.Compared with the conventional compound fertilizer treatment,the potassium content in the stems and leaves of rice treated with the synergistic compound fertilizer increased by 19.91%,the potassium content in the rice grains decreased by 15.83%,and the potassium content in the stems and leaves of the synergistic compound fertilizer reduced by 20% treatment decreased 6.56%,the potassium content of grains increased by 0.62%.Compared with conventional compound fertilizer treatment,the yield of rice treated with synergistic compound fertilizer increased by 22.02% and the difference was significant.The yield of rice treated with synergistic compound fertilizer reduced by 20% increased by 1.12%.The rice panicle length,panicle number,grain number per panicle,1 000-grain weight and seed setting rate of rice of synergistic compound fertilizer were the highest among all the treatments.In summary,the synergistic compound fertilizer can improve the growth index of rice in each growth period,improve the nitrogen absorption,phosphorus absorption and potassium absorption of rice,and increase crop yield.Compared with conventional compound fertilizer,the 20% reduction treatment of synergistic compound fertilizer can realize the reduction of chemical fertilizer without reducing production,and it is worthy of further popularization and application.

  • SU Gang, WANG Yizhen, GE Junzhu, LI Zifang, ZANG Fengyan, WANG Jinlong, WU Xidong
    Abstract (76) PDF (49) RichHTML (17)

    Field experiments were used to study the effects of green manure rape returning stages and different nitrogen application rates on yield of spring maize and soil nutrients,in order to provide a theoretical basis for higher using efficiency on less application of nitrogen on spring maize in Northern China Plains. The experiment adopted a split plot design. The stages of returning in the main plots were winter fallow field without returning (G0),initial flowering (G1),full blooming (G2),and pod (G3). The nitrogen application rates of split plots were as follows: 0(N0),135(N135),270(N270),405(N405) and 540 kg/ha (N540).During the maize harvest stage,the five-point sampling method was used to measure soil samples to determine the soil nutrients' contents of each plot,and the maize yields with constituent factors.The results showed that compared with G0 treatment,G2 treatment significantly increased the yield by 5.89%,while the G1 treatment significantly increased the yield by 6.37% in 2020,of which the increases of grain number per ear were 5.59% and 8.37%,respectively,but there were no significant effect on hundred-grain weight;the yield of G3 treatment reduced 8.43% due to decreases of the average 2.62% of grain number per ear and 6.40% of the average hundred-grain weight in 2020. The yield increased significantly with the increase of nitrogen application rates. Under the G1,G2 and G3 treatments, the yields of spring maize reached the hightest when nitrogen application rates were N405,N270 and N405 which were 10 961.21,11 253.34 and 10 331.12 kg/ha, respectively.The yields were higher than others with nitrogen application rates of N405 and N270 for 10 961.21,11 253.35 kg/a,respectively. Model analysis showed that the G1 and G2 treatments could ensure the yield was stable above 10 000 kg/ha,while the nitrogen fertilizer application could be reduced by 7.89%—41.45%. In 2020,the G3 treatment could reduce the nitrogen by 10.53% and the yield by 6.27%. Compared with G0 treatment,G1 and G2 treatments significantly increased the average of soil organic matter and alkaline nitrogen content by 8.28%,4.12%,11.17%,and 12.77%,respectively. Soil total nitrogen contents in G1,G2 and G3 treatments increased significantly by 6.01%,5.86% and 8.00% in 2019. Rape returning significantly decreased the soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus contents. There were no significant differences of total potassium content among treatments,while soil available potassium contents of G1 and G2 treatments were higher than G0 treatment,and G3 treatment significantly decreased for 3.41% than G0 treatment in 2020. Each soil nutrients' contents increased firstly and then decreased with the increase nitrogen application rates,the value with N270 was the highest. In summary,returning green manure rape to the field from the initial flowering to the full flowering period can increase the soil organic matter,total nitrogen,alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium content. With the nitrogen fertilizer application reduced by 7.89%—41.45%,the yield can also stable above 10 000 kg/ha,which achieve the goal of stabilizing the production of spring maize and reducing nitrogen and increasing efficiency in the North China Plain.

  • HE Jing, DONG Jianxin, CONG Ping, SONG Wenjing, MA Xiaogang, GUAN Ensen, WANG Dahai
    Abstract (72) PDF (24) RichHTML (18)

    To investigate the effects of different maize straw carbon addition on soil organic carbon and fertilizer improvement,it focused on an in-situ soil column incubation experiment was established on tobacco fields.Four treatments were set,including none straw addition(CK),conventional straw(RS),decomposed straw(DS)and straw biochar(BC).The organic carbon components and structure,soil physical and chemical properties,and enzyme activities of the 0-20 cm soil layer of tobacco field treaded by the four treatments were characterized and analyzed.One-year incubation results showed that:Compared with none straw addition,the three forms of straw carbon addition all significantly increased the content of total organic carbon(TOC)and microbial biomass carbon(MBC)in the soil.Compared with none straw addition,treatments of conventional straw and decomposed straw significantly increased soil dissolved organic carbon(DOC)content,while straw biochar treatment significantly increased particulate organic carbon(POC)content(42.40%).The three forms of straw carbon addition all significantly increased the microbial biomass carbon/total organic carbon ratio and promoted the turnover of soil organic carbon.The functional group structure of SOC was analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.The results indicated that conventional straw and decomposed straw treatment increased the relative content of Alkoxy carbon(O-Alkyl-C)and Carbonyl carbon(Carbonyl-C)(labile carbon component),while straw biochar treatment increased Alkyl carbon(Alkyl-C)(recalcitrant carbon component),Alkyl carbon/Alkoxy carbon(A/OA)and Hydrophobic-C/Hydrophilic-C(Hydrophobic-C/Hydrophilic-C).Different forms of straw carbon had significantly different effects on soil nutrients and enzyme activities,straw biochar treatment significantly increased by 65.72%,19.93% and 5.77% for the content of available potassium(AK),ammonium nitrogen(AN)and nitrate nitrogen(NN),respectively.Conventional straw and straw biochar treatments significantly increased the activities of sucrase(Su)and urease(Ur).The three forms of straw carbon all had a significant effect on the activity of phosphatase(Ps).Redundancy analysis showed that C/N ratio(C/N),cellulase(Ce)and total nitrogen(TN)were the main factors affecting the organic carbon content,while cellulase,pH,and available potassium were the main factors affecting the organic carbon structure.Overall,the application of maize straw biochar had significant advantages in improving organic carbon content and stability,nutrient content,and enzyme activity in a short term.In the comprehensive soil fertility evaluation,straw biochar had the highest score with 0.57.Maize straw biochar was an effective measure to improve the organic carbon level and soil fertility in the tobacco planting soil.

  • WANG Yong, MENG Qingfeng
    Abstract (164) PDF (24) RichHTML (28)

    In order to explore the effects of cattle manure on soil salinity and sodicity on the sodic soil in long-term experiments,the experiments were performed in a randomized complete block design with four treatments;soils that received manure applications for 8,12,18 years were used as the experimental treatments,and soil that did not receive cattle manure application was used as the control treatment(CK).The results showed that the application of cattle manure to saline-sodic soil resulted in a reduction in the bicarbonate ion(HCO3-)contents,the elimination of carbonate ions(CO32-),the decrease in soil bulk density(ρb),the increases in soil porosity(ft)and soil organic matter(SOM),the decreases in the exchangeable and soluble sodium ion (Na+)contents associated with increases in the exchangeable calcium ion(Ca2+),soluble potassium ion(K+),and magnesium ion(Mg2+)contents compared to those in untreated soil.The soil exchangeable sodium percentage(ESP)and pH were both significantly and positively correlated with the exchangeable Na+ and HCO3-,and CO32- contents,and soil pH was significantly and negatively correlated with SOM.Regression analysis showed that the dominant factors affecting the sodium absorption ratio(SAR)were the soluble Mg2+ and Na+ contents in the soil.Pearson correlation analysis showed that there were significantly negative correlation between the accumulated amount of cattle manure among the indicators of soil salinization degree,such as pH,EC,ESP and SAR.It was concluded that long-term manure application significantly decreased the soil pH,ESP,electrical conductivity(EC)and SAR due to the replacement of soil colloidal Na+ with Ca2+,the leaching of soil soluble salts from the topsoil and changes in the soil soluble salt ion composition.These outcomes were likely due to the decrease of ρb associated with increase of ft and Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents caused by annual manure application.

  • MA Jie, SUN Xiangyang, SUO Linna, WANG Lei, SUN Na, XU Ning, LI Jia
    Abstract (92) PDF (24) RichHTML (18)

    To investigate the effects of zeolite and Ca-Mg-based bentonite on the passivation of cadmium in calcareous soil in Northern China and the growth of pakchoi,a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of two modifiers(mass fraction of zeolite was 0.5%,1.0%,2.0% and mass fraction of calcium-magnesium bentonite was 0.2%,0.3%,0.4%,0.5%,0.6%,0.8%)on pH value,available cadmium content of calcareous cadmium-contaminated soil in Northern China and cadmium content,dry matter accumulation and chlorophyll content of aboveground part of pakchoi.The results showed that compared with the control,adding different doses of zeolite could increase the soil pH value.With the increasing of zeolite application dose,the available cadmium content of soil,the aboveground cadmium content,the dry matter accumulation and chlorophyll content of pakchoi decreased gradually.The germination rate of pakchoi increased gradually,but the effects of zeolite treatments on the indexes determined in the experiment were not significant.The application of Ca-Mg-based bentonite significantly increased the soil pH value(0.70—1.07)and decreased the Cd content in the aboveground part of pakchoi(63.83%—93.62%).The aboveground dry matter accumulation(5.56%—29.22%)and chlorophyll content(5.42%—11.72%)of pakchoi increased,and the soil available cadmium content significantly decreased by a higher dose(≥0.4%).However,the germination rate of pakchoi decreased significantly and inhibited germination.The research showed that Ca-Mg-based bentonite was more suitable for the passivation of cadmium in calcareous soil in Northern China than zeolites.The content of available cadmium in calcareous soil and the content of cadmium in the aboveground part of pakchoi could reduce by applying Ca-Mg-based bentonite.However,the amount of application should be strictly controlled to avoid affecting the germination of pakchoi and reducing yield.The comprehensive analysis of quality and yield factors showed that the addition of 0.3% Ca-Mg-based bentonite could effectively reduce the aboveground cadmium content of pakchoi and increase the aboveground dry matter accumulation and chlorophyll content of pakchoi.

  • PING Huaixiang, CUI Jianyu, CHEN Shuo, WEI Lulu, CHEN Qing, ZHANG Delong
    Abstract (81) PDF (30) RichHTML (3)

    Stoichiometry characteristics of soil CNP and MBC,MBN,MBP,and the changes of enzyme activity with different fertilization can help to understand the relationship between fertilization and soil nutrient balance,and thus formulate more reasonable fertilization measures.Published literature data on the changes of CNP status and enzyme activity in fertilized soil were collected,and the changes of CNP stoichiometry and enzyme activity in cultivated soil nutrient/biomass with different fertilization were analyzed by Meta-analysis.The results showed that the C/N under single fertilizer,compound fertilizer and the application of chemical fertilizer and manure was 14.1,14.8 and 23.2,the value of C/P was 20.4,15.3 and 14.8,the value of N/P was 5.03,4.43 and 3.10,respectively.There was no significant difference in MBC/MBN and MBN/MBP with different fertilization.The ratio of MBC/MBP was:application of fertilizer and manure>single fertilizer>compound fertilizer.Different fertilizations could improve the activities of soil sucrase,phosphatase,urease and catalase,especially the application of chemical fertilizer and manure(which increased urease activity by 100%).It showed that the application of chemical fertilizer and manure could significantly affected the stoichiometric ratio of CNP in soil,enhanced microbial activities and promoted microorganisms to release more enzymes conducive to soil nutrient mineralization.It was an effective way to improve crop yield and ensure soil health in agricultural production.Soil enzyme activity was restricted by soil fertility and microbial process.A certain correlation between CNP stoichiometric ratio and soil enzyme activity was observed,which was also affected by land use type,soil pH and rotation system.The study of soil nutrient-microorganism-enzyme activity system can provide a theoretical basis for optimizing fertilization management in farmland system.

  • ZHANG Qian, ZHAO Qiu, XIANG Chunyang, SHI Xinqian, DU Jin
    Abstract (71) PDF (35) RichHTML (8)

    In order to promote the planting of winter green manure in North China,a long-term field experiment was adopted,and the winter idle field was used as a control.Four winter green manure treatments were set up,Orychophragmus violaceus,Viciavilosa Roth,Lolium perenne L.and Brassica campestris L..The effects of different winter green fertilizers on soil organic phosphorus and phosphorus content and corn phosphorus absorption were studied.The results showed that in the past 7 years of different winter green manure treatments,the change trend of soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus content was the same.Compared with other treatments,vetch increased the soil total phosphorus the most,with an average annual growth rate of 8.07%,winter rape increased soil availability compared with other treatments.The phosphorus content was the most,with an average annual growth rate of 48.34%.Different winter green manures and spring corn rotations had different effects on the organic phosphorus content of various forms in the soil.In 2019,the highest active organic phosphorus content was ryegrass treatment and winter rape treatment,both of which were 12.64 mg/kg;moderately active organic phosphorus content the highest was the winter rape treatment(41.64 mg/kg),the medium-stable organic phosphorus content was the highest in the ryegrass treatment(18.73 mg/kg),for the high-stability organic phosphorus,the winter rape treatment was significantly higher than other treatments.The treatments of February orchid,vetch and ryegrass were significantly lower than the treatments of winter fallow and winter rape;the rotation of winter rape and spring maize could promote the conversion of organic phosphorus to active and medium active organic phosphorus in the soil.After 7 years of winter green manure,the phosphorus content(0.39 mg/kg)of corn kernels treated with winter rape was the highest among the treatments.The order of correlation coefficients between the phosphorus content of corn grains and various forms of organic phosphorus was MLOP(0.952**)>LOP(0.816**)>MROP(0.122)>HROP(-0.064).

  • LIU Lei, WANG Ling, XIAO Guangmin, RU Shuhua, SUN Shiyou, GAO Jing, LI Pin, ZHAO Ouya, ZHANG Guoyin
    Abstract (72) PDF (13) RichHTML (0)

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of different rotation systems on nitrate leaching,field experiments were carried out from 2018 to 2020 to compare the variation characteristics of nitrate leaching in greenhouse soil under three rotation systems,i.e.tomato-melon(TM),bean-melon(BM)and tomato-bean(TB),and to explore the controlling factors for differences in nitrate leaching.Results showed that the rotation with Vigna unguiculata significantly reduced the amount of nitrate leaching compared with the traditional TM rotation.The total nitrate leaching loss of TB was significantly decreased by 39.74% compared with TM,however,the nitrate leaching loss of BM were significantly decreased by 6.32%.Collectively,TB had the best environmental benefits among three rotations,which was the recommended rotation pattern.Spearman correlation analysis showed that the NO3-NO3--N leaching was most affected by 0—100 cm soil water storage,soil NO3--N accumulation and temperature,with a highly significant positive correlation.A positive correlation of NO3--N leaching with 0—100 cm organic carbon storage and soil total nitrogen accumulation,as well as a negative correlation with 0—60 cm soil pH value were also observed.Comparing with the traditional TM,the decreasing of nitrate leaching in recommended rotation pattern(TB)was mainly attributed to significant reduction of 0—100 cm soil water storage,soil NO3-N and total nitrogen accumulation,and significant increment of soil pH value to chang soil physical and chemical properties,together with alleviating the background nitrate leaching caused by organic nitrogen mineralization in sensitive leaching seasons.

  • XU Lingqi, GUO Xiaohong, ZHANG Jianing, ZHAO Yang, LI Xiaolei, LIU Shaofeng, CUI Zhiyuan, AN Yiliang, LÜ Yandong
    Abstract (90) PDF (25) RichHTML (3)

    In order to explore the changing law of dry direct-seeding rice quality under different organic fertilizer treatments,this experiment was conducted from 2018 to 2020.Longjing 31 was used as the test material.Treatments includes:zero fertilizer(N0),conventional fertilization(NPK),Biochar+conventional fertilization(OF1),seaweed bio-organic fertilizer+conventional fertilization(OF2),Jishiwang bio-organic fertilizer+conventional fertilization(OF3),attapulgite organic fertilizer+conventional fertilization(OF4).Changes in the processing quality,appearance quality,nutritional quality,and cooking and eating quality of dry direct-seeding rice were investigated.Compared with NPK,the head rice percentage of OF1,OF2,OF3,OF4 increased by 2.64 ,1.78,1.06,2.53 percentage points,respectively.The chalkiness degree of OF2 was the highest(1.82%),which was 0.11 percentage points higher than that of NPK.However,the chalkiness degree of OF1,OF3 and OF4 were lower than that of NPK,with an average decrease of 0.26,0.41,0.51 percentage points,respectively.There was no significant difference in grain length,grain width and length width ratio among the treatments.From 2019 to 2020,compared with NPK,organic fertilizer treatment increased protein content,but decreased amylose content;the protein contents of OF1,OF2,OF3 and OF4 were 8.99%,9.13%,9.08% and 9.16% respectively,which were 0.54,0.68,0.63,0.71 percentage points higher than those of NPK;the amylose content of OF1,OF2,OF3 and OF4 decreased by 0.20,0.64,0.69,0.38 percentage points,respectively;compared with NPK,the application of organic fertilizer at the initial stage could improve the luster,taste,flavor and taste value of dry-direct seeding rice,but long-term application of organic fertilizer would lead to poor cooking and eating quality;from 2019 to 2020,the average taste value of NPK treatment was 72.70,compared with NPK,OF1,OF2,OF3 and OF4 reduced the aroma,luster,taste,flavor and taste value of dry direct-seeding rice by 5.53%,6.40%,3.71% and 3.23%,respectively,but organic fertilizer increased the integrity of rice.In conclusion,long-term application of organic fertilizer can improve the processing quality,appearance quality and nutritional quality of dry direct-seeding rice,but it is not conducive to the formation of cooking and eating quality and reduce amylose content.

  • DONG Linlin, SHEN Mingxing, QUAN Jianyu, WEN Yuqin, SHEN Yuan, TAO Yueyue, SHI Linlin, LU Changying
    To explore the effects of basic application depth of chemical fertilizer on its utilization rate, rice growth and nutrient uptake. Five treatments including no fertilization(T1), and basal fertilizer application depth of 0(T2), 5(T3), 10(T4)and 15 cm(T5)were set up to study the effects of basal fertilizer application depth on rice yield and fertilizer use efficiency. The application depth of basal fertilizer had no significant effect on the leaf biomass of rice at different growth stages, but had significant effect on the stem biomass at mature stage. The stem biomass was significantly increased when the basal fertilizer was applied at 0 and 5 cm depth, and significantly decreased at fertilizer application depth of 10 cm and 15 cm at mature stage, and significantly lower than that of basal fertilizer application on soil surface(P<0.05);The uptake of N, P, K of rice leaf at different growth stages changed not significantly with basal fertilizer application depth, but the N, P and K uptake of rice stem at mature stage was significantly different due to basal fertilizer application depth(P<0.05);The N and K harvest index increased to the maximum at fertilizer application depth about 10 cm and the decreased, and was significantly correlated with basal fertilizer application depth(P<0.05). The application depth of base fertilizer with the largest nitrogen harvest index was 10.5 cm, while which of the largest potassium harvest index was 7.0 cm. The effect of basal fertilizer application depth on rice stem growth and nutrient absorption was greater than that on rice leaf. Basal fertilizer applied within an appropriately depth had positive effects on rice yield and fertilizer use efficiency. Considering the rice yield and element utilization, the depth of basal fertilizer applied within 7.0-10.5 cm was more conducive to improve the rice yield and fertilizer utilization.
  • LIU Changyuan, JIAO Fengli, HONG Shengzhe, SUN Chitao, ZHANG Mingming, ZHANG Kai, LI Quanqi
    In order to explore the effects of biodegradable mulching film on soil enzyme activities and soil fertility in the North China Plain, and to seek more environmentally friendly alternatives, to solve "white pollution" problem of plastic film mulching, this test set common PE plastic mulching(PM), biodegradable(BM)of plastic film mulching, straw mulching(SM)3 different mulching treatments, with bare not covered(CK)as contrast, study covering different processing of spring corn farmland soil enzyme activity and soil nutrient content.The results showed that the effects of three different mulching treatments on the activities of soil catalase and urease in the growth period of spring maize had roughly the same trend, showing a trend of decreasing first, then increasing and then decreasing, while the activities of soil cellulase first decreased and then increased in the growth period of spring maize.At the harvest stage of spring maize, the activities of the above three enzymes could be increased by two different plastic film mulching treatments, but only the activities of soil catalase and urease could be increased by straw mulching.Among them, each mulching treatment had an obvious improvement effect on soil urease activity, which increased by 58.73%, 33.65%, 83.84% and 26.19%, 50.98%, 61.21% compared with CK treatment in the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, respectively.Compared with CK, all mulching treatments increased the contents of soil organic carbon, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen and available potassium in the 0-10 cm soil layer, and straw mulching had the best effect, which significantly increased by 24.68%, 11.10% and 23.34%, respectively, while there was no significant difference between the two mulching treatments.Mulching treatments had no significant effect on soil available P content.In conclusion, the effects of biodegradable mulching on the above three soil enzyme activities and soil nutrient contents were similar to those of ordinary PE mulching in the North China Plain.Therefore, biodegradable mulching film instead of ordinary PE mulching film in farmland to solve the problem of "white pollution" has a good application prospect.
  • FAN Yaping, CHEN Fangling, HE Miaomiao, WANG Changxian
    The effects of citrus peels addition on soil physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities were explored under the condition of reductive soil disinfestation, so as to provide theoretical basis for effective utilization of abundant citrus peels resources in agricultural production. A soil culture experiment was conducted and citrus peels was selected as organic material in reductive soil disinfestation. Three citrus peels addition levels(0, 0.25%, 0.50%)were designed, and the soil mixed with citrus peels were covered with film after the water content reaches saturation. Kept it for 40 days at room temperature. The changes of soil physical and chemical properties and related enzyme activities were studied, and the correlation between soil physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities was analyzed. The results showed that compared with pre-sterilization, the contents of alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus and organic matter of sterilized soil increased significantly, and the pH value increased significantly. Under the condition of RSD, the contents of alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus and organic matter of soil treated with 0.25% citrus peels application were 1.10, 1.22, 1.11 times of those treated without citrus peel application respectively. In addition, soil urease and phosphatase activities were significantly enhanced compared with those before RSD. Under the condition of RSD, the urease activities of the treatment adding 0.25% citrus peels and phosphatase activities of the treatment adding 0.50% citrus peels were 1.69, 1.46 times of those without citrus peels respectively. Before RSD, urease activity was significantly negatively correlated with pH, however, after RSD, urease activity and pH changed into a positive correlation. Meanwhile, urease activity was also positively correlated with the organic matter contents of soil added citrus peels and phosphatase activity of soil added 0.50% citrus peels could significantly positively correlated with the content of available phosphorus. Therefore, adding 0.25% citrus peels could significantly improve the soil alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen and available phosphorus level, while the pH and available potassium significantly increased by adding 0.50% citrus peels could significantly increase the soil pH and enhance the soil potassium supply level, meanwhile, it promoted the accumulation of soil organic matter on some degree. It is beneficial to improve soil fertility by adding citrus peels, when soil was reductive disinfested.
  • ZHANG Peng, WU Peicong, SHAN Ying, ZOU Ganghua, DING Zheli, QIAN Yongde, ZHAO Fengliang
    In order to study the effects of straw returning on N2O emission from paddy fields in tropical areas, this study was based on paddy soil cultivated for 4 years under different management measures, and observed the dynamic changes of N2O emission after rice planting through pot experiment. The experiment set up N free control(CK), conventional N application(CT), only straw application(ST)and conventional N application combined with straw(CTST)treatment. The results showed that N2O fluxes ranged from-0.23 to 6.64 mg/(m2·h), mainly concentrated in the early and middle stages of rice growth. Compared with CT treatment, CTST treatment, significantly reduced inorganic N concentration in surface water at tillering stages(P<0.05), and reduced the maintenance time of N2O emission peak. The whole growth period N2O cumulative emission of each treatment ranged from 0.13 to 2.85 g/m2, and the N application treatment was significantly higher than the N free treatment(P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between the ST and CK treatment(P>0.05). Compared with the CT treatment, the CTST treatment could significantly reduce the N2O emission by 49.11%(P<0.05). Therefore, application of nitrogen fertilizer is the main reason for the increase of N2O emission, and straw returning can significantly reduce N2O emission in tropical soil-rice system.
  • WANG Qiyao, ZHAO Gengxing, ZHAO Yongchang, YANG Jingwen, ZHANG Shuwei, LI Tao, LI Jianwei, PAN Deng, TU Qiang
    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of applying microbial fertilizer on salt reduction and the response of cotton growth in coastal saline cotton field. The mild and moderate saline cotton fields in the coastal area of the Yellow River Delta were selected. Cotton field experiments were conducted with different kinds of biological products and different amounts of microbial fertilizer. Soil salinity, cotton plant height, SPAD value, canopy NDVI and other data were collected. The effect of microbial fertilizer on reducing salt in saline cotton field and its response to cotton growth were systematically analyzed. The results showed that different kinds of biological products had a certain effect on salt reduction, and the salt content in surface and underlayer, rhizosphere and between ridges decreased. In mildly saline cotton field, soil salt content decreased between 7.03% and 35.06%, plant height increased by 9.76% to 15.40%, SPAD value increased by 12.97% to 22.64%, and NDVI value increased by 12.58% to 19.85%. Microbial fertilizer treatment had the best effect. Soil salt content decreased by 6.18% -31.85%, plant height increased by 10.02% -17.12%, SPAD value increased by 13.67% -15.55%, and NDVI value increased by 9.22% -18.69% in moderate salinized cotton fields. The effect of microbial fertilizer on reducing salt was the most obvious. In general, the salt reduction and growth promotion effects of the application of microbial fertilizer were better than that of organic matter+beneficial microbial treatment, and better than that of commercial organic fertilizer treatment. The recommended application amount of microbial fertilizer was 1 500 kg/ha. This study proved that the application of microbial fertilizer in coastal saline cotton field had an obvious effect of reducing salt, and had a positive effect on the growth of cotton. The results provided a reference for the biological improvement of coastal saline farmland.
  • GAO Jie, LI Xiaorong, FENG Guangcai, LI Qingfeng, PENG Qiu
    In order to clarify the difference of yield and nitrogen use efficiency between new and old generations of waxy sorghum varieties(lines)in Guizhou, the sorghum cultivars of HYZ, QG8H, HongKN and HeiKN were used as experimental materials, two nitrogen treatments(LN and HN)were set up.The differenceof yield, nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen use characteristics of which were analyzed by split plot design. The results showed that:the yield, dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of 2010s cultivars(HYZ and QG8H)were significantly increased by 25.4%, 25.1% and 33.3%, respectively, compared with those of 1990s cultivars(HeiKN and HongKN). NHI under LN treatment was significantly different among cultivars, but not under HN treatment. Compared with LN, RNAP of 1990s cultivars decreased significantly under HN treatment, with a range of 20.9%, which indicated that the 2010s cultivar had a stronger post-flowering N assimilation capacity, and a stronger grain N accumulation capacity at both low and high N levels.NPFP, NARR, NRE and NFAE of 2010s cultivars were increased by 13.9 kg/kg, 0.7 kg/kg, 20.3% and 4.1 kg/kg, respectively, compared with the 1990s cultivars. Yield, DMA, TNA were significantly positively correlated with NRE, which indicated that the increased yield of waxy sorghum in Guizhou Province might relate to the increase of nitrogen accumulation caused by the improvement of NRE, which provided sufficient nitrogen supply for the normal physiological metabolism of waxy sorghum.
  • LI Jinting, WEI Jinjian, WEI Chizhang, NONG Yuqin, LUO Yanfei, LU Jinmei, LIAO Chunwen, QIN Xiaomin
    In order to explore the effects of tea and soybean intercropping on tea quality and soil nutrients under different nitrogen rates. A pot experiment with four nitrogen rates(N0:0 g/kg, N1:0.25 g/kg, N2:0.50 g/kg and N3:1.00 g/kg)and two cropping patterns of tea and soybean intercropping and tea monocropping was conducted. The results showed that compared with monocropped tea, tea and soybean intercropping significantly improved the contents of free amino acids, caffeine and soluble sugar of tea, while decreased the content of tea polyphenols to advance the nutritional quality of tea. It also significantly increased the contents of total N, available N, available P, available K and organic matter, thus improving the fertility. In addition, the yield and quality of tea were not significantly reduced by 1/2 of nitrogen application rates(N1)in comparison to the monocropped tea with normal nitrogen application rates(N2)in the tea and soybean intercropping system, and also enhanced soil fertility. Correlation analysis indicated that the improvement of tea quality was closely related to the abundance and deficiency of soil nutrients. Under this experimental condition, tea and soybean intercropping system had the potential to maintain tea yield, quality and soil nutrients improvement under the treatment of reducing nitrogen application.
  • WEI Jinjian, QIN Xiaomin, NONG Yuqin, LUO Yanfei, LU Jinmei, CHEN Yuanquan, WEI Chizhang
    To explore the metabolic functional diversity of root soil microbial community in tea and soybean intercropping contributes to further understand the mechanism of high yield and good quality of tea garden. A field trial with three planting patterns(tea monocropping, soybean monocropping, tea and soybean intercropping)was conducted to analyze the changes of metabolic function diversity of soil microbial community by Biolog technology. Results showed that intercropping increased the average well color development(AWCD)of soil microbial community of tea and soybean by 11.52% and 12.99% at 120 h, respectively, compared with monocropping pattern. Intercropping enhanced the utilization of carbohydrate, amino acid, carboxylic acid and amine by soil microbial community of tea and soybean and improved the soil microbial diversity indices. Principal component analysis demonstrated that tea and soybean intercropping significantly improved the metabolic diversity of soil microbial community by changing the utilization patterns of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids by soil microorganism. Under this experiment, intercropping of tea and soybean changed the composition of rhizosphere microbial community and improved the functional diversity of microbial community.
  • SONG Yaxin, ZHAO Tongke, AN Zhizhuang, MA Maoting
    To investigate the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil nutrient content in protected cultivation.Under the condition of facility cultivation, tomato field experiments were conducted to study the effect of the yield and soil nutrient content when reduced organic and inorganic fertilizers and combined the both application.Compared with the traditional organic fertilizer application amount of 105.00×103 kg/ha, organic and inorganic combined application increased the yield by 12.99%, and the total fertilization of tomato could be reduced by 25% and 50%, it can make the yield of tomato was increased by 8.55% and 8.84%, when inorganic fertilizer was reduced to 50%, the yield decreased significantly.In the middle growth of tomato, there was no significantly difference between each treatments, but compared with the traditional application of organic fertilizer and when the organic fertilizer reduced 25%, organic matter content, total nitrogen content, available potassium content in soil respectively increased by 1.41%, 2.64%, 10.34%;after the harvest of tomato, soil nutrient content decreased with the amount of fertilizer decreased, no significant difference;Compared with the middle growth of tomato, the nitrate nitrogen content in the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soils treat with organic and inorganic fertilizers increased from 67.33 mg/kg and 28.93 mg/kg to 90.95 mg/kg and 40.66 mg/kg, respectively, and the nitrate nitrogen content in the 40-60 cm soils decreased from 21.40 mg/kg to 14.97 mg/kg, while the nitrate nitrogen content in the 60-80 cm and 80-100 cm soil layers was basically the same; in all treatments after harvest, with the reduction of nitrogen application rate, the accumulation of nitrate in soil and leaching risk both decreased.Compared with the traditional organic fertilizer application amount of 105.00×103 kg/ha, the local tomato fertilizer amount can be reduced by 25%-50%, and the appropriate use of organic fertilizers, which can not only make the tomato yield slightly and reducing nitrate leaching risk of soil, also can make the soil nutrient content is more suitable for crop growth and maintain soil productivity.
  • ZHAO Hongkai, ZHANG Xiaoyi, ZENG Huiyun, DENG Jinghan, CHEN Xiaofeng, SONG Lifen
    It was conducted to research the effect of Phyto-CatTM soil conditioner on the physiological and chemical properties of the soil and the physiological characteristics of non-bearing cabbage, and to explore its effectiveness as an alternative to traditional chemical fertilizers.We take non-heading Chinese cabbage plants as the test object, and adopt a multi-factor single-level method to study the effects of four treatments:study basal fertilizer(CK), basal fertilizer+Phyto-CatTM soil conditioner(T1), basal fertilizer+conventional fertilization(T2), basal fertilizer+conventional fertilization+The effects of four treatments with Phyto-CatTM soil conditioner(T3)on the physiological characteristics of non-heading Chinese cabbage, soil physical and chemical properties and fertility levels.The results indicated that compared with CK treatment, T1, T2 and T3 treatments could significantly increased the yield, chlorophyll content, leaf soluble sugar and root activity(tetrazole reduction intensity)of non-heading cabbage.Three processing each index had respectively increased by 11.5%-27.9%, 9.8%-22.7%, 7.8%-16.3%, 12.4%-24.8%;compared with CK treatment;T1 treatment made the test soil pH, water-stable aggregate content, field water holding capacity, soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium content increase by 5.9%, 5.3%, 2.1%, 18.42%, 7.32%, 29.89% and 33.97%;Respectively, soil bulk density decreased by 9.5%.The research results indicated that the application of Phyto-CatTM soil conditioner had a significant effect on the physiological characteristics and soil properties of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Under the condition of applying no chemical fertilizer, Phyto-catTM soil conditioner played an obvious role in improving soil properties and increasing crop yield. It could replace chemical fertilizer application on the premise of ensuring crop yield, and open up a new way for pollution-free agricultural production.
  • LIU Chang, DUAN Jingtao, ZHANG Jianfu, PANG Li, SONG Haoyue, CHEN Faju, HE Zhengquan, ZHANG Fuli
    To explore the effects of Trichoderma fertilizer on wheat growth, disease resistance, yield and soil enzyme activities under salt stress.Plant height, root length, root number, physiological and biochemical indexs, diseased ears rate, disease index, control efficiency, thousand seeds weight and soil enzyme activity of Xinong 979 were measured under salt stress by using Trichoderma Fertilizer instead of 30% chemical fertilizer and using 100% chemical fertilizer.The results showed that compared with chemical fertilizer, the application of Trichoderma fertilizer significantly increased plant height, root length and root number of wheat by 10.91%, 43.45% and 42.86% under salt stress, respectively.Secondly, under salt stress, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and content of chlorophyll in wheat leaves increased significantly after Trichoderma fertilizer application, while the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in wheat leaves were significantly lower than that of chemical fertilizer.Moreover, the incidence rate of Fusarium head blight in wheat after Trichoderma fertilizer application was significantly lower than that in wheat applied with chemical fertilizer, with the control efficiency of 88.36% to Fusarium head blight.The thousand grains weight of wheat grain increased by 9.5% after Trichoderma fertilizer application compared to control.In addition, the activities of soil enzymes including urease, sucrase, dehydrogenase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in wheat rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere were much higher after Trichoderma fertilizer application.In sum, under salt stress, Trichoderma fertilizer enhanced the disease resistance of wheat by increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll content as well as improving the ecological environment of soil, subsequently increasing yield and improving quality of wheat grains.
  • ZHANG Rui, WANG Tengfei, ZHANG Meihua, ZHANG Yongsheng, YANG Changyu, CHEN Zhipi
    In order to reveal the response relationship between potato yield and rhizosphere soil microbiological characteristics under plastic film mulching and supplementary irrigation technology in semi-arid area,field experiments of potato mulching and supplementary irrigation were carried out in Dingxi irrigation experimental station of Gansu Province,which included six treatments,drip irrigation under plastic film(PFID),drip irrigation under semi mulching(PHID),furrow irrigation with full film mulching(PFIF),furrow irrigation without film mulching(PNIF),border irrigation with plastic film mulching(PFIB),and no irrigation in border field covered with plastic film(PFIBN).Flat planting without film and no irrigation(PNIN) was used as control.The effects of different treatments on potato yield,rhizosphere soil organic matter(TOM),organic carbon(TOC),microbial biomass carbon(MBC),microbial biomass nitrogen(MBN),urease and catalase were analyzed.The results showed that mulching methods had significant effects on rhizosphere soil microbiological properties under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation.MBC and MBN of full film mulching treatment were significantly higher than that of half mulching treatment,while urease and catalase activities of semi mulching or no mulching treatment were significantly higher than that of full mulching treatment(P <0.05).On the other hand,the activity of urease and catalase of all supplementary irrigation treatments(PFID,PHID,PFIF,PNIF,PFIB) were significantly higher than control treatment(PNIN).The potato yield,number of tubers per plant and tuber weight per plant of supplemental irrigation treatment were also significantly higher than control treatment.In particular,the yield of semi mulched drip irrigation treatment(PHID) was 44 603.70 kg/ha,which was 51.00% higher than control.Correlation analysis showed that potato yield was highly significant correlated with MBC,urease activity and catalase(P <0.01),and positively correlated with TOM and TOC(P <0.05).
  • FAN Yafang, GAO Julin, SUN Jiying, LIU Jian, SU Zhijun, WANG Zhigang, YU Xiaofang, HU Shuping
    Twenty-one maize inbred lines were used to study the effects of potassium fertilizer on stem phenotype,stem lodging resistance,ear traits,yield-related traits and grain quality of maize inbred lines with different yield types.The results showed that compared with 0K,the stem diameter of high-yield,middle-yield and low-yield maize inbred lines under 45K treatment increased by 14.21%,11.60% and 8.41%;the bending strength of stem increased by 30.58%,27.52% and 24.59%;the ear diameter increased by 3.61%,2.57% and 1.72%;the ear tip barrenness decreased by 10.19%,7.41% and 4.81%;the 1000-grain mass increased by 4.97%,3.55% and 2.23%;the yield increased by 7.50%,5.57% and 4.45%;the grain protein content increased by 0.62,0.40,0.20 percentage points respectively.Application of potassium fertilizer could improve maize stem morphology and mechanical index,improve maize lodging resistance,promote maize plant growth and development,and then affect maize yield and quality.The results showed that high-yield type>middle-yield type>low-yield type of maize inbred lines with different yield types.The increase of plant height,ear height,stem diameter,stem puncture strength,stem compressive strength,stem bending strength,grain number per ear and 1 000-grain mass,as well as the decrease of ear tip barrenness of maize inbred lines could significantly improve maize yield. Therefore,the above indexes can be used as screening indexes of yield of maize inbred line under potassium fertilizer application.This experiment provided a theoretical basis for breeding high-yield and high-quality maize materials,selecting suitable basic materials for studying the physiological characteristics of maize inbred lines with different yield types,and provided a reference basis for high-yield and high-efficiency maize breeding and rational utilization of potassium fertilizer in China in the future.
  • LI Ju, GAO Chengfei, MA Ning, WANG Shuya, LUO Shilei, Lü Jian, FENG Zhi, HU Linli, XIAO Xuemei, YU Jihua
    To determine the best method of fertilizer reduction,high yield and stable yield in the production area of cauliflower in Northwest Plateau.The Lihe Green stem 100 days cauliflower was used as material,six treatments were set as follows:the non-fertilization(CK1) and conventional fertilization(CK2) as control;chemical fertilizer reduction by 30% added balanced fertilizer(T1);chemical fertilizer reduction by 30% added balanced fertilizer and biological organic fertilizer 3 000(T2), 6 000(T3),12 000 kg/ha (T4).Compared with CK2 treatment,the economic yield of cauliflower decreased by 3.8%,and the utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer increased from 3.7% to 11.4% in treatment T1;the economic yield of T2,T3 and T4 increased by 9.5%,11.3%,18.8%,respectively. Meanwhile,the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients,and the each element distribution proportion in flower ball were increased. Compared with CK2,T2,T3 and T4 treatments increased dry matter accumulation by 0.5%,8.3% and 7.2%,nitrogen accumulation by 9.1%,19.7% and 19.1%,phosphorus accumulation by 3.1%, 12.1% and 11.9%,and potassium accumulation by 2.4%,11.2% and 10.9%,respectively. Among them,T3 and T4 treatments were significantly different(P < 0.05). In addition,compared with CK2,chemical fertilizer reduction combined with biological organic fertilizer significantly increased the utilization rate of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. The utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer increased from 3.7% to 26% and 25.9%,and that of potassium fertilizer increased from 43.5% to 73.4% and 72.9%,respectively.Chemical fertilizer reduction by 30% added appropriate amount of biological organic fertilizer could promote the absorption,accumulation and rational distribution of nutrients on cauliflower,improve the fertilizer utilization rate,and then increase the yield.
  • WANG Dafeng, LU Shuchang, WANG Wei
    In order to improve nitrogen utilization in facility farmland and reduce soil nitrogen accumulation,waxy corn and feeding sweet sorghum was selected as the catch crops,and six different levels of biochar were designed,namely C1(0),C2(0.5%),C3(1%),C4(2%),C5(4%),C6(8%),to study the effects of biochar application on nitrogen uptake by summer crop and soil carbon and nitrogen changes.The results showed that with the increase of biochar application rate,the nitrogen uptake of the two crops first increased and then decreased.Among them,the nitrogen uptake of the aboveground part of the waxy corn C3 treatment was the largest(142.69 kg/ha),feeding sweet sorghum was the best C4 treatment(132.43 kg/ha);the soil total nitrogen decreased by 2.5%-11.0% among different treatments,and the C3 treatment decreased by the most(15.4%),except for C6 treatment, the decrease range of other treatments for feeding sweet sorghum was 1.4% to 15.5%, and the decrease was the most in C3 treatment. After planting feeding sweet sorghum,different treatments and different soil layers had reduced nitrate nitrogen content compared with before planting;The C/N value of the facility soil could be increased by combining different amounts of biochar with catch crops;the application of biochar was beneficial to increase the organic carbon content,the planting of catch crops could reduce the soil urease activity in the early growth period of the subsequent crops,and reduce the nitrogen supply capacity of the subsequent crops during the growth period.With the increase of the application amount of biochar,the soil urease activity increased firstly and then decreased in each treatment.The highest urease activity was 3.33 mg/(g·d) in NC3(preceding waxy corn+C3) treatment after planting for 15 days.After planting for 45 days,the highest urease activity was in TC3(preceding sweet sorghum+C3) treatment,followed by TC2(preceding sweet sorghum+C2) treatment.The combination of biochar application and crop cultivation could increase the soil microbial biomass carbon content at the beginning of the subsequent crop,which was beneficial to the improvement of soil fertility.Under the conditions of this experiment,it was concluded that planting waxy corn with 1%-2% biochar application rate had a better effect on nitrogen absorption,and planting filling feeding sweet sorghum with 0.5%-2% biochar application rate had a better effect on nitrogen absorption,which was beneficial to reduce soil nitrogen accumulation.Planting feeding sweet sorghum has a better effect on reducing soil nitrogen movement than planting waxy corn.
  • WANG Bohan, GUO Doudou, HUANG Shaomin, XU Qihao, ZHANG Keke
    This study compared the effects of superphosphate and monoammonium phosphate as phosphate fertilizer sources on the availability of phosphorus in fluvo-aquic soil,and analyzed the reasons why phosphate fertilizer varieties changed the availability of phosphorus in soil.Using a micro-area experiment,two phosphate fertilizer varieties,superphosphate and monoammonium phosphate,were set on the fluvo-aquic soil,and the effects of three different phosphate fertilizer rates on wheat and corn yield,phosphate partial productivity,soil available phosphorus,and soil inorganic phosphorus were analyzed after three consecutive years.Results showed that under the three levels of phosphorus application(P1,P2,P3),compared with the application of superphosphate,the average yield of wheat in monoammonium phosphate treatment increased by 24.9%,19.7%,22.0%,and the average partial productivity increased by 31.0,16.2,13.6 kg/kg,respectively;the average yield of corn increased by 29.6%,28.7%,32.2%,and the average partial productivity increased by 42.1,24.2,25.4 kg/kg,and the average content of soil available phosphorus increased by 9.6%,-3.4%,5.4%.The inorganic phosphorus of the soil treated with monoammonium phosphate increased mainly by Ca2-P and Ca8-P,Ca2-P increased by 13.4%,18.5%,26.1%,and Ca8-P increased by 17.2%,21.3%,and 15.8%.Compared with superphosphate treatment,the relative content of Ca2-P in soil treated with monoammonium phosphate increased by 0.25, 0.30, 0.33 percentage points,and the relative content of Ca8-P increased by 1.73, 0.80, 3.60 percentage points under the three phosphorus application levels.Superphosphate treatment was mainly based on the increase of Al-P and Fe-P,Al-P increased by 19.1%,23.7%,23.1%,and Fe-P increased by 24.9%,23.3%,32.6%.The relative content of Al-P in soil treated with superphosphate was increased by 1.27, 1.19, 1.26 percentage points,and the relative content of Fe-P was increased by 2.12, 2.87, 2.49 percentage points,compared with monoammonium phosphate treatment.Monoammonium phosphate and superphosphate had no significant effect on soil Ca10-P and O-P content,but monoammonium phosphate could reduce the relative content of Ca10-P and O-P by 2.47, 2.07 percentage points respectively.Compared with superphosphate treatment,monoammonium phosphate can increase the yield of wheat and corn,the partial productivity of phosphate fertilizer,and the soil available phosphorus content in fluvo-aquic soil.Monoammonium phosphate improves the availability of soil phosphorus by increasing the content and relative content of Ca2-P and Ca8-P,which are highly available in fluvo-aquic soil.
  • DAI Liangxiang, DING Hong, SHI Xiaolong, XU Yang, ZHANG Guanchu, QIN Feifei, ZHANG Zhimeng
    To assess the peanut rhizosphere bacteria community structure in response to salt stress at different development stages, the peanut variety Huayu 25 was used as experimental material, and a pot experiment was set with three salt concentrations to study the effect of salt stress on peanut yield and analyze the changes of microbial community structure of peanut rhizosphere at flowering and harvest stage under salt stress by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the rhizosphere microbial composition of peanut were basically similar under different salt stress treatments, but the diversity and richness significantly varied between flowering and harvest stage. Under higher salt stress, the diversity and richness of rhizosphere bacterial community were increased at the flowering and needling stage but decreased at the harvest stage. The dominant bacteria phyla of all soil groups were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Patescibacteria. The relative abundance of Cyanobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobiae and Bacteroides significantly increased under salt stress, especially at the flowering and needling stage. Hierarchical clustering revealed that the microbial community diversity was markedly altered by the salt concentrations and growth stages, samples of the same growth period were clustered into one group under salt stress. KEGG functional prediction analysis indicated that sequences related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and metabolism of cofactors and vitamins were enriched, whereas that of signal transduction mechanisms, lipid metabolism, replication and repair, xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, metabolism of other amino acids, and folding, sorting and degradation were decreased. Among them, salt stress increased the abundance of functional groups involved in substance and energy metabolism, membrane transport, translation, replication and repair, and signal transduction, but decreased the 100 fruit weight and 100 kernel weight of peanut resulted in the decrease of peanut yield. Therefore, salt stress had a great impact on the peanut rhizosphere bacterial community structure and peanut yield. The salt tolerance of peanut could be enhanced by improving soil microbial environment. The results provided a theoretical basis for the development of peanut production in saline-alkali areas.
  • DONG Jiaxi, TIAN Xiuping, ZHAO Qiu, SHI Xinqian, YUAN Miaomiao
    In order to promote the further promotion of green manure planting in Tianjin, a field experiment was adopted, and 9 spring Brassica napus L. varieties were overturned with spring fallow fields as a control to study the effects of different spring Brassica napus L. on soil potassium content and maize nitrogen metabolism.The results showed that there were differences in the biomass and nutrient content of different spring Brassica napus L. varieties. Among them, Zhongyoufei 1901(7 716.50 kg/ha), 1804(6 577.02 kg/ha), and 1907(6 457.03 kg/ha) had higher biomass and nutrient content.The change trend of soil total potassium and available potassium in 2019 was the same as 2020. Among them, the content of total potassium and available potassium in the soil under the treatment of spring Brassica napus L. of Zhongyoufei 1901, 1804, and 1907 was higher than that of other tested varieties in different periods, and the total potassium and available potassium content of soil in 2020 were higher than those in 2019.The potassium uptake by the whole plant of maize and the total potassium uptake by the hectare of the three varieties of maize were higher than those of other tested varieties. Compared with 2019, the potassium uptake of the whole plant of maize treated with different spring Brassica napus L. in 2020 increased by 15.70%-24.34%;the NR and GS activities of the ear leaves in different spring Brassica napus L. treatments increased by 2.16-14.22 nmol/(min · g), 0.99-2.30 μmol/(h · g), respectively. The top 3 NR and GS activities of the maize ear leaves were the same as the potassium uptake of the whole maize plant. Compared with spring fallow, spring Brassica napus L. treatments' yield of maize increased by 10.02%-33.47%, which was 1.09-1.41 times of the spring fallow, and the highest yield in two years was 15 700.94 kg/ha (2020 Zhongyoufei 1901). It could be seen from the path analysis that the nitrate reductase activity of the leaf at the ear position had a direct effect on the protein content of corn grains.In the indirect effect, leaf protein content contributed the most to maize grain protein through leaf nitrate reductase activity.Correlation analysis showed that there were significant and extremely significant positive correlations among Brassica napus L. total potassium, soil potassium, maize potassium uptake, key enzymes in maize leaf nitrogen metabolism, maize leaf protein content, and maize grain protein content.
  • YANG Zhongshuai, WU Jinzhi, HUANG Ming, LI Youjun, FU Guozhan, ZHAO Kainan, ZHANG Zhenwang, HOU Yuanquan
    In order to solve the main problems of dry land wheat production in China, such as low rainfall and uneven seasonal distribution, unreasonable fertilization method, the cultivation mode of dry land wheat was discussed.The experiment comprised four cultivation patterns, namely, conventional cropping with uniform fertilization(CK), furrow planting with uniform fertilization(FP), furrow planting with uniform fertilization but reduction of fertilizer application rate by 25%(FPRF), furrow planting with site-dressing fertilization but reduction of fertilizer application rate by 25%(FPOF). Tiller number, dry matter accumulation in the main growth period, soil water content of 0-200 cm at pre-sowing and maturity, yield, water use efficiency(WUE), partial fertilizer productivity of wheat were compared. Compared with CK, FP promoted soil water storage in the fallow season, thus increased soil water storage before sowing by 5.4%-5.5%, and increased the number of tillers and dry matter accumulation significantly in the main growth period, furthermore, the yield, WUE and partial fertilizer productivity were increased by 10.1%-11.2%, 7.2%-8.6% and 10.3%-11.4%, respectively. Compared with FP, FPRF significantly increased the fertilizer partial productivity by 22.9%-34.6%, had no significant effects on the yield and WUE in the first year, and significantly decreased them in the latter two years, but the above indicators were better than conventional plain cropping. Compared with the other three treatments, the yield, water and fertilizer use efficiency of FPOF were all the best, compared with FP, although the increase of yield and WUE was not significant, but the partial fertilizer productivity, were significantly increased by 35.2%-37.8%, respectively. Therefore, in the dryland of Western Henan, FP is beneficial to improve wheat yield and WUE, reducing fertilizer by 25% will reduce the yield to a certain extent, but it is beneficial to increase fertilizer partial productivity. FPOF is a suitable cultivation measure for winter wheat in arid areas due to synergistically improving yield, WUE and fertilizer partial productivity.