Special Issue

This special topic selects papers related to apple published in Acta Agriculurae Boreali-Sinica , involving papers on apple genetics and breeding, cultivation, physiology and biochemistry, soil fertilizers, diseases and pests, etc.Click on the relevant paper to open the web page and download the full text. In order to quote and share for readers, each article contains a complete citation format in Chinese and English (including international DOI number) and a proprietary  QR code. Long press the  QR code of the article to open the web page of the article and realize mobile sharing at the same time. Thank you for downloading, quoting, forwarding and sharing.
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  • JIA Chaoshuang, WANG Zhihua, WANG Wenhui
    Abstract (30) PDF (11) RichHTML (18)

    Discuss the difference and change rule of texture characteristics of Huahong and Huayue apples after different shelf temperature combined with 1-MCP treatment during the shelf life,in order to determine the appropriate shelf temperature and time for apples.Using Huahong and Huayue as the test materials,the physical property analyzer texture multi-faceted analysis(TPA)and puncture test were used to determine the pulp elasticity,gummy stickiness, chewability, pulp hardness, rupture work, rupture force, rupture displacement, yield work, yield force and yield displacement.Factor analysis was applied to these indicators,and the original indicators were reduced in dimensionality,so that a comprehensive index was used to evaluate 1-MCP(1.0 μL/L)treatment,it was placed at shelf temperatures of 5,10,15,20 ℃ to maintain the texture properties of Huahong and Huayue apples.The shelf life of Huahong and Huayue fruit texture characters could be prolonged by 1-MCP treatment,especially for Huahong fruit.Under the same treatment temperature,the fruit decline of the two varieties treated with 1-MCP was significantly less than that of the untreated group,which could be reduced by about 10%.Correlation analysis showed that there was a very significant positive correlation between the texture indexes of apple fruit,but there were some differences in the degree of tightness.After factor analysis and based on the principle that the eigenvalue was greater than 1,two main factors were extracted,and the cumulative variance contribution rate was 91.194%.According to the representative indexes of each main factor,they were named puncture factor F1 and TPA factor F2,and the variance contribution rates were 79.870% and 11.324%,respectively.According to the score of the main factor,the most suitable shelf temperature of untreated Huahong fruit was 5 ℃.The temperature of the treated fruit was 15 ℃.The optimum shelf temperature of Huayue fruit without treatment was 10 ℃,and the suitable shelf temperature of 1-MCP treated fruit was 5,10 ℃.The CK group of Huahong fruit could be stored for 8 d at 5 ℃,and the shelf temperature of the treatment group could be extended to 16 d at 15 ℃;the CK group and the treatment group of Huayue fruit could be stored at 10 ℃,could be stored for 16 d.

  • LU Xiaoyue, WANG Ziye, HAN Jianwei, XU Lu, ZHANG Xiaofei, HAN Jie, WANG Zhigang, LIU Yue, SUO Xiangmin, YAN Aihua
    Abstract (52) PDF (5) RichHTML (34)

    In order to clarify the mechanism of pyroligneous acids improving replantation soil,the effect of pyroligneous acids treatment on plant growth was studied by field experiment using apple rootstock-Malus micromalus as experimental material.The main physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities of soil in July and October were analyzed based on Illumina high-throughput sequencing to analyze the changes of microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil.The results showed that compared with the control,the annual increase of plant height,ground diameter and leaf area of Malus angustifolia seedlings were significantly increased after 100-fold pyroligneous acids irrigation.Pyroligneous acids root irrigation treatment significantly increased the contents of main nutrients and enzyme activities in the soil of replanting disease.The contents of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium were 1.31,1.38,1.20,1.60 and 1.65 times of CK1,respectively in July,and 1.12,1.03,1.58,1.40 and 1.25 times of CK2 in October,respectively.Sucrase and urease activities increased significantly in July and October.Pyroligneous acids increased the microbial diversity of rhizosphere soil in summer and autumn.Under CK and pyroligneous acids treatments in July and October,the top five dominant gates of rhizosphere bacteria were Proteobacteria,Acidsobacteria,Gemmatimonadetes,Chloroflexi and Rokubacteria;at the genus level,they were mainly uncultured_bacterium_c_Subgroup_6, uncultured_bacterium_f_Gemmatimonadaceae, uncultured_bacterium_o_Rokubacteriales, RB41 and MND1. The top five dominant gates of rhizosphere fungi were Ascomycota,Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota,Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota.At the genus level,they were mainly Cladosporium,Mortierella,Ilyonectria,Guehomyces and Fusarium.According to the correlation network map,the beneficial bacteria RB41 and uncultured_bacterium_f_Gemmatimonadaceae in the rhizosphere and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium and Ilyonectria were negatively correlated with other populations.Pyroligneous acids root irrigation can increase soil nutrients and enzyme activity,increase soil microbial diversity,improve soil microbial community structure,promote plant growth,enhance plant resistance and reduce the harm of replanting disease.

  • ZHAO Huiying, YANG Guangkai, GAO Yan, ZHANG Xiaojun, HAO Yanyan
    Abstract (97) PDF (66) RichHTML (16)

    Gene STAYGREEN(SGR)plays an important role in the process of plant chlorophyll degradation and metabolism.To explore the biological function of gene SGR2,MdSGR2 gene sequence was cloned from the peel of Granny Smith by RT-PCR.The homology,physicochemical properties,protein structure and cis-acting elements of the promoter were predicted and analyzed by bioinformatics software.The plant overexpression vector was constructed by double enzyme digestion.The results showed that the complete open reading frame(ORF)cDNA of gene MdSGR2 was 840 bp.Encoding 279 amino acids in total,it belonged to the Staygreen superfamily.Physicochemical analysis showed that the total molecular weight of the protein was 31.27 ku,and the isoelectric point pI was 8.52,indicating that the protein was an unstable hydrophilic protein.Homology analysis showed that MdSGR2 encoded amino acid sequence was of the highest homology with Pyrus ussuriensis,reaching 84.12%.The protein structure analysis showed that the secondary structure and tertiary structure of MdSGR2 was determined structurally to be 40.55% α-helix and 44.44% random coil.Promoter analysis showed that the promoter region of the gene contained cryogenic cis-acting elements,photo-responsive elements and induced cis-acting elements such as abscisic acid,salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate response elements.These results suggest that gene MdSGR2 may be regulated by many factors such as environment and hormones.The plant overexpression vector pCAMBIA2301-MdSGR2 was successfully constructed.

  • ZHANG Tao, ZHANG Lin, ZHOU Jianguang, GAN Jinhua, HE Li
    This paper was to learn about the biochemical heredity characteristics and to enrich the research data about the germplasm resources of Schizothorax macropogon. Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and malate dehydrogenase(MDH)isozymes from five tissues(heart, crystalline lens, muscle, liver and kidney)of Schizothorax macropogon were preliminarily studied by using the vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that:the band numbers of LDH isozymes expressed in heart was 6-7, in crystalline lens 6-10, in muscle 5-7, in liver 8-11 and in kidney, 8-10 respectively, and the band numbers of MDH isozymes expressed in heart was 4-8, in crystalline lens 2-4, in muscle 3-4, in liver 4-5 and in kidney 4-7. LDH-C gene only specificly expressed in liver. The band numbers expressed in liver are the largest in five different tissues. MDH bands expressed in liver presented the darkest and showed the most degree of isozyme activity. LDH isozymes and MDH isozymes showed tissue specificity and individual variations. The tissue specificity mainly reflected in band numbers and degree of isozyme activity. There were correlations between tissue specificity and its specificly physiological functions. In order to adapt the unique habitant, the isozymes of Schizothorax macropogon showed individual variations. The research results can provide theoretical basis for making germplasm standards and the conservation and utilization for Schizothorax macropogon from the biochemical genetics level.
  • GAO Yanlong, ZHANG De, ZHANG Rui, ZHANG Zhongxing, ZHAO Ting, WANG Shuangcheng, WANG Yanxiu
    To explore the effects of spraying CaCl2 at different concentrations on physiological characteristics of apple seedlings under salt stress, two-year-old T337 seedlings were used as test materials, and the pot experiment was used to set 100 mmol/L NaCl(T1) and 100 mmol/L NaCl + four different concentrations of CaCl2 (5.0(T2), 7.5(T3), 10.0(T4), 12.5 mmol/L(T5)) treatment, watering with deionized water was used as the control(CK).Determine the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity and osmotic adjustment substance content of each treatment group, and carry out correlation and principal component analysis. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, the catalase(CAT), peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase(SOD) of T337 leaves first increased and then decreased, malondialdehyde(MDA), intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci), proline(Pro) and relative conductivity(REC) showed a rising trend, initial fluorescence(F0), PSⅡ maximum light energy conversion rate(Fv/Fm) stomatal conductance(Gs) and the transpiration rate(Tr) showed a downward trend;compared with CK and T1, the variation amplitudes of T337 leaves after treatment with exogenous CaCl2 were all reduced, and there was a significant concentration effect. Among them, the relative chlorophyll content(SPAD), Pn, Tr, POD, F0 and SOD decreased the least under T4(10mmol/L) treatment, which was significantly higher than other treatment groups;MDA, REC and Ci increased the least, which was significantly higher than CK and lower than others processing group. Correlation analysis of 14 indicators showed that Pn was positively correlated with CAT, Tr, Gs, F0, Fv/Fm, ETR, SPAD, SOD and POD, and negatively correlated with Pro, MDA, Ci, and REC. Principal component analysis was performed on 14 related indicators after salt stress treatment, and 2 principal components with eigenvalues greater than 1 were extracted, and their eigenvalues were 11.190, 2.295, respectively;The first and second principal component variance contribution rates were 79.930%, 16.394%, respectively, the cumulative variance contribution rate reached 96.324%, which meets the analysis requirements. According to the ranking of principal component scores, the mitigation ability of exogenous CaCl2 to T337 salt stress was T4>T3>T2>T5 from high to low. Therefore, 10 mmol/L CaCl2 could improve the photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics of T337 rootstock leaves under salt stress, improve the antioxidant enzyme system and osmotic adjustment ability, and enhance the stability and permeability of biofilms to alleviate salt stress.
  • WANG Qian, CAI Huacheng, WANG Shuting, ZHANG Xiaojun, GAO Jingdong, DU Xuemei, LI Chunyan, HAO Yanyan, YANG Tingzhen
    To understand the effects of SH1 and Y-1 dwarfing interstocks on the growth and leaf photosynthesis of Fuji apple saplings, and provide theoretical basis for the selection and utilization of dwarfing interstocks in production, the Fuji Nagafu 2 apple trees grafted on SH1 and Y-1 interstocks were used to study the effects of two kinds of interstocks on the growth, branch composition and leaf photosynthetic indexes of young Fuji trees. The results showed that the annual growth trend of Fuji on SH1 and Y-1 interstocks was basically the same, but the growth of spring and autumn shoots and the length of new shoots of Y-1 were significantly lower than that of SH1, and the ratio of short branches was significantly higher than that of SH1, and the fruit color index, hardness, soluble solids and solid acid ratio significantly increased. The diurnal and annual dynamic trends of net photosynthetic rate(Pn) of Fuji Nagafu 2 were different between SH1 and Y-1 interstocks. The Pn of leaf in SH1 in the early growth period was higher than in Y-1, but the Pn of leaf in Y-1 in the later growth period was significantly higher than in SH1, analysis of light response parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed that the light saturation point(LSP) of Y-1 in the early growth period was lower than SH1, the compensation point(LCP) was higher than SH1, non photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) was significantly higher than SH1, and the primary light energy conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic electron transfer quantum efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) and apparent electron transfer rate (ETR) of Y-1 were significantly lower than that of SH1 in the early growth stage, and the LSP, PSⅡ, Etr, the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of Y-1 were significantly higher than those of SH1 at the later growth stage. Different intertstocks had great effects on the growth and leaf photosynthetic characteristics of grafted varieties. Some characteristics of Fuji Nagafu 2 grafted onto Y-1 were better than that of SH1, such as dwarfing, early flowering, easy shaping. In the early growth period, the leaf maturity of Fuji Nagafu 2 in Y-1 lags behind in SH1, so the photosynthetic efficiency of the leaves was low. In the late growth period, the photosynthetic pigment accumulation and Fv/Fm of leaves in Y-1 were higher or significantly higher than that of SH1, and it could effectively control the growth of autumn shoots, which was beneficial to the accumulation of nutrients and the formation of flower buds.
  • FU Jing, SUN Meng, MA Chunhui, HUANG Yonghong
    To explore the botanical agents to prevent and control apple ring spot disease,the inhibitory of the four common of Allium plant extracts,on the hypha growth of Botryosphaeria berengriana were tested.On this basis,the metabolites of the four Allium plants,Chinese leek,garlic,onions and welsh onion,were analyzed by metabolomics methods,and the suppressive effects of the main components of the four Allium plants on the mycelial growth of B.berengriana and the incidence of the apple ring disease on the apple fruits were also determined.The results showed that in the whole experiment period the inhibition of four Allium plant extracts(1×)on the growth of mycelia of B.berengriana was as high as 100%.78 metabolites were detected in the four Allium plants.Among them,the three main components,pyroglutamic acid,phosphoric acid and citric acid,inhibted the growth of mycelia of B.berengriana by 29.10% to 100.00%,and inhibited the incidence of ring disease on apple fruit caused by B.berengriana by 44.38% to 91.45%.The results of this study laid a theoretical foundation for further understanding and developing the antimicrobial components in Allium,and provided a potential way for the prevention and treatment of apple ring disease.
  • GAO Yuan, WANG Dajiang, WANG Kun, LI Lianwen, PIAO Jicheng
    This study aims to explore the genetic diversity of Malus at the level of chloroplast gene and the phylogenetic relationship of haplotypes of different species in different regions, so as to provide a basis for its origin and evolution process, protection and utilization. Based on chloroplast intergenic regions trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG spacer+intron, trnT-5'trnL and 5'trnL-trnF, the sequences of 722 accessions of Malus from twelve provinces were analyzed. After four regions merged, the length of four merge regions of chloroplast DNA was 4 120 bp, and the haplotypes of chloroplast DNA fragments were 100, the nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of the merged regions were 0.009 52 and 0.879 respectively. The region with highest nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity was trnH-psbA (Hd=0.808,Pi=0.034 09). Tajima's test showed that the value of four regions merged was -1.503 16, and it was not significant at the P>0.10 level and followed the neutral theory of molecular evolution. AMOVA showed that genetic variation mainly existed among populations and within intraspecific populations.The results of haplotype distribution and network analysis showed that the missing haplotypes in the center of adjacent networks are closed into a ring, and different species of Malus have different evolutionary routes. There were complex relationships among species and germplasms of same species in the process of origin and evolution in different regions. Relatively old haplotypes H_6 and H_15 experienced population expansion, and there were many derived branches. The genetic diversity of Malus at chloroplast gene level was high, and the genetic variation mainly occurs among populations and within intraspecific populations. The genetic evolution of chloroplast genes was dominated by mutation or random drift within populations. The main factors of genetic variation of Malus were intraspecific differences and intrapopulation differences caused by geographical isolation.
  • LI Shijun, YIN Baoying, LI Jia, LI Zhongyong, ZHANG Xueying, XU Jizhong
    The fruit softening of precocious apple cultivar is an important factor for promotion of apple production. It is important to elucidate the mechanism of fruit softening to prolong the fruit storage period and maintain the fruit quality. In this experiment, Mato 1 and XU2-5 were used as the materials to analyze the changes of fruit hardness, ethylene release rate, related enzyme activity and related gene expression during fruit softening. The main results showed that, along with the ripening of fruits, the fruit hardness decreased and the ethylene release rate increased. The ethylene release rate of Mato 1 was significantly higher than that of XU2-5. The relative expression pattern of MdACS6 gene was basically the same in the two varieties, of which the relative expression level was low in early time, and gradually increased after that. With the ripening of fruits, the relative expression amount of MdPG1 gene and the change of enzyme activity in Mato 1 were consistent, which reached the highest at 100 d after flowering, while XU2-5 showed the consistency between relative expression level of MdPG1 gene and the change of enzyme activity in 80-90 d after flowering, of which the relative expression of MdPG1 was the highest at 90 d after flowering, and the enzyme activity was the highest at 100 d after flowering. In 80-85 d after flowering, the relative expression of MdPE gene and PE enzyme activity in the two varieties (lines) presented an increasing trend, and the enzyme activity reached to a peak value. In 90-100 d after flowering, the relative expression of MdPE gene decreased in the two varieties (lines), while the PE enzyme activity increased gradually. The LOX enzyme activity in the two varieties (lines) decreased first and then increased, and the lowest point appeared at 85 d after flowering. The relative expression of MdLOX gene in XU2-5 increased first and then decreased, and the peak appeared at 85 d after flowering, while the relative expression of MdLOX gene in Mato 1 increased gradually, and the highest value appeared at 100 d after flowering.In summary,taking measures to regulate gene expression may be effective in regulating fruit softening.
  • ZHANG Chaohong, CHEN Dongmei, YANG Fengqiu, ZHAO Tongsheng, LI Yang, ZHAO Guodong, ZHAO Yongbo
    Abstract (268) PDF (154) RichHTML
    In order to effectively discover the apple fruit russet gene, based on SLAF-seq technology, the genetic map construction and QTL analysis for fruit russet gene were conducted using a population derived from a cross between Miyazaki Spur and Sakata Tsugaru. The results showed that 522 122 315 reads (110.32 Gb) of the sequencing data from seedlings was obtained, in which the average Q30 sequencing was 95.07%, and the average GC content and its parents was 40.11%. Then, 20 440 SLAF markers and 7 309 729 SNPs were developed. Based on these markers, seventeen linkage groups were constructed, of which 4 075 markers presented in the genetic map, and marker integrity was 99.92%. The total diagram spacing was 2 235.23 cM, and the average diagram spacing was 0.55 cM. A total of 9 QTLs related to fruit russet were detected, which were distributed on Chr3, Chr9, Chr11, and Chr15 chromosomes, with a marker distance of 0-4.9 cM and a contribution rate of 18.0%-85.5%. Among them, Qru-9, Qru-15 and Qru-3, located on Chromosome 9, 3, and 15, respectively, might be novel QTLs for fruit russeting of apple. A genetic map based on SLAF-seq method was constructed in apple progeny Miyazaki Spur crossing Sakata Tsugaru and nine QTLs related to apple russeting were obtained. These results provided the important information for further exploration of russeting QTL in apple.
  • ZHANG Tao, CHEN Jianwu, HE Li
    The purpose was to learn about the biochemical heredity characteristics and to enrich the research data about the germplasm resources of Oxygymnocypris stewartii. By preparing concentration gradient polyacrylamide and using the vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) and malate dehydrogenase(MDH) from five tissues(heart,crystalline lens,muscle,liver and kidney) of Oxygymnocypris stewartii were preliminarily studied.The results showed that:the band numbers of LDH isozymes from heart,Crystalline lens,muscle,liver and kidney were 12-16,17-18,6-13,6-10 and 12-17 respectively,and MDH isozymes 3,4,3-5, 2 and 4-7.The band numbers of LDH isozymes expressed in anaerobic organs such as muscle and liver were less than that in non-anaerobic organs such as heart and kidney.MDH isozymes in Oxygymnocypris stewartii were divided into supernate type and mitochondria type.LDH isozymes and MDH showed tissue specificity.More bands of LDH isozymes in Oxygymnocypris stewartii might be related to the interaction between it's unique habitant and the variation of subunit A and subunit B.The results could provide theoretical basis for the conservation and utilization of Oxygymnocypris stewartii from the biochemical genetics level.
  • ZHANG Haiyue, XIAO Yuxiong, TIAN Yike, WANG Caihong, YANG Shaolan, LI Yu, LI Yuqi
    As the basic component of plant microtubules,tubulins are of great significance to the formation of cytoskeleton. To investigate the effect of one member of the β-tubulin gene family with the transcript number of MDP0000749824.1 on the stem growth,the coding sequence of this gene was cloned from the apple young shoot tips of standard apple variety Yanfu 3 and the columnar variety Telemon,respectively. This sequence was 1 332 bp in length which encoded a peptide with 443 amino acids. The results of DNAMAN alignment showed that the coding sequence of the gene was identical between Yanfu 3 and Telemon.Using DNA of Yanfu 3 and Telemon as templates,1 661 bp nucleotide sequences was obtained by PCR amplification with promoter specific primers. There were six bases differences between them. Promoter sequence analysis revealed that some hormone responsive elements of gibberellin,abscisic acid,methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid existed in it. Cam35S-MDP0000749824-GFP recombinant vector was constructed. Subcellular localization analysis with tobacco leaves indicated that the protein encoded by MDP0000749824.1 was on the cell membrane and microtubules. qRT-PCR detected that the transcript level of this gene in apical stems of columnar apple Telemon was significantly lower than that of standard apple Yanfu 3. It was speculated that the gene could affect the stem elongation be cause its expression level was regulated by hormones.
  • JIN Qin, DAI Peihong, LIU Chao, HU Qinhua, LIU Xiaodong, LI Yue
    In order to select antifreeze negative gene in apple, lay a foundation for cultivating new varieties of antifreeze apples,4 open reading frame CBF genes were cloned from apple by the method of information biology,named as MdCBFL1-MdCBFL4. These genes(MdCBFL1-MdCBFL4) were shown to encode proteins that share a high similarity with plant cold stress-related CBF proteins,which contained a AP2 domain and two classic sequences that conserved PKRPAGRTKFRETRHP nuclear location signal area and DSAWR conservative sequence. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated apple genes could be classified into the Arabidopsis A-1 subgroup, it was speculated that it was similar to the function of Arabidopsis A-1 transcription factor, and the expression of MdCBFL1-MdCBFL4 proteins was induced by stress of drought, low temperature and salt stress.The expression of MdCBFL1-MdCBFL4 gene in apple was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in high salt(200 mmol/L NaCl),drought and low temperature.The results showed that MdCBFL1 gene was response to the low temperature,drought and salt stress. MdCBFL2-MdCBFL4 gene was induced by low temperature and high salt. This provides useful clues to further elucidate the function and mechanism of apple MdCBF gene in stress response.
  • LI Ting, LIAN Sen, LI Baohua, LIANG Wenxing, WANG Caixia
    To explore the sequence characteristics of β-glucosidase gene VmGluI from Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm)and analyze its expression pattern in the process of pathogen infection,the cDNA sequence of VmGluI was amplified from the strong pathogenic strain LXS080601 by using RT-PCR technology.The phylogenetic relationship,physicochemical properties and secondary structure of the protein coded by VmGluI were analyzed by bioinformatics software.The expression levels of VmGluI in apple tiwgs(Malus domestica Borkh.Fuji) inoculated by Vmm were analyzed by Real-time quantitative PCR.The results showed that the cDNA sequence of VmGluI from Vmm was obtained and its GenBank accession number was KY646110.The open reading frame of 1 689 bp encoded 562 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 62.7 kDa.VmGluI shared characteristic conserved domains of glycosyl hydrolase family 1. α -helices and random coils were its main elements of secondary structure of VmGluI,and β-turns were less.Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the encoded protein had the closest genetic relationship with β-glucosidase genes from Vmm (KUI68239.1) and V.mali var. pyri (KUI56905.1),and the similarities of amino acid sequences were 98.7% and 87.8%,respectively.However,the relationship between VmGluI and other β-glucosidase genes from non-pathogenic fungi was far away.The Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that VmGluI was significantly up-regulated in Fuji tiwgs after inoculation by Vmm.Thus,the authors speculated that VmGluI could paly an important role in the pathogenic process of Vmm.The expression level of VmGluI began to increase significantly in detached twigs at 48 h and the highest expression level was 6.3 times higher than that in the control at 72 h.However,the gene expression level increased significantly at 12 h in living twigs,which was 11.2 times higher than that in the control at 96 h.Although there was a low level of gene expression at 48 h,the amount of gene expression was 16.8 times higher than that in the control at 96 h.The results indicated that expression levels and the time course changes of VmGluI were obvious difference in detached and living twigs inoculated with Vmm.
  • ZHANG Guojun, WANG Tingting, HU Lizong, LI Shufen, GAO Wujun
    Abstract (553) PDF (123) RichHTML
    To extensively understand the sequence feature and evolution of heat shock transcription factors (Hsf)in the genome of apple,fifty MdHsf genes were identified using bioinformatics methods at the whole-genome level of apple,and a series of analysis including sequence characterization,phylogenetic relationship,gene expression and selective pressure of MdHsf genes were further performed.Phylogenetic relationship and sequence characterization analysis showed that,like the model species Arabidopsis and rice,50 MdHsf genes were divided into three subfamilies A,B and C.Additionally,at least two genes were found in the same end clades in the phylogenetic tree,indicating that the lineage-specific amplification had happened during evolutionary processes of apple Hsf gene family.Although the intron numbers and sizes of MdHsf genes were relatively divergent,the conserved motifs and domains of MdHsf proteins were highly conserved because of functional constraints.Based on EST data,72% of the 50 genes (except 14 genes such as MdHsfA2a and MdHsfA3a/b/c)had transcription activities.Selective pressure signatures demonstrated that no positive selection site was identified in the cleaned codon alignments for 36 MdHsf genes based on site-specific model,suggesting that this protein family was controlled by purifying selection.However,branch-site model had identified a total of five positively selected sites in the d and e clade of the phylogenetic tree,i.e.28R,30L,35D,51M and 67V.28R and 30L were included in the Hsf domains,while 35D,51M and 67V were not mapped on the region of Hsf domains,suggesting that purifying selection was the main evolutionary dynamics of functional conservation Hsf domains except for 28R and 30L.In conclusion,various Hsfs existed in apple genome,and the conserved motifs and functional domains were conserved.The majority of them had transcription activity,and the evolution of this family was dominated by purifying selection.
  • SU Liyan, TIAN Aimei, TAO Guirong, LI Meng
    In order to identify the function of MdCaM gene in apple under different abiotic stresses. MdCaM gene was cloned by RT-PCR from apple, and phylogenetic tree was clustered based on amino acid of it. Also, the relative expression levels of MdCaM gene was analyzed by Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method under wound, low-oxygen, high-temperature stress during apple fruit storage. The results showed that Calmodulin gene had high homology in different species, and MdCaM gene had a closer relationship with Arabidopsis thaliana CaM1. qPCR analysis showed that the transcription level of MdCaM was up-regulated in the early stage, then returned to the normal level after wound and low-oxygen (0 O2 and 3%O2) stress, the difference was wound stress peak at 6 h, while low-oxygen (0 O2) stress peak at 1 h. Also, MdCaM was up-regulated under high-temperature (20℃ and 40℃) stress compared to control,and the expression level was the highest at 12 h under stress,which indicated that MdCaM gene might be involved in the whole process of high-temperature stress-responsive. These results suggested that MdCaM might function as an stress-responsive gene under wound,high-temperature,low-oxygen stresses during apple storage. This research provided a theoretical basis for further study of the function and molecular regulation mechanism of MdCaM.
  • ZHENG Lingjie, MA Hong, ZHANG Yuan, ZHANG Xueying, LI Zhongyong, XU Jizhong
    Abstract (364) PDF (122) RichHTML
    In order to study the molecular characterization and expression patterns of GA20 oxidase gene in apple dwarfing rootstocks,RT-PCR method was used to clone GA20 oxidase gene (GA20ox1) from cDNA of the apple dwarfing rootstocks No.2 and No.36, and the genes and the amino acid sequences, as well as gene expression on rootstocks and the grafted varieties at various times, was analysed, respectively. Results showed that cDNA of GA20ox1 gene coded a 1 179 bp sequence, and derived a protein with 393 amino acids including termination codon, which the predicted protein molecular weight was 44.3 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point was 5.89.The protein contained conserved domain characteristics of GA20ox1 gene family,and phylogenetic analysis showed that the protein sequence homology with SH40 was at 96.9%. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the GA20ox1 expression of No.36 rootstock was significantly lower than the control (Malus robusta Rehd.) in June and higher than that in July to August, the expression of the varieties grafted on it was significantly lower than control in July. From July to August, GA20ox1 gene expression levels of No.2 rootstock and the grafted varieties were significantly lower than control.
  • TIAN Lili, NIU Liang
    Abstract (388) PDF (131) RichHTML
    In order to develop novel disease-resistant transgenic plant materials against ASPV,a virus resistant RNAi plant expression vector was constructed by the method of homologous recombination.With the Malus rootstock of M26,genetic transformation was conducted and positive transgenic plantlets were obtained successfully.Firstly,a conserved segment of coat protein gene of ASPV (489 bp) was cloned by PCR from cDNA of the virus-infective leaves of Royal gala.Then the fragment was inserted into the vector pENTR/SD/D by TOPO cloning technology to form the intermediate vector of pEN-ASPV.After this fragment was replaced and connected into the destination vector pHellsgate12 by LR reaction,the RNAi plant expression vector Phe-ASPV was obtained.And the engineering bacteria EH-ASPV for plant transformation was obtained after the constructed RNAi vector was transformed into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 by alternate freezing and thawing method.By the Agrobaterium mediated method,transformation was conducted with the leaf discs of the Malus rootstock of M26.After culture and subculture for antibiotics screening,bacteria elimination and rooting,compact kanamycin resistant plantlets formed from buds were obtained.After total RNA extracted from the well rooted plantlets,RT-PCR test was conducted and the result showed that the gene fragment of 489 bp carried on the RNAi structure had been transformed into the material of M26,which was expressed in plants on the level of RNA.Through this study,novel transgenic materials were obtained successfully,which laid foundation for disease-resistance evaluation by pathogen inoculation and virus-resistant molecular breeding in the near future.
  • ZHAO Deying, YUAN Jicun, XU Kai, CHENG Cungang, YAN Shuai
    Abstract (345) PDF (363) RichHTML
    In this study,we aimed to identify the differences of tree morphology,accumulation and distribution characteristics of mineral nutrient in root system of Gala apple young tree with different dwarfing interstocks.The results were expected to reveal the relations between the tree dwarfing ability and accumulation,distribution of mineral nutrient in root system.Gala apple saplings (in pots) grafted onto dwarfing interstocks (GM256,Liaozhen No.2,SH1,SH6,SH38,and SH40) with uniform growth vigour were used as the experimental material.After spring shoot growth stopped,plant height and cross-sectional area were measured.The root morphology indexes were analyzed by WINRhizo analysis software.For the measurement of mineral nutrient contents,healthy plants at the same growth stage were removed from the pots,and were dissected and separated into different diameter root system.The contents and accumulations of mineral nutrient were determined.The results showed that plant height and cross-sectional area of Gala apple trees grafted onto dwarfing interstocks were obviously lower than that of the control.The degree of dwarfing of the interstocks followed the order of SH38 > SH1 > SH6 > GM256 > SH40 > Liaozhen No.2.Differences in mineral nutrient contents in different diameter root system of Gala apple young tree among different dwarfing interstocks were obviously different.The mineral nutrient contents in<0.5 mm diameter root system were highest,and the mineral nutrient contents decreased with the increase of root system diameter.The contents of K and Mg of Gala apple root system for SH38 were highest.Root system for SH1 interstocks had the highest Cu,Fe and Zn contents.The accumulations of P,Ca,Fe in all parts of GM256 interstocks root system and that of K,Mg and Zn in>3 mm diameter root system were higher than control and other treatments.The accumulations of K,Mg and Zn in<3 mm diameter root system for Liaozhen No.2 were highest.The mineral nutrient accumulations of SH38,SH1 and SH6 with weak growth vigour were lower than that of Liaozhen No.2,GM256 and CK with strong growth vigour.The optimal interstocks for Gala apple with better dwarfing effect were SH38,SH1 and SH6.In practical application,site condition,soil supplying nutrient capability and nutrient requirement characteristics of different stock-scion combinations should be fully considered,which for realizing the high quality and high efficiency production of apple.
  • SHA Ting, HOU Hongmin, MENG Xiangna, BAI Suhua, ZHOU Aiqin, SHA Guangli, DAI Hongyi, ZHU Jun
    Abstract (492) PDF (154) RichHTML
    To obtain the transcription factor related to stress conditions in apple rootstock,an apple SBP gene with the full-length cDNA was cloned in Qingzhen 1(apomictic crabapple Pingyitiancha( Malus hupehensis Rehd.)× columnar apple strain CO(Malus × domestica Borkh.) and M26 via homology-based cloning method.The gene cloned was named as MdSBP20 .Bioinformatics analysis to the cDNA showed that the full-length cDNA was 1 362 bp,it's open reading frame possessed 1 362 bp,and encoded 454 amino acids,which had obviously SBP -domain and two zinc finger structures(Zn-1,Zn-2) and the bothway nuclear location signal(NLS).Phylogenetic analysis suggested that MdSBP20 gene had the closer relationship with Pyrus bretschneideri (XM_009339726.1)and Malus domestica (XM_008376435.1).Real-time PCR analysis showed that MdSBP20 gene played a role in response to low temperature,drought,and salt tolerance.It was inferred that QZ1 might has higher resistance than M26 no matter in stress of low temperature,drought,and salt.Based on the results in this experiment, MdSBP20 gene had the significantly effects in apple rootstock response to abiotic stress.
  • YU Weiwei, CAO Bo, LONG Hong, LI Hui, LI Ai, YAN Guorong
    Abstract (322) PDF (193) RichHTML
    To explore the physiological response of Malus sieversii to salinity stress, Malus sieversii seedlings were cheared with six salinity levels (0,0.2%,0.4%,0.6%,0.8% and 1.0% NaCl) for 4 hours and seven time levels (0,4,8,12,16,20 and 24 hours) in 0.4% NaCl.Contents of proline,MDA,chlorophyll,and soluble sugar in leaves and activity of SOD and POD were mensurated.The results showed that proline content got the peak when NaCl concentration was 0.6% or 12 h in 0.4% NaCl,increasing 63.1% and 27.0% compared to control respectively.Increasing salt concentration and time resulted in higher levels for malondialdehyde content.Chlorophyll content was decreased first,subseguently increased and decreased once more.Among all treatment they were lower than control.Soluble sugar content and the activity of SOD and POD were increased first,then decreased.The results indicated that Malus sieversii could reduce the damage to the plant by accumulating more proline and soluble sugar and increasing the activity of SOD and POD.It was adapted to salinity stress to some extent.
  • SUN Ye-hong, ZHANG Yuan, LI Zhong-yong, SHAO Jian-zhu, XU Ji-zhong
    Abstract (413) PDF (168) RichHTML
    The study was conducted to screen molecular markers of salt-tolerance gene in apple rootstock, which providing a theoretical basis for molecular assistant selection breeding in plants salt-tolerance.F1 of Malus micromalus ×S19 were used to screen markers linked to salt-tolerance gene by BSA method and SRAP technology.Four pairs of primers (Me1Em2, Me1Em8, Me6Em12 and Me6Em14) were screened from 128 ones, which expressed polymorphism in parents and DNA pools and totally produced 4 polymorphic fragments.The four pairs of primers were tested by 144 F1 hybrid seedings, and the coincidence rate between hydroponic screening and the SRAP analysis were between 81.94% and 92.36%.The length of the 4 polymorphic fragments (Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ)was between 139 bp and 233 bp by cloning and sequencing.Sequence alignment revealed that sequenceⅠhad relatively highly identity with ATP synthase beta subunit gene(ATP-β) from Photinia fraseri, and there was an identity of 98% for nucleotide sequence.Additionally, other sequences showed partial identity with probable receptor-like protein kinase from Pyrus × Bretschneideri, myosin from Malus domestica, and UDP-glycosyltransferase from Malus domestica, respectively.The 4 markers selected not only could be used in molecular identification of salt tolerance, but also provide a foundation to clone salt-tolerance gene for apple rootstock.
  • GUI Teng-rong, JI Pan, KONG Bao-hua, ZHANG Yan-ming, MA Yu-mei, CAO Ke-qiang, MA Jun, HUANG Wen-jing, YUAN Yuan, MA Xue-lin
    Abstract (516) PDF (124) RichHTML
    For importing new apple varieties into Yunnan and adjust apple variety structures,new apple varieties imported were need identified their resistance to Valsa Canker.Combining analysis of the investigation of natural infection incidence in orchards and incidence of artificial inoculation,resistance to Valsa Canker in six apple varieties planted in Yunnan were evaluated with Fuji as a control.The results indicated that those varieties showed different resistant to Valsa Canker.All of them showed more resistant to Valsa canker than Fuji.Yuhua Early Fuji and Siweita showed the highest resistant to Valsa canker following by Gala,spur Fuji,Royal gala and Golden century.With identification,make sure that those varieties can be used as resistant vaieties to Valsa canker in Yunanan.
  • ZHAO Ling-ling, JIANG Zhong-wu, SONG Lai-qing, LIU Mei-ying, TANG Yan, SUN Yan-xia, LI Yuan-jun
    Abstract (355) PDF (140) RichHTML
    To determine the effect of different rootstocks on fruit qualing of variety.The effects of rootstocks on fruit quality and aroma compound of Red General Fuji fruit on 4 different apple rootstocks were investigated consecutively from 2010 to 2012.The result showed that different rootstocks had different effects on the fruit quality and aroma components.Fruits on grafted on Malusp prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh possessed the largest fruit weight,whereas the fruit from the trees on MM106 had the smallest fruit weight.Trees on M26 interstock produced fruits with the biggest firmness,highest Vitamin C content and titratable acid.Fruits on Malusp prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh had the smallest firmness,lowest soluble solid,vitamin C,titratable acid and soluble sugar content.Fruits from the trees on M26 rootstock had highest soluble solid and soluble sugar content.The rootstocks had affected the kinds and the content of aroma compounds of Red General significantly.Fruits with the most kinds of aroma were from the trees on M26 interstock,whereas fruits from the trees on M9 rootstock had the least kinds of aroma.Fruits on Malusp prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh had the highest alcohols and esters content,however the fruits with lowest esters content were from the trees on M9 rootstocks and the fruits with the lowest alcohols were from M26 rootstocks respectively.
  • HAO Jie, WEI Liang, WANG Xian-ge, LI Xue-ying, SUO Xiang-min, YAN Xin-min, FENG Jian-zhong
    Abstract (438) PDF (188) RichHTML
    The objective of this study is to determine the dynamic changes of the major elements in soil between young Guohong apple trees and adult ones.The soil of young and adult Guohong apple trees had been collected in Shijiazhuang Pomology Institute,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences,and the content of the five kinds of major elements had been tested by VISTA-MPX plasma spectrometer,and multivariate statistical analysis and correlation analysis had been done by SPSS software.The result showed that during the whole growth period the content of Boron waved between the young trees and adult ones,while the content of Iron,Zinc had no changes significantly.Typical correlation analysis showed that the content of Manganese were significantly positive correlation between elements in 0-20 cm soil layer,Zinc too.while the content of Zinc were significantly positive correlation between elements in 20-40 cm soil layer,Boron too.The five microelements had no correlation in 40-60 cm soil layer.The results provided scientific theoretical basis for guiding the orchard how to cultivate for higher qualities,and for studying how to enhance the content of the microelement by different cultivation measures.
  • TIAN Yi-ke, BAI Mu-dan, WANG Cai-hong, LIU Yun-long, CHEN Bao-yin
    Abstract (392) PDF (121) RichHTML
    Gibberellines are the most important phtyohormones influencing the plant height of fruit trees.Researches of the genes encoding the critical enzymes in gibberellin biosynthesis are significant to understanding the mechanism of dwarf tree architectures.This study reported the isolation of the MdCPS (GenBank accession number:KC433942.1),encoding CPS in apple, from primary apical shoots of the variety Fuji based on the apple genome database.The gDNA sequence of MdCPS contained 15 exons and 14 introns,and the coding sequence(CDS)of it was 2 400 bp,which encoded a polypeptide of 799 amino acids.The transcript MDP0000147908 that spanned chromosome 11 from location 32433834 to 32439214 in the published Golden delicious apple genome corresponds to this gene.Homology analysis indicated that the deduced MdCPS shared a higher level of similarity(49% -67%)with CPS protein from other plant species.Using the primary apical shoots of the parents and F1 progenies of Fuji(standard)×Telamon(columnar)as plant materials,quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR)analyses showed that even though the transcription level of this gene in the columnar parent was lower than that in the standard parent,there was no significant difference was observed between the two populations of columnar and standard progenies.At the same time,qRT-PCR analysis in the columnar hybrids and their correspondent standard mutants indicated that the expression level of MdCPS was not relevant to the columnar growth habit.These results suggested that the lower content of active gibberellins in columnar apple apical shoots was not distinctively influenced by MdCPS in the early stage of gibberellins synthesis.
  • WANG Cui-cui, JIN Jing, LI Bao-hua, WANG Cai-xia, DONG Xiang-li, ZHANG Zhen-fang
    Abstract (324) PDF (126) RichHTML
    Four types lesions of black tissues type,brown type,black spot type and hardening type were divided in order to determine reasons and infection conditions of black spot disease.The isolation percentage of Alternaria spp.was 89% from black tissues type.The isolation percentage of Trichothecium and Alternaria were 75%,and isolation percentage of A.tenuissima, A.sclerotigenum and T.roseum were the highest.Among them, T.roseum was the most pathogenic pathogen which led to large brown lesion on ripe fruit when infected from wounds.The optimum temperatures for infection by conidia of T.roseum and lesion expansion were 26.8,22.5℃ respectively. A.tenuissima caused large dark or brown lesions on ripe apple fruit when infected from wounds.The optimum temperatures for infection by conidia of A.tenuissima and lesion expansion were 29.4,28.5℃ respectively. A.sclerotigenum owned the highest infection ratio from wounds of mature apple fruit and let to small red-brown lesions on the fruit.The pathogen can fit a wide range of temperature when infection from wounded apple fruit.Conidia of three pathogens could not infected healthy apple.The inoculation with conidia of T.roseum caused significant more lesions on the bagged fruits than the other two pathogens,then the A.tenuissima,and A.sclerotigenum almost did not cause diseased lesions.Pathogens of black spot disease were chance pathogens,and caused disease when met suitable conditions.
  • Abstract (198) PDF (133) RichHTML
    扑海因是新一代广谱杀菌剂,它既可抑制孢子的滋长,也可控制菌丝体,对苹果早期落叶病有极好的防治效果.为了制定扑海因在苹果上的安全使用标准尽快应用于生产,1985—1986年我们对该药剂在适用作物中的残留动态进行了研究.田间试验 为了明确扑海因在苹果中的消解规律,选六株生长一致的苹果树,每两株为一个重复,浓度为2000ppm,六月下旬一次喷药,分期采样.为了确定安全间隔期,残留动态试验设1000ppm和2000ppm两个施药剂量,每个剂量又设三、四、五次喷药,三次采样.
  • Zhang Juxiang, Wang Wanfang
    In the in vitro culture of the shoot tips from adult tree of two kinds of the Red Fujiyama apple, Changfu No. 2 and the Short- branch Fujiyama, the optimum temperature and light intensity for multiplication and rooting are different.As compared with other tested temperatures, 29℃ day temp, and 20℃ night temp. are more favorable for the adventitious bud differentiation and growth. The optimum rooting temperature is 25℃ day temp. and 18℃ night temp, but the optimum temperature for differentiation and growth of shoots is lower than themWhen the light intensity is 1500-2500 lux and the photoperiod is 10 hrsof light, the differentiatiation and growth of the shoots are the the best. Although a continuous illumination of 1500 lux is beneficial to differentiation and growth of the shoots. but the internodes are too short, the stem become purple and the effective shoots can ' t be formed.Light inhibits the rooting of shoots.The inhibitory degree is proportional to lightintensity from 600-2500 lux. Although the rooting rate is highest(90%) in darkculture the shoots are thin and weak. So the dark culture induced rooting is order to strengthen shoots and improve the survial rate in transplantation.The rooting rate with continuous illumination is higher than with discontinuous illumination of the same light intensity, but the roots are short and thin, root tips and stem b ecome purple, internodes are short. The shoots can recover to normal after 10 day if they are transferred to discontinuous light culture.
  • DU Ji-zhuang, QIN Li-zhe, LI Xue-hua
    Abstract (275) PDF (227) RichHTML
    This article collects meteorological information of Taihang Mountain.Through comparison with high quality apple production area in and out of China,the results are as follows: Weather conditions such as annual average temperature,frost-free period,the extreme low temperature and temperature in growing season are all feasible for apple production;Area which altitude above 500 m is comparative cool in Summer.Its high temperature is below 35℃ usually,few days over 35℃,and everyday high temperature duration is short.Spring and Autumnal shoot showed unobvious boundaries.These conditions are feasible for apple growth;High altitude,large temperature difference between day and night,and full ultraviolet exposure are all suitable for photosynthesis product accumulation and fruit color enhancement;Annual rainfall in Taihang Mountain is 500-600 mm.Though its total rainfall is lower but it is able to meet the basic requirement of apple.It is provide basic for water deposition and can solve the problem of uneven rainfall distribution;The disadvantage environmental conditions for free-pollutant apple developing in Taihang Mountain: Rainfall distribution is imbalance,the rate of change is large,and the results are partial or seasonal drought;Extreme temperature is above 40℃ in partial region of low altitude,and its 3.9% higher than upper limit index which infect apple yield and fruit quality;Disastrous weather occurred more frequently in partial area such as drought injury,flood,hail and wind damage.
  • TIAN Feng
    The Research showed apple storage diseases included moudy core and core rot、ring rot、 anthracnose and brown rot etc.The diseases caused by high temperature and humidity and lack of nutrients and varieties resistance.The reseach cleared its effective control ways.
  • GAO Hua, LU Yu-miao, WANG Lei-cun, WAN Yi-zhen, ZHAO Zheng-yang, HU Yan-ni
    Abstract (316) PDF (360) RichHTML
    Studies of respiratory,ethylene production,dehydration and fruit quality of Qinyang apples during the storage at the room temperature and at 0-1℃. The result showed that the respiratory and ethylene production was inhibited significantly at 0-1℃ storage,ethylene peak at the room temperature storage was 1. 72 times than at 0 -1℃. After storage 42 d at 0-1℃,the fruit was flesh,fruit firmness was higher 26. 4%,acids was higher 0. 31% than the room temperature.
  • CHEN Zhi-qiang, LI Xu-hua, ZHAO Geng-xing, ZHU Xi-cun
    Abstract (247) PDF (336) RichHTML
    Flowers samples were taken from 32 red Fuji apple orchards in Qixia Shandong Province and flower nutrition diagnosis was done using Equilibrium Index method. The results showed that the optimum concentrations of N,P,K,Ca,Mg,B,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn in Fuji apple flowers were (28. 79 ± 4. 65) g /kg,(5. 11 ± 0. 74) g /kg,(16. 24 ± 1. 02) g /kg,(84. 01 ± 20. 68) mg /kg,(43. 54 ± 9. 46 ) mg /kg,(94. 13 ± 12. 27 ) mg /kg,(109. 08 ± 38. 9 )mg /kg,(60. 25 ± 16. 7) mg /kg,(10. 09 ± 3. 15) mg /kg,(28. 31 ± 5. 06) mg /kg,respectively; The different nutrient element change ranges Fe > Cu > Mn > Ca > Mg > Zn > N > P > B > K; and there were synergistic effects or antagonistic effects in them. The orchards with Fe,Mn and Cu deficit accounted for 53. 1 %,46. 9 % and 37. 5 % of total studied orchards,respectively. All the nutrient elements were almost in the optimum dose zone and high dose zone, less in other zones,K was completely in the optimum dose zone.
  • Xia Guohai, Luo Xinsu
    The compositions and the translocation characters of Cassimilates at theshootgrowing stage in potcultured young Liao Fu'apple trees were studied during 1986-1987.The results have shown that the major compositions of assimilates in appleleaves are sugar,sorbitol content is the maximum,sucrose the second,glucose and fructoseonly a little.The amino acids synthesized in leaves are mainly aspartic acid,serine alanineand asparagine.The export rate of sorbitol out of leaves is higher tnan that of sucrose.Sorbitol is dominant in shortdistance transport from the natured leaves up to the developingparts,but sucrose is mainly transported in long distance to other organs.At the shootgrowing stage of young apple trees,carbon assimilates can finish the leafroottop cyclewithin 24 hours.Parts of sugar imported in roots are transformed into organic acids andamino acids,for example asparagine,glutamine and aspartic acid,then translocated back tothe top of tree.The distribution of the substance among the top parts is strictly regulated bymetabolism.
  • CHEN Chen, WANG Li-xia, ZHAO Hai-yong, SHAO Lei
    Abstract (311) PDF (281) RichHTML
    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled release fertilizers blended withcommon fertilizers on yield, quality, and economic benefit of apple in order to provide scientific evidence and technicaladvice for applying controlled release fertilizers on apple. The result showed that the available nutrient in soil of SFtreatment decreased gradually in a growing season. The controlled release fertilizers blended with common fertilizerssolved the problem of nutrient's slow release in a short time after being applied and met with the nutrient requirementof plant in a growing season. The application rate of CRF1 was the same as that of SF, but the yield, quality and economic benefit of CRF1 were better than that of SF. The application rate of CRF2 and CRF3 was lower than that of SF,but the yield, quality and economic benefit of CRF2 and CRF3 weren't lower. Considering prompting the palate offruit, decreasing the application and increasing the economic benefit, the CRF3 was the optimal treatment.
  • SU Jia-ming, DUAN Xiao-na, YU Qiang, XU Wei-hua, JIANG Zhong-wu, DONG Ya-feng, CHEN Xue-sen
    Abstract (310) PDF (209) RichHTML
    In vitro seedlings subeultured 4 -5 generation of midseason Fuji apple variety Red General were eliminated viruses, and then were detected by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results showed that keeping constant heat treatment conditions at 38℃ for 20 days, the virus elimination rate of Red General apple reached 86.4% -100%, and major apple viruses such as ASSVd, ASGV, ASPV, ApMV and ACLSV were eluted well.
  • LIHui-feng, LUDe-guo, LILin-guang
    Abstract (293) PDF (376) RichHTML
    Evolvement process of root system architecture in apple was observed to study construction rule of root systemarchitecture in apple by moat method and sector digging method, and the result indicated that root distributing modehas been contructed when the tree was five years old, root density and biomass has achieved greatness, and the architecturewas basically established, root system renewval and the adjust of root type were observed after eight years. There wasobviously layer construction for root system in soil, 10- 15 cm under the earth??s surface was great unsteady, 15- 40 cmwas denseness layer of root system, and there were a few roots in the layer of 40 cm under the earth??s surface or deeper.Change of canopy structure could response the condition of root system configuration, root shape of apple was complex onewhich was composed of horizontal roots and sidelong roots.
  • ZHANGJian-guang, DIBao, LIYing-li, CHENShao-chun, LIUYu-fang
    Abstract (205) PDF (128) RichHTML
    A difference in oxidative stress existed in peel tissuewhen fruits were covered with plastic film or doublelayerpaper bags because they created distinct microenvironments. Influenced strongly by 'greenhouse effect' with plasticf ilm bags, fruits had a higher surface temperatures and the microenvironment was significant ly different from the outside,showing higher O2and MDA contents during fruit enclosure and soon after bag removal.However, double- layer paperbags seemed to be favorable to rendering fruit with more ant ioxidative capability as a result of cross adaptat ion, exhibitingnot only lower levels of O2and MDA contents during fruit enclosure and after bag removal, but a quick response of antioxidativeenzyme( SOD) to scavenge activated oxygen species. On a whole, enclosed fruits became more sensitive to thenew environment soon after bag removal, so that an abrupt increase of O2contents or SOD act ivity occurred in fruits. Inorder to prevent fruits from physiological disorders, plastic film bags should not be applied on the periphery of southwestcanopy, and appropriate timing for bag removal has to be carefully considered.
  • ZHANGJian-guang, DIBao, LIYing-li, CHENShao-chun, ZHANGJianqiang, LIUYu-fang
    Abstract (222) PDF (162) RichHTML
    A considerable variation of antioxidative capabilities existed among the fruits from different exposures on atree depending upon various microenvironments where they grow. In sunny and clear days during growing season, a severeroxidative stress frequently occurred on the fruits from the southwest exposure of the canopy, regardless of bagged or exposedfruits, with 2contents in SW fruits being 1. 23- 1. 37 folds as high as those on the other exposures, MDA 1. 32- 1. 75 folds and SOD 1. 40- 1. 69 folds. Generally, bagging could aggravate the extent of fruit stress, thus both 2and MDA contents and SOD activity in fruits increased, compared with the control. Furthermore, fruits became more sensitiveshortly after bags were removed to harsh fluctuat ion of ambient temperatures and intense light because of the long-termadaptation to the / relatively stable and dark environment0 within the bags, showing an abrupt rise of both 2
  • FU You, DONG Wen-cheng, ZHAO Yong-bo
    Abstract (322) PDF (146) RichHTML
    Chang hong is a new apple variety selected f rom Fuji by Changli Insti tute of Pomology,Hebei Academyof Agriculture and Forest ry Sciences.The main characteristics are early ripening,long picking date,g ood coloring,high quility,long sto rage period,wide adaptation.
  • RAN Xin-tuo, ZHANG Xin-sheng
    Abstract (181) PDF (276) RichHTML
    The fruit numbers w ere limited according to t runk cross-sectional area. Leaf photosynthet ic rateand dry mat ter accumulation of shoot,leaf and fruit w ere monitored for 2 years in succession. The result sshowed that the photosynthet ic rate was posit ively correlated with dry w eight (r = 01972 7). With changes ofcrop load,there w ere sig nificant differences in the variation level of photosynthet ic rate and dry w eight. A-lthoug h crop load was positively correlated with dry w eight (r= 01974 1),the content of photosynthet ic product stransported to f ruits changed signif icantly. Crop load had a sig nificant ef fect on fruit quality and f low er bud differentiation rate in the next year.
  • YIN Ke-suo, ZHANG Xue-yan, DAI Xue-fang, MAO Jia, PU En-tang
    Abstract (304) PDF (202) RichHTML
    In order to assess degradation trends of lambda-cyhalothrin in different kinds of eco-environment planted apple.The field trail were conducted in suburbs of Taiyuan,Kunming and Beijing city,the apples and soils were analyzed by gas chromatography with ECD detector.The result showed that the degradation behaviors of lambda-cyhalothrin accorded with first order kinetics,the half life were from 17.8 to 24.0 days in apple,12.1 to 15.8 days in soil respectively.The last application was done 21 days before harvesting,the residues in apple and soil were not more than 0.2 mg/kg that was the maximum residues limits.The rate of degradation in three sites related to the air temperature and soils characteristic of physics and chemistry,but the difference was not significant.so it is safe to apply lambda-cyhalothrin.
  • DONG Yue-ju, ZHANG Yu-gang, LIANG Mei-xia, DAI Hong-yi
    Abstract (724) PDF (418) RichHTML
    For ascertaining the main evaluation factors of apple fruit,Nine quality index were measured of fifty-eight varieties.The index included mean individual fruit weight(MIFW),fruit shape index(FSI),flesh rigidity(FR),total soluble solids content(TSS),titratable acid content(TA),pH,vitamin C content,carotenoids,the ratio of sugar acid(RSA).These data were analyzed by variation,correlation analysis principal component analysis and system cluster analysis.58 varieties of fruit quality were analyzed by variation correlation,nine index were compressed into six integrated variables using principal component analysis.Final main evaluation indicators of apple fruit were determined by using cluster analysis and correlation analysis.The results indicated that the range of variation coefficient was from 5.7% to 77.8%.Mean individual fruit weight,flesh rigidity,vitamin C,carotenoids were the important components of fruit quality,playing a major role on fruit quality.These nine index were closely related and the relatively independent.Vitamin C was significantly and negatively correlated with titratable acid content and was significantly and positively related to mean individual fruit weight.Carotenoids was significantly and negatively correlated with titratable acid content and was significantly and positively related to the ratio of sugar acid.Based on the above results,five representative index were assured for evaluating fruit quality,that is fruit weight,fruit shape index,flesh firmness,contents of total soluble solids,and content of titratable acid,which could reflect the most information of apple fruit quality.
  • LI Ming-xiang, BAI Su-hua, ZHANG Yu-gang, ZHU Jun, DAI Hong-yi
    Abstract (310) PDF (355) RichHTML
    Mannose-binding Lectin(MBL),which belongs to B_LECTIN gene families,was isolated fom the young leaf of apple ( Malus domestica) by homologous cloning technology, named as MdMBL.The cDNA was 1 181 bp in length with an 5'non-coding egion of 20 bp,an 3'non-coding egion of 81 bp and an open eading fame ( OF) of 1 080 bp encoding a potein of 359 amino acids, and the estimated molecula weight and isoelectic point (pI)of the putative potein wee 39.76 kDa and 8.72,espectively.The phylogenetic tee of MBL showed that Md-MBL was closest with gapes MBL, followed by glycine max, and the evolutionay elationships of homologous genes in apple MdMBL2 was fathest.Quantitative eal-time PC analysis shows that the gene is tissue-specific and ex-pessed highest in stems, the lowest in flowes;The expession of MdMBL was pomoted inceased with the cold stess and the mechanical damage stess;Exogenous SA could induce up-egulation of MdMBL expession.
  • Shen Bizhen, Yang Yumin, Zhang Jurern
    Abstract (153) PDF (228) RichHTML
    This paper describes some physiological effects on apples irradiated with gamma ray in storage process. Experiment results indicate that irradiation can inhibit production of ethylene, which, in turn, can postpone the ripening and senility of apples. Therefore storage life of irradiated apples is longer than non-irradiated apples. There is a negative correlation both between the dose of irradiation and the rotal amount of ethylene and between the dose of irradiation and the rates of ethylene release. The quality and appearance of irradiated apples stored after for eight months have no significant variation. The irradiation has little effect on apples in such nutritional contents as protein, raducing sugar, cellulose and acidity.
  • Yan Yuhua, Duan Jianjun
    Abstract (298) PDF (251) RichHTML
    This experiment was conducted in the Tuanchenguoyuan Apple Orchard near Fragrant Hill Park, Beijing in 1985. The white sweet clover Mclilotus albus was grown as a cover crop between the rows of apple tree. The population dynamics of natural enemies,such as Orius minutus,,Chrysopa sinica,Scolothrips, sex-macnlatus and Amblyseius pseudolongispinosus, and the arthropod pests, such as Tetranychus viennensis, were observed. After the middle of July, the ratio of T.vicnnensis to its natural enemies on the apple trees was much lower in the cover cropping orchard than in the control orchards without the cover crop. On July 12, when the population of T. vienncnsis was most significantly different between the orchards with and without cover crop, there were 2.54 active mite stages per leaf and 8.80 active mite stages per leaf in test and control orchard respectively. During the entire growing season, miticide was applied only once. Obviously.cover cropping in apple orchards should be considered as one of important methods of IPM.
  • TENG Yun-long, LI Chun-min, ZHAO Yong-bo, ZENG Guang-juan, CHEN Dong-me, DONG Wen-xuan, ZHANG Xin-zhong
    Abstract (236) PDF (227) RichHTML
    Dyanic changes of proteins in phloem from different nodes in 5 hybrid seedlings( Jonathan x Golden De-licious)were analyzed with SDI polyac amide gel electrophoresis. The result indicated that protein bands changed withnodes increasing.Three prater bands found in different phases. The molecular weight of the 3 protein bands were17. 0, 21. 0, 55. 0 kDa respectivly.The 55. 0 kDa protein presented qualitative change which appeared in the node No.46 and disappeared the node No. 125. Changes of 17. 0 kDa and 21. 0 kDa proteins were found quantitaively. In phloemsamples taken below nodes No. 111-125, the content of 21. 0 kDa protein was higher, but a sharp decrease occurred inphloem above nodes No. 125. The content of 17. 0 kDa protein kept high bet nodes No. 51-65 and No. 106- 120.
  • HAO Jie, WANG Xian-ge, LI Xue-ying, YAN Xin-min, FENG Jian-zhong
    Abstract (347) PDF (220) RichHTML
    The objective of this study is to determine the effects on the changes of endogenous hormones in apple seedlings by direct planting,top grafting,and grafting on dwarfing intermediate stock respectively. During May to September the apple seedlings of Guohong Changfu 6 by three different grafting methods were selected once per month as the test materials,which included direct planting , top grafting , and grafting on dwarfing intermediate stock. The changes of endogenous hormones' content and their ratios in these apple seedlings leaves were studied on this paper and the results were detected by HPLC in Shijiazhuang Pomology Institute,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. The results showed that by uses of top grafting and grafting on dwarfing intermediate stock,the content of GA3,IAA , CTK in those leaves are lower than that in the leaves by the direct planting trees , but the content of ABA is higher than that in the direct planting trees. The results indicated some plus or minus relevance by the three different grafting methods,and it also provided theoretical evidence for the influence on the different grafting methods shortening the juvenility of apple seedlings.
  • XU Guo-liang, JIN Ai-rong, DU Ji-zhuang, NI Qun-zhou, QIN Li-zhe
    Abstract (365) PDF (225) RichHTML
    Studied the composition of insect communities in apple orchard,and its development grows,communities space and time patterns in central and southern Taihang mountain.Reveals the change of insect communities in growing season,and identifies the advantage pests in different periods and different parts;Larger changes exist in insects diversity,evenness and dominance,in apple orchard ecosystems of Taihang mountain,the role of natural enemies alone can not serve the purpose of controlling pests,prevention and control measures is necessary.
  • LI Ming-zhe, GAO Hui-min, JIAO Yong-gang
    Abstract (236) PDF (254) RichHTML
    Through the studies on the anatomical configuration of eight different interstocks apple(Red Fuji) branches using microscope and vernier caliper,we can show that the pith proportion was positive correlative with the growth potential of apple tree if they have close kin.