Special Issue

This special topic selects papers related to wheat published in Acta Agriculurae Boreali-Sinica , involving papers on wheat genetics and breeding, cultivation, physiology and biochemistry, soil fertilizers, diseases and pests, etc.Click on the relevant paper to open the web page and download the full text. In order to quote and share for readers, each article contains a complete citation format in Chinese and English (including international DOI number) and a proprietary QR code. Long press the QR code of the article to open the web page of the article and realize mobile sharing at the same time. Thank you for downloading, quoting, forwarding and sharing.
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  • SHANG Baohua, DANG Jianyou, GAO Lu, ZHANG Huiyu, PEI Xuexia
    Abstract (22) PDF (5) RichHTML (1)

    In order to identify the response of starch components and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat grains to irrigation,a split plot design was adopted under field conditions.The main plot consisted of two waxy wheat varieties(Linnuo 88,soft;Jinmai 99,hard),and the sub-region was treated with three types of irrigation(S1,irrigation overwintering water;S2,overwintering water + jointing water;S3,overwintering water + jointing water + grouting water; CK,no irrigation),the effects of irrigation on grain yield,starch content,starch composition,particle size distribution,flour gelatinization characteristics and flour quality of two types of waxy wheat were analyzed. The results showed that the yield and constituent factors of two waxy wheat varieties increased with irrigation.Compared with S1 and S2, the average two-year Linnuo 88 S3 treatment increased yield by 63.59% and 9.02%,and Jinmai 99 increased yield by 64.15% and 6.95%,respectively.The starch content of the two waxy wheat varieties under S2 was the highest, which was 1.75 and 5.54 percentage points higher than CK, respectively. The amylopectin content of Linnuo 88 increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of irrigation,and S2 treatment was significantly higher than the other treatments. The amylopectin content of Jinmai 99 decreased with the increase of irrigation,and that of S1 treatment was significantly higher than the other treatments. The amylose/amylopectinratio of starch was the opposite. The particle size distribution of the tested grain starch granules ranged from 1.0 to 45.7 μm,and the number proportion distribution showed a single peak curve.Both volume proportion distribution and surface area proportion distribution of starch granules showed a double peak curve.With the increase of irrigation times,the number of B-type starch granules increased first and then decreased,flour gelatinization temperature first decreased and then increased,and the peak time moved forward,but S2 irrigation treatment was the most significant;protein content,wet gluten content and sedimentation value all decreased with the increase of irrigation. Under this trial conditions,at the same time as stable output of overwintering water + jointing water,it could increase the starch content and B-type starch volume proportion of Linnuo 88,and reduce amylose/amylopectin ratio;while overwintering water + jointing water + grouting water could increase the yield and decrease amylose/amylopectin ratio of Jinmai 99,and improve the gelatinization characteristics of hard waxy wheat.Irrigation can effectively regulate the starch composition and particle size distribution of waxy wheat grains,thereby changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  • ZHANG Dehua, XU Xin, WANG Yujie, ZHANG Ziyang, LI Xiaojun
    Abstract (18) PDF (7) RichHTML (4)

    In order to find the loci associated with quality traits in wheat,the mapping of quantitative trait loci(QTL)was conducted using the high-density genetic linkage map based on single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)and the quality parameters surveyed in four environments including grain protein content,wet gluten content,starch content,sedimentation value and extensibility with the recombinant inbred line population derived from Bainong AK58/Bima 4.A total of 60 QTLs were identified by inclusive composite interval mapping,which were distributed on 20 chromosomes except for 6B.21 QTLs were found in two or more environments,of which the positive alleles of 15 QTLs were derived from Bainong AK58 and the positive genes of the remaining 6 QTLs were derived from Bima 4. A QTL cluster was found on chromosome 4A in the interval of 116.4—139.0 cM(629.36—701.53 Mb),and several QTLs such as QGpc.his-4A-2,QWgc.his-4A-2,QSv.his-4A and QEx.his-4A were identified in this region.Furthermore,1BL/1RS translocation caused improvement of protein content,wet gluten content and sedimentation value,but showed a negative effect on starch content.It is supposed that the impact of 1BL/1RS translocation lines on quality may be associated with their genetic background.

  • SHAO Yun, MA Yueying, HOU Meng, YANG Junhua, MA Guanqun
    Abstract (32) PDF (16) RichHTML (4)

    Under the double cropping pattern in the North China Plain,based on the conventional application level of phosphorus,a phosphorus-deprived level without phosphorus fertilizer was adopted at the same time for three previous crops,corn,soybean and peanut,and then the soil nutrient concentration after previous crop harvesting and the grain yield and nutrient accumulation of winter wheat,the subsequent crop,were examined,to provide a proposal for crops planting in the North China Plain.The results showed that,for the soil nutrients after the previous crop harvesting,the soil total phosphorus concentration was higher in the previous soybean treatment without phosphorus fertilizer,and the concentration in peanut previous treatment was similar to that under conventional fertilizers;the soil available phosphorus content was higher overall in the previous peanut treatment;the soil nitrate and ammonium nitrogen concentrations were both highest in the previous soybean treatment.For post-crop wheat,wheat thousand grains weight,yield,seed N and P accumulation and N fertilizer bias productivity were all higher in the previous peanut treatment without phosphorus fertilizer.The previous peanut treatment increased by 0.60%,6.19%,15.46%,18.11% and 6.21%,respectively,compared to the previous maize treatment,and increased by 2.18%,7.30%,17.66%,13.40% and 7.30%,respectively,compared to the previous soybean treatment.In summary,in order to ensure soil nutrient balance,peanut was selected as a suitable previous crop in summer before winter wheat as a better model for crop mix in the southern two maturity zones of the North China Plain at low phosphorus levels.

  • LÜ Lihua, YAO Haipo, CAO Zhimin, ZHANG Jingting, YAO Yanrong, JIA Xiuling
    Abstract (36) PDF (39) RichHTML (2)

    It explored the ratio of organic fertilizer replacing nitrogen fertilizer in the piedmont plain of Hebei Province,in order to provide a basis for reducing the amount and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen in wheat in this area.Field experiments were carried out in Boyuan farm in Yongnian,Hebei Province for two consecutive years,and five organic and inorganic fertilizer combination treatments were set up.The results showed that organic fertilizer instead of 20% and 40% chemical fertilizer could significantly improve the number of grains per spike and yield.Compared with the high nitrogen and saving nitrogen treatment of single chemical fertilizer application,the yield increased by more than 4.0%,and the number of grains per spike increased by 3.6—5.6.Most of the grain quality indexes for organic fertilizer instead of 20% and 40% chemical fertilizer treatment,and saving nitrogen treatment were better,and the stabilization time increased by 2.2—2.7 min,the tensile area increased by 10.5—17.5 cm2,and the maximum tensile resistance increased by 28.0—75.5 EU.Various nitrogen efficiency indicators of treatment for organic fertilizer instead of 20% were higher.The nitrogen fertilizer efficiency,nitrogen utilization efficiency,and nitrogen harvest index increased 109.3%,9.3% and 11.3% respectively compared with high nitrogen treatment,and 6.9%,8.5% and 8.3% respectively compared with the saving nitrogen treatment.When organic fertilizer replaced chemical fertilizer in different proportions,nitrate nitrogen in 0—20 cm soil appeared "surface accumulation",and the content of nitrate nitrogen increased,which was more than 38.5% higher than that of the saving nitrogen treatment.The nitrate nitrogen in 20—40 cm soil was significantly higher for the saving nitrogen treatment and the high nitrogen application treatment.Organic fertilizer instead of 20% nitrogen fertilizer treatment had the best yield and grain quality,significantly improve the nitrate nitrogen content in 0—40 cm soil,improve the nitrogen absorption and utilization of wheat,and finally obtain higher environmental benefits.

  • LU Yan, GAO Jian, KANG Wenqin, YUAN Xili, JING Lan
    Abstract (16) PDF (11) RichHTML (2)

    To explore the abundance of Gibberella zeae and the composition and diversity of fungal communities in spring wheat belt of the Northeast, bulk soil samples were collected under four crop rotation patterns, such as wheat-wheat-potato (T), wheat-wheat-silybum marianum (MT), wheat-wheat-oilseed rape (R), wheat-wheat-sugarbeet (S), and wheat for three years (W) was used as control. The Illumina MiSeq was used to sequence the ITS amplicons of the strains. The data showed that the number of fungal OTUs in W, T, MT, R and S was 389, 362, 390, 471 and 438, respectively. In the R and S rotation pattern, Chao1 were increased 11.08% and 8.59% respectively, compared with wheat continuous cropping, indicating that the rotation of silybum marianum, oilseed rape and sugarbeet with wheat increased the abundance of fungi genus. Among the five planting patterns, Shannon and Simpson in MT were the highest, revealed that the diversity of fungal communities in MT was more enriched. The similarity cluster analysis of fungal community structure showed that the four rotation patterns clustered into one branch. Under the four cropping rotation patterns, the abundance of basidiomycota increased while that of Zygomycota decreased. We also found that the relative abundance of Gibberella zeae decreased by 16.67%, 50.00% and 83.33% in R, S and MT, respectively, while the abundance of friendly genus were remarkably increased. However, the relative abundance of Gibberella zeae was increased significantly in the T pattern. Based on the above research results and the local planting structure, it is suggested to plant silybum marianum, sugarbeet and oilseed rape rotation with wheat to reduce the hazard of wheat scab.

  • YAO Haipo, DONG Zhiqiang, LÜ Lihua, ZHANG Jingting, ZHANG Lihua, YAO Yanrong, ZHENG Mengjing, JIA Xiuling
    Abstract (26) PDF (9) RichHTML (4)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the irrigation mode of micro-irrigation,water-fertilizer integration technology suitable for the low plain area around Bohai Sea,a two-yield experient was carried out in the same experiment site,in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 wheat growing seasons to compare the effects of winter wheat research on the spike percentage,spike variation,yield and water consumption of wheat.There were five micro-irrigation treatments;the model of "limited water and stable yield" was set up with two irrigation treatments(T1 and T2 respectively);the "water-saving and high-yield" model was set up with two irrigation treatments(T3 and T4 respectively);T5 treatment was foot water treatment under micro-irrigation mode and 1 flood irrigation control treatment T6.The results showed that:the ratio of 1 spike group and 2 spike group in micro-irrigation was higher than that in traditional border irrigation,the proportion of 3-panicle and 4-panicle was significantly lower than that of traditional border irrigation.The micro-irrigation pattern increased the ability of forming 1 and 2 ears of wheat,the uniformity of single spike weight was significantly higher than that of border irrigation.In 2014-2015,T3 treatment had the highest grain yield,followed by T4 treatment,the yields of the two treatments were slightly higher than those of border irrigation control and T5 treatment,the water use efficiency of T3 treatment was the highest,slightly higher than that of T2 treatment and significantly higher than that of other treatment,it increased by 23.0% compared with border irrigation.In 2015-2016,wheat yield T6>T5>T3>T4>T2>T1,T6 was significantly higher than T1 and T2,and had no significant difference compared with other treatments,the water use efficiency(WUE)of border irrigation was 40.3% higher than that of border irrigation.Comprehensive consideration of cost-saving and efficiency-enhancing,water-saving ecological aspects,under the micro-sprinkler irrigation mode,the best irrigation mode was spring irrigation 2 water(pull-off water,flowering water).

  • ZHANG Shengquan, WANG Zheng, YANG Weibing, REN Liping, YE Zhijie, GAO Xinhuan, GAO Jiangang, LOU Hongyao, DU Bing, CHEN Zhaobo
    Abstract (13) PDF (15) RichHTML (2)

    In order to clarify the effect of population regulation of hybrid wheat on source-sink system,taking two-line hybrid wheat varieties Jingmai 6 as the research object,the population source and sink characteristics of hybrid wheat were analyzed from the aspects of population structure,material accumulation and yield composition.The results showed that,in terms of source system,increasing the seeding rate could increase the dry matter accumulation in the population,but the post-anthesis dry matter accumulation and the seed rate increase did not show a synchronous growth relationship.The accumulation ratio and post-anthesis matter productivity basically showed a decreasing trend with the increase of density.There was no significant difference in the post-flowering matter accumulation between the medium and high density treatments.The proportion of post-anthesis matter accumulation and post-anthesis matter productivity basically decreased with the increase of seed rate.In terms of sink system,hybrid wheat sink capacity was not significantly affected by seed rate,and had a very significant positive correlation with yield.Under the condition of medium and low seed rate,and the ear-leaf area ratio and the grain number-leaf area ratio is relatively high.Hybrid wheat had the characteristics of large and stable sink capacity and high sink-source ratio.With the increase of seed rate,the yield of hybrid wheat showed a unimodal curve,which was higher under the seed rate of 225×104-375×104/ha.In order to build a reasonable source-sink system,the varieties with high sink-source ratio,strong and sustainable source function,high tillering ability and high distribution and utilization efficiency of stored dry matter,and the cultivation strategy of controlling seed rate and moderately reducing input are beneficial to the realization of the goal of "increasing the source,strengthening the source" of hybrid wheat after anthesis,also to build a balanced source-sink system,which is also of special significance for further improving the yield of hybrid wheat.

  • ZHANG Zihao, LI Xiangcheng, WU Haotian, FU Penghao, GAO Chunbao, ZHANG Yunbo, ZOU Juan
    Abstract (24) PDF (19) RichHTML (2)

    In order to reveal the effects of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and the ratio of basic application of nitrogen fertilizer to top application at jointing stage on the yield,quality and nitrogen efficiency of weak gluten wheat,and to clarify the optimal nitrogen fertilizer management measures for weak gluten wheat,the weak-gluten wheat variety Emai 580 was selected as the test material,and the nitrogen fertilizer amount experiment and nitrogen fertilizer base topdressing experiment were set up.The nitrogen fertilizer amount experiment was set up with 5 treatments of 0,90,135,180,225 kg/ha,and 4 treatments of 10∶0,7∶3,5∶5 and 3∶7 were set in the nitrogen fertilizer base topping ratio experiment.Through the determination and analysis of wheat chlorophyll content(SPAD),leaf area index(LAI),yield,yield components,nitrogen utilization rate and quality under different treatments,it was clear that different nitrogen fertilizer management modes affect the yield,nitrogen fertilizer efficiency and quality of weak gluten wheat.The results showed that reasonable nitrogen fertilizer management could effectively improve the photosynthetic capacity of wheat,delay the decline of chlorophyll,increase yield and nitrogen use efficiency,and improve wheat quality.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,the wheat yield increased first and then decreased.The highest yield was 5 903.0 kg/ha when the nitrogen application rate was 180 kg/ha and the base-dressing ratio was 7∶3.Under the same fertilization rate,nitrogen absorption and utilization rate,partial factor productivity of nitrogenand nitrogen agronomic efficiency of wheat increased first and then decreased with the increase of top dressing ratio.When the base-to-chasing ratio was 7∶3,the three indicators all reach their maximum values:37.6%,32.8 kg/kg,and 12.0 kg/kg.Different nitrogen fertilizer management modes had obvious effects on wheat quality indexes.The grain crude protein content,wet gluten content and stabilization time all showed an increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer dosage and the backward shift of nitrogen fertilizer.Based on various indicators,the nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/ha and the base-to-dressing ratio of 7∶3 were the optimal nitrogen fertilizer management mode for the synergy of yield,quality and nitrogen use efficiency of weak gluten wheat.

  • ZHAO Jie, LIU Hongquan, ZHAO Yun, YANG Kai, FU Yongbin, GU Yuzhang, SUN Lijing, HU Mengyun, LI Hui, ZHANG Yingjun
    Abstract (78) PDF (46) RichHTML (5)

    In order to explore the relationship between the vernalization genes and winter-spring characteristics of wheat varieties in the Northern China Winter Wheat Region,271 wheat cultivars from the Northern China Winter Wheat Region were used as materials to detect the composition and distribution of four vernalization genes Vrn-A1,Vrn-B1,Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B3 by molecular markers.The heading date of these cultivars in the field was observed in Sanya,Hainan Province,and their winter-spring characteristics were investigated with the data recorded.The results showed that in this wheat region:among the four dominant alleles,Vrn-D1 (27.7%)had the highest distribution frequency in the tested cultivars and the distribution frequency decreased gradually from the South to the North;the distribution frequency of dominant Vrn-B1 alleles (3.0%)was very low in wheat materials in this wheat region;none of the test materials contained the dominant alleles Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B3;the most common vernalization gene allele combination was vrn-A1/vrn-B1/vrn-D1/vrn-B3.Further analysis of winterness-springness type of the test cultivars showed that some cultivars containing the dominant allele Vrn-D1 must be vernalized to blossom,while the wheat cultivars containing the dominant allele Vrn-B1 had a weak demand for vernalization.Among the four dominant vernalization genes,only the dominant alleles Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B1 were distributed in the tested cultivars in the Northern China Winter Wheat Region.The effect of Vrn-B1 on the vernalization development characteristics was stronger than that of Vrn-D1.

  • WANG Shuo, ZHAO Gangyi, SHI Tianle, WU Sifan, YAN Qianying, HAN Shengfang, WANG Dongmei
    Abstract (56) PDF (40) RichHTML (2)

    In order to explore the role of melatonin in the interaction between wheat and leaf rust,we studied the incompatible combination between wheat variety Lovrin 10(hereinafter referred to as L10)and physiological race 260 of leaf rust. In this experiment,reactive oxygen species were induced by exogenous injection of Methyl viologen (Methy lviologen(MV)as an oxidant induces the production of superoxide anion,which can effectively increase the content of reactive oxygen species),and the best concentration of melatonin was determined by using the ability of melatonin to scavenge reactive oxygen species;then,melatonin was injected into the leaves of wheat seedlings and inoculated with leaf rust race 260,and the changes of H2O2 content were observed by DAB staining. The HR area was detected by Rohringer staining. The effects of exogenous melatonin injection on the antioxidant capacity of wheat were investigated by measuring the peroxidase(POD)and catalase(CAT)activities of wheat;through the above research,the role of melatonin in the interaction between wheat and leaf rust was clarified. The results showed that the reactive oxygen species was increased by exogenous injection of methyl viologen,and the optimum injection concentration of melatonin was 10 μmol/L. The results of DAB staining of incompatible combinations showed that after injection of 10 μmol/L melatonin,the accumulation of H2O2 induced by leaf rust infection in wheat leaves was less than that in control group,which indicated that melatonin participated in H2O2 scavenging. Rohringer staining showed that the area of wheat HR cells decreased after exogenous melatonin treatment,which effectively enhanced the resistance to leaf rust. In addition,exogenous injection of melatonin increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes POD and CAT,which indicated that the antioxidant capacity of wheat was significantly improved. The results showed that exogenous injection of melatonin was involved in the removal of reactive oxygen species in the process of wheat resistance to leaf rust,and improved the disease resistance of wheat.

  • NIU Runzhi, ZHU Changwei, JIANG Guiying, YANG Jin, LUO Lan, SHEN Fengmin, LIU Fang, LIU Shiliang
    Abstract (73) PDF (74) RichHTML (36)

    To select the optimum tillage mode for the fluvo-aquic soil in North Henan,a three-year field experiment was carried out during 2016 to 2019. The experiment was designed with five combinations of three different tillage practices in wheat season as continuous rotary tillage(RT-RT-RT);deep tillage-rotary tillage-rotary tillage(DT-RT-RT);deep tillage-rotary tillage-strip rotary tillage(DT-RT-SRT);deep tillage-strip rotary tillage-strip rotary tillage(DT-SRT-SRT);deep tillage-strip tillage-rotary tillage(DT-SRT-RT). The photosynthetic indexes,soil available nutrients,and wheat yield were measured and analyzed under different treatments. The results showed that compared with RT-RT-RT,photosynthetic characteristics under different rotation tillage treatments improved. Compared with RT-RT-RT,the net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance under DT-SRT-RT increased by 10.85%,7.83%,respectively. The chlorophyll content increased gradually with the growth stage under DT-SRT-RT,and it was significantly higher than that under RT-RT-RT at the filling stage,with an increment of 16.52%. The content of available nitrogen,available phosphorus,and available potassium in the 0-50 cm soil layer increased under treatments with rotation tillage. Additionally,the spike number,grains per spike,1000-grain weight,and yield of wheat under DT-SRT-RT were higher than those under RT-RT-RT,therein,the yield under DT-SRT-RT was the highest with an increment of 14.64%. The correlation analysis showed that the net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with wheat yield,which reached significant level at the flowering period. The contents of nitrate nitrogen,ammonium nitrogen,available phosphorus,and available potassium in surface soil were significantly positively correlated with wheat yield. Generally,for the fluvo-aquic soil area in North Henan,the photosynthetic characteristics of wheat,soil available nutrients content and the components of yield were improved by rotation tillage modes,and therein,the DT-SRT-RT was the optimum one.

  • LIU Jianling, WU Jing, JIA Ke, LIAO Wenhua, LÜ Yinghua, MA Junyong
    Abstract (355) PDF (30) RichHTML (44)

    This study investigated the dynamics of soil phosphorus,yield responses to soil phosphorus and phosphate fertilizer in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in the last decades,which was important for the scientific application of phosphate fertilizer in continuous high-yielding cropping.A combined method that included in situ phosphate fertilizer experiment under different soil fertility conditions,the analysis of changes of soil available P since 1978,the response of yield to phosphate fertilizer was used.Average content of soil available P of winter wheat-summer maize rotation area was 22.43 mg/kg,and the soil available P of the piedmont plain of Taihang mountain was greater than the alluvial plain.During 1996-1999,the soil available P content of the the piedmont plain and the alluvial plain was 15.09,11.90 mg/kg in cultivated land,respectively,the application rate of P2O5 in the winter wheat season of the rotation system was 180 kg/ha;the soil P supply capacity for winter wheat in these two regions piedmont were 83.9%,75.8%,respectively,and for summer maize they were 83.3%,89.7%,respectively.Under the condition of winter wheat straw returning,soil P surplus of these two regions was estimated to be 52.8%,55.4%,respectively.During 2010-2012,the soil available P of the piedmont plain of Taihang mountain was 27.22 mg/kg,the application rate in winter wheat and summer maize season were 108,60 kg/ha,respectively.The soil P supply capacity in winter wheat season was 84.6%,90.1% in summer maize season.Soil P surplus was estimated to be 6.7% in winter wheat season,and soil P of deficit was estimated to be 47.1% in summer maize season without straw returning.The application rate of P2O5 for the maximal yield production of winter wheat and summer maize were calculated according to the yield responses of winter wheat and summer maize to the P fertilization rates at multiple sites during 2002-2006 and 2012-2016.For winter wheat they were 107.3,125.1 kg/ha,respectively,and for summer maize they were 52.0,58.9 kg/ha,respectively.The accumulated P increaded the yield of winter wheat and summer maize for excess application 3 time of P fertilizer in 3 years 6 crop.The recommendation of P2O5 rate for winter wheat and summer maize with wheat straw returning were 90-100 kg/ha and 30 kg/ha,respectively,and they were 100-120 kg/ha and 45 kg/ha without wheat straw returning.

  • FENG Suwei, LIU Chaoyang, HU Tiezhu, DING Weihua, WANG Guangtao, RU Zhengang
    Abstract (51) PDF (17) RichHTML (16)

    In order to clarify the regulating effects of different irrigation stages and irrigation times under border irrigation on wheat yield formation and water use efficiency of winter wheat,field experiments were established in 2018-2019 and 2019-2020,and four supplemental irrigation treatments were set up:no-irrigation after emergence(W0),irrigation at jointing stage(W1),irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages(W2),irrigation at rejuvenation,jointing and anthesis stages(W3).The results showed that the spike number and grains per spike of winter wheat increased with the increase of irrigation times under the condition of consistent water management during the sowing period in the two years,and there was a significant difference between treatments. The 1 000-grain weight varied significantly in different years,and it was significantly positively correlated with the amount of pre-anthesis dry matter remobilization.In 2018-2019,the grain yield of W3 treatment reached 10 100.05 kg/ha,with no significant difference compared with W2 treatment,but they were all significantly higher than the other treatments.The grain yield of W3 treatment in 2019-2020 was 9 604.00 kg/ha,significantly higher than other treatments,while the water use efficiency and irrigation benefit were significantly lower than other treatments.There was no significant difference in water use efficiency between W1 and W2,but both were higher than other treatments.Correlation analysis showed that grain yield was significantly positively correlated with post-anthesis dry matter accumulation and contribution of post-anthesis dry matter accumulation to grain.Therefore,irrigation stage and frequency during wheat growing period should be considered in conjunction with the soil moisture during the sowing period and the precipitation in the key growing stages,and supplemental irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages could achieve a synergistic increase of both yield and water use efficiency under the condition of sufficient moisture during the sowing period.

  • SUN Lili, JIN Xiujuan, ZHAO Kai, Md Ashraful Islam, LU Juan, WANG Shuguang, SUN Daizhen
    Abstract (217) PDF (135) RichHTML (33)

    Cysteine protease,a kind of hydrolase in the process of protein degradation,participates in the senescence and maturation of plants and plays an important role in the growth and development of plants.In this study,a senesence-specific cysteine protease(SAG39)was screened from the previously obtained transcriptome data of wheat at senescence stage.In order to study the role of TaSAG39 gene in wheat at senescence,the gene structure and expression pattern of TaSAG39 were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis and Real-time fluorescence quantitative(qRT-PCR)technology.The results showed that the amino acid sequence encoded by the cysteine protease gene SAG39 had the closest relationship with the ancestral species of wheat,such as Aegilops tauschii,Triticum dicoccoides and Triticum durum,and it included the unique active site Cys-His-Asn and EFNIN structures of the papain sub-family.The full-length genomes of TaSAG39-5A,TaSAG39-5B and TaSAG39-5D were 1 455,1 435,1 439 bp,respectively,and the length of the coding sequence was 1 041,1 050,1 038 bp,respectively,with each containing two exons and one intron.The TaSAG39s proteins consisted of 346,349,345 amino acids.With relative molecular weight of about 37 ku and isoelectric point of 5.53—5.67,these proteins were stable negatively charged hydrophilic proteins.Its main components were random coils and α-helix,and there were signal peptides in the N segment of the protein.It had the conserved Inhibittor_I29 and Petidase_C1 domains,and contained 35—37 phosphorylation sites,mainly serine and threonine phosphorylation sites.TaSAG39 protein may interact with cysteine protease inhibitors and 14-3-3 protein.The promoter contained cis-acting elements relative to abscisic acid,methyl jasmonate,auxin,light,drought,low temperature and stress response.The results of qRT-PCR confirmed that gene TaSAG39 was induced to express by natural aging,darkness,drought,methyl jasmonate,high temperature and auxin,among which natural aging was the most significant.

  • JING Fanli, ZHANG Peipei, MIAO Yongping, CHEN Tao, LIU Yuan, YANG Delong
    Abstract (210) PDF (141) RichHTML (25)

    In order to clarify the expression characteristics and biological functions of the sucrose phosphate phosphatase gene(SPP),and further understand the regulatory mechanism of SPP involved in sucrose biosynthesis.Herein,three TaSPP homologs,TaSPP-5A,TaSPP-5B and TaSPP-5D,located on the fifth homologous group,were cloned using the cDNA of wheat variety Jinmai 47 as the template.The physical and chemical properties,gene structure,cis-acting elements,phylogenetic tree and protein conserved domains of TaSPP were analyzed by the method of bioinformatics.The expression pattern of TaSPP was analyzed by qRT-PCR.The results showed that TaSPP-5A,TaSPP-5B and TaSPP-5D contained eight exons and seven introns.TaSPP-5A and TaSPP-5D encoded 422 amino acids,while TaSPP-5B encoded 413 amino acids.Phylogenetic analysis showed that TaSPP in wheat and its related species belonged to the same evolutionary branch with highly genetic similarity.The specific expression analysis showed that TaSPP genes were expressed in roots,stems,flag leaves,leaf sheaths,flower and seeds,whereas the higher expression levels were identified in flag leaves and stems.The expressions of TaSPP gene could be induced by ABA,PEG-6000,NaCl and IAA,indicating that TaSPP genes could play an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance in wheat.

  • ZHANG Zhenwang, WU Jinzhi, HUANG Ming, LI Youjun, ZHAO Kainan, HOU Yuanquan, ZHAO Zhiming, YANG Zhongshuai
    Abstract (676) PDF (107) RichHTML (31)

    In order to clarify the effects of drought stress on the photosynthetic characteristics in flag leaf in the afternoon during grain filling stage and grain yield of winter wheat with different drought resistance,an experiment with two winter wheat cultivars and four water levels was conducted under the condition of rainproof pond cultivation in 2018—2019 and 2019—2020.The two winter wheat cultivars were Jinmai 47(JM47,strong drought resistance)and Yanzhan 4110(YZ4110,weak drought resistance).The four water treatments included severe drought(W1:65% MFC(maximum field water capacity)before sowing + 45%—55% MFC after jointing),moderate drought(W2:75% MFC before sowing + 55%—65% MFC after jointing),mild drought(W3:75% MFC before sowing+65%—75% MFC after jointing),suitable water supply(W4:75%MFC before sowing+75%—85% MFC after jointing).The net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci),transpiration rate(Tr),instantaneous water use efficiency(IWUE),maximum photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm)and actual photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ(ΦPS Ⅱ)in flag leaf from 14:00 to 16:00 during the early,medium and medium-late grain filling stage and the grain yield and its components at maturity were investigated.The results showed that both water and cultivars had significant effects on the photosynthetic and fluorescence characteristics in flag leaf in the afternoon during the grain filling stage and the grain yield at maturity of winter wheat.From the two-year average,compared with W4,the Pn,Gs and ΦPSⅡ in flag leaf in the afternoon during the grain filling stage under drought stress(W1,W2 and W3)respectively decreased by 2.07%—68.92%,-3.23%—50.00% and -1.89%—30.19% in JM47,and decreased by 7.71%—80.19%,11.11%—59.26% and 0—73.47% in YZ4110;the flag leaf Tr values in the afternoon during the medium grain filling stage in JM47 and YZ4110 respectively decreased by 6.30%—32.87% and 6.49%—41.74%,and the flag leaf Fv/Fm values in the afternoon during the medium-late grain filling stage decreased by 1.20%—18.52% and 2.50%—30.00%.In general,for all the above indexes,the decreasing amplitude for the same index was JM47<YZ4110.Compared with YZ4110,the Pn,Gs,ΦPSⅡ and Fv/Fm in flag leaf in the afternoon during the grain filling stage under drought stress(W1,W2 and W3)of JM47 respectively increased by 0.86%—64.89%,8.33%—36.36%,1.96%—184.62% and 1.25%—17.86%,and the grain yields of JM47 were respectively increased by 28.91%,8.06% and 5.40%.Except for IWUE,the flag leaf photosynthetic parameters in the afternoon during the grain filling stage were significantly and extremely significant correlated with grain yield,but the correlation indexes varied with variety and grain filling stage.For JM47,the correlation indexes between the grain yield and flag leaf photosynthetic parameters were highest for Pn,Gs and Fv/Fm during the medium-late grain filling stage,for ΦPSⅡ during the medium grain filling stage,and for Tr during the early grain filling stage.For YZ4110,the correlation indexes were highest for Pn,Gs and Tr during the early grain filling stage,for ΦPSⅡ during the medium grain filling stage and for Fv/Fm during the medium-late grain filling stage.In summary,drought stress decreased the photosynthetic function of flag leaf in the afternoon during grain filling stage and thus decreased the grain yield of winter wheat,the strong drought resistance variety could maintain better flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics in the afternoon during the grain the filling stage under drought stress condition,and significantly improved the ΦPSⅡ of flag leaf in the afternoon during the medium grain filling stage and the Pn,Gs and Fv/Fm of flag leaf in the afternoon during the medium-late grain filling stage,thereby increasing the grain yield.

  • ZHANG Aoshen, YONG Xiaoyu, HAN Qiaoxia, YAO Yongwei, SHI Huanting, LI Gezi, KANG Guozhang
    Abstract (168) PDF (103) RichHTML (23)

    In order to investigate the effects of exogenous brassinolide on physiological characteristics,transcriptional level and growth of wheat at jointing stage under freezing stress,the semi-winter wheat variety Bainong 207 was used as material,and irrigated with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-Epibrassinolide(EBR)to study its chlorophyll content(SPAD value),malondialdehyde(MDA)content,relative conductivity,free proline(Pro)content,stress resistance related gene expression,young panicle freezing rate,grain yield,1 000 grains weight and dry matter quality.The results showed that before freezing stress,there was no significant difference in SPAD value,MDA content and relative conductivity between the control group and the treatment group,but the Pro content in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group;after freezing stress,compared with the control,external application of EBR significantly reduced the MDA content and relative conductivity of wheat leaves,and increased the SPAD value and Pro content.At 48 hours of freezing stress,the relative expression of stress resistance related genes SOD,POD,CAT,P5CS,and WCS120 in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control.After freezing stress,compared with the control,the freezing rate of young panicles in the treatment group decreased significantly by 20.93 percentage point,while the grains yield,1 000 grain weight and dry matter mass increased significantly by 19.38,2.37,54.40 g,respectively.In conclusion,external application of EBR at jointing stage of wheat can improve the frost resistance of wheat and reduce the yield loss of winter wheat caused by low temperature and freezing injury by reducing the content of MDA,increasing the content of Pro,chlorophyll and the expression of stress resistance related genes SOD,POD,CAT,P5CS,and WCS120.

  • WANG Jiarong, DONG Rui, ZHANG Mengyu, GAO Pu, ZHANG Peipei, LI Zaifeng, LIU Daqun
    Abstract (159) PDF (28) RichHTML (22)

    To identify leaf rust resistance genes in 40 wheat materials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), combined with pedigree analysis, gene derivation and molecular marker detection, 36 known disease resistance gene vector varieties and 40 wheat materials were vaccinated with 17 physiological species of leaf rust bacteria with different toxicity.By comparing the infected types of the tested wheat lines and the known rust resistance genes,the possible known resistance genes in the tested wheat materials could be postulated.At the same time,12 markers closely linked with known resistance genes were used to detect the 40 CIMMYT lines,and the results could be verified with the gene postulation.Furthermore,40 tested lines were planted in Baoding,Hebei Province and Zhoukou,Henan Province,respectively,and inoculated with mixed Pt races for leaf rust evaluation at adult plant stage in the field.The results showed that 7 wheat lines contained Lr1,Lr10 was found in 9 lines,and each of Lr11 and Lr34 was present in 10 lines.Each of Lr14a,Lr15 and Lr26 was postulated to present in 2,4 and 3 lines,respectively.Each of Lr37 and Lr46 was identified in 22,39 wheat lines,respectively,by using molecular marker detection.In the field test 22 wheat lines showed adult plant resistance to leaf rust.

  • JIA Weizhe, JIAO Bo, WANG Jiao, CHEN Wenye, YANG Fan, LIU Yongwei, DONG Fushuang, ZHAO Liqun, ZHOU Shuo
    Abstract (417) PDF (138) RichHTML (29)

    In order to explore stress resistance genes in wheat and study the molecular mechanism of calmodulin-like genes in plant stress resistance,a calmodulin-like gene TaCML8-A was cloned from wheat by electronic cloning combined with RT-PCR.Bioinformatics analysis showed that the open reading frame length of the gene was 519 bp,encoding 172 amino acid sequences,including PTZ00184 and FRQ1 superfamily,four EF-hand domains,including four calcium binding sites.The molecular weight of the encoded protein was 18.31 ku and the isoelectric point was 4.54.It belonged to acidic protein.Subcellular localization showed that TaCML8-A protein was distributed in the nucleus and cell membrane.Nucleotide sequence alignment showed that TaCML8-A had the closest genetic relationship with rice OsCML14,with a similarity of 79.17%.qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of TaCML8-A gene in shoot and root of wheat increased under salt,osmotic and cold stress,indicating that plants might respond to thoese stresses by increasing the expression of TaCML8-A.During heat shock,TaCML8-A gene was induced and inhibited in root and shoot,respectively,so as to play different functions.The calmodulin-like gene TaCML8-A was successfully cloned from wheat and analyzed for expression.It is preliminarily speculated that the gene might be involved in regulating abiotic stress of plants,so as to provide basic theoretical support for the follow-up study of its biological function.

  • LI Fujian, XU Dongyi, LIU Kaili, ZHU Min, LI Chunyan, ZHU Xinkai, DING Jinfeng, GUO Wenshan
    Abstract (104) PDF (72) RichHTML (11)

    To investigate the cultivation approach achieving robust seedlings and high yields of wheat in rice stubble,the effects of three tillage methods,including plow tillage followed by rotary tillage(PR),rotary tillage twice(RR),and no-tillage(NT),on the growth and physiology of main stem and tillers of wheat seedlings and their single spike yield at maturity were studied under the conditions of rice straw retaining with full amount.The results showed that PR increased the stems number per plant at the beginning of over-wintering by 1.5%,12.8%,respectively,compared with RR and NT,with significant differences(P<0.05).Leaf area and dry matter weight per plant under PR were 94 cm2 and 787 mg,respectively,which were significantly higher than those under NT(P<0.05).Compared with NT,PR significantly improved activities of nitrate reductase(NR),glutamine synthase(GS),and glutamate synthase(GOGAT)of the top full expanding leaves in the main stem and the first,second,and third tillers(P<0.05).PR also significantly promoted the activities of diphosphate carboxylase(Rubisco),pyruvate phosphate dikinase(PPDK),triosephosphate isomerase(TPI),sucrose synthase(SS-Ⅱ),and sucrose phosphate synthase(SPS),and enhanced SPAD and soluble sugar content(P<0.05).And compared with NT,PR significantly increased the nitrogen content in seedling leaves of main stem,second and third tillers(P<0.05).Moreover,PR and RR increased leaf area and dry matter weight of the main stem and the first and second tillers.Therefore,compared with RR and NT,PR was more beneficial to the synergistic improvement of nitrogen metabolism,glucose metabolism,and light energy utilization at the seedling stage,increasing photosynthetic productivity and forming robust seedlings.The improvement of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and photosynthetic capacity by RR was higher than that by NT but was weaker than that by PR.There were no significant differences between PR and RR in the grain number per spike,single grain weight of the main stem(P>0.05),but they were significantly higher than those under NT(P<0.05).The grain number per spike in the first and second tillers under PR was significantly higher than that under RR and NT(P<0.05),but single grain weight and grain yield per spike of the first,second,and third tillers were not significantly different between PR and RR(P>0.05).In conclusion,PR could improve the activity of glucose and nitrogen metabolism and photosynthetic physiology of the main stem and the first and second tillers of wheat in rice stubble,resulting in the increases of the grain number per spike and the productivity per spike through forming strong seedlings.

  • HE Jie, SUN Shaoguang, GE Changbin, SONG Danyang, QIAO Jiliang, LI Suoping, SU Yarui, LIAO Pingan
    Abstract (120) PDF (180) RichHTML (8)

    In order to explore the key factors affecting stem strength and screen the valuable parent resources for wheat "strong stem breeding" ,72 wheat varieties(lines)were used as materials.Firstly,the strength of stems in flowering stage,filling stage and milk stage of wheat was comprehensively analyzed and all the materials were grouped into clusters.On this basis,the genetic variation of lignin content,cellulose content and microstructure of wheat stem and their relation with stem strength were further analyzed,and the key characters related to stem strength were defined.In addition,principal component analysis(PCA)was used to extract the main factors of stem cross section microstructure,and calculate the score of comprehensive factors,and further cluster analysis was carried out combined with lignin and cellulose content,so as to comprehensively evaluate the performance of stem strength related traits of different wheat varieties(lines).The results showed that the mechanical tissue thickness decreased significantly or extremely significant at the same time as the strength of wheat stem weakened from flowering stage to filling stage.Moreover,parenchyma thickness,mechanical tissue thickness,large vascular bundle area,lignin and cellulose content in high stem strength wheat were much higher than those in low stem strength wheat.Correlation analysis also showed that mechanical tissue thickness,large vascular bundle area,lignin and cellulose content were significantly of extremely significantly correlated with stem strength.Finally,the lignin content,cellulose content and the main component comprehensive factor scores of the stem microstructure were used as three variables for cluster analysis,and a total of 18 wheat materials with outstanding performance in the stem microstructure and biochemical indicators were screened out.These wheat materials can be used as important genetic resources for wheat "strong stem breeding".

  • SONG Shanshan, ZHANG Xinting, WANG Qi, LU Yuanjing, HOU Chunyan, WANG Dongmei
    Abstract (85) PDF (10) RichHTML (3)

    The aim to study the role of TaRanGAP2 in HR induction of wheat resistance to Puccinia triticina,so as to lay a foundation for elucidating the mechanism of Puccinia triticina resistance and breeding for disease resistance in wheat at the molecular level.The wheat near-isogenic line TcLr26 and its recurrent parent Tatcher(Tc)were used to form incompatabile(TcLr26×260)and compatabile combination(Tc×260)with Puccinia triticina race 260,respectively.Bioinformatics analysis showed that the total length of CDS of TaRanGAP2 was 1 665 bp,encoding 554 amino acids.Analysis of its conserved domains revealed that the protein encoded by TaRanGAP2 gene belonged to the Ran GTPase family;RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of TaRanGAP2 in the two combinations.It was found that the expression of TaRanGAP2 was significantly up-regulated in the incompatible combination;the subcellular localization detection of TaRanGAP2 by tobacco transient transformation system showed that TaRanGAP2 was localized in the cytoplasm;Virus induced gene silencing(VIGS)technology were used to silence TaRanGAP2 gene in TcLr26.After inoculation with Puccinia triticina race 260,it was found that HR area of TaRanGAP2 gene-silencing plants was significantly increased,and the number of HMCs were also significantly increased compared with the unsilenced plants control plants.These results proved that TaRanGAP2 played a positive regulatory role in the induction of HR in wheat resistance to Puccinia triticina.

  • ZHOU Yuanhui, MA Shangyu, WANG Yanyan, HUANG Zhenglai, ZHANG Wenjing, FAN Yonghui, HOU Junyou, GAI Panpan, SHAN Yajing
    In 2015-2016 wheat growing season, Wankenmai 076 and Wanmai 52 were used at the Wanzhong Experiment Station of Anhui Agricultural University to study the effect of waterlogging after anthesis on the grain filling characteristics and yield of winter wheat. Four treatments, 0(W0), 3(W3), 6(W6), and 9(W9)days of waterlogging after anthesis, were established. The results showed that 14 days after flowering, no significant differences were observed in net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value, malondialdehyde(MDA)content and peroxidase(POD)activity in flag leaf between W0 and W3 treatments. Moreover, W6 and W9 treatments showed significant lower values than that of W0. However, superoxide dismutase(SOD)and catalase(CAT)activity of flag leaf were different in different varieties, SOD and CAT activities of flag leaf in Wankenmai 076 of W9 treatment were significantly lower than those of other treatments, SOD and CAT activity of flag leaf in Wanmai 52 of W3 and W6 treatment were significantly lower than those of W0 treatment, but higher than those of W9 treatment. In addition, W6 and W9 showed significantly lower average grain filling rate than W0 and W3 treatments, and different wheat varieties had different effects on the grain filling process under waterlogging conditions. There was no significant difference in spike number of wheat under waterlogging after anthesis. Moreover, there was no significant difference in grain number between W0 and W3 treatments, while W6 and W9 treatments were significantly lower than that of W0 in Wankenmai 076. However, the grain number and weight of W3, W6 and W9 in Wanmai 52 showed significantly lower values than those of W0 treatment, and W9 treatment was the lowest. The 1000-grain weight and yield of both varieties ranked as W0>W3>W6>W9. After 9 days of waterlogging, the yield of both varieties decreased by 34.99% and 40.44%. Under the conditions of this experiment, waterlogging during flowering period reduced the photosynthetic capacity of flag leaves of wheat, affected the grain filling process, reduced the average grain filling rate, and led to the decrease of 1000-grain weight, thus reducing the final yield.
  • GUO Shuangshuang, YAO Yanrong, ZHANG Min, LI Qingyao, FU Chenchen, XU Dongna, SHI Jinping, CAI Ruiguo
    In order to explore the effects of irrigation times in spring on starch contents and physicochemical properties of strong gluten wheat in Eastern Hebei Plain, the experiment was conducted with Zhongmai 998 and Jinnong 7.This study researched the effect of three irrigation treatments (W0:no irrigation in spring;W1:irrigation in jointing stage;W2:irrigation in jointing stage and flowering stage) on starch contents and composition, thermodynamic properties, gelatinization properties and crystal properties of strong gluten wheat grains, and analyzed the correlation between starch composition and physicochemical properties of starch.The results showed that amylopectin and total starch contents of 2 varieties significantly improved when irrigation in jointing stage(W1), Zhongmai 998 increased by 9.88%, 8.45%, Jinnong 7 increased by 9.35%, 6.34%, and the yield was higher, second only to W2 treatment.With the increase of irrigation times, the peak temperature and gelatinization enthalpy of 2 varieties rose and then decreased, but the peak viscosity and breakdown were highest at W0 treatment, gelatinization time rose and then decreased, final viscosity and gelatinization temperature was difference between varieties, Zhongmai 998 rose and then decreased while Jinnong 7 showed upward trend;Crystal strength and relative crystallization rose and then decreased.The correlation analysis showed that the content of amylose had significantly positively correlated on trough viscosity, the content of amylopectin had significantly or very significantly positively correlated on peak temperature, final temperature, gelatinization enthalpy, gelatinization temperature, gelatinization time, relative crystallization, and had very significantly negative correlated to peak viscosity and breakdown.In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, it can effectively improve amylopectin content, total starch content and grain yield of strong gluten wheat when irrigation in jointing stage(W1), and then affect the physicochemical properties of starch;compared with amylose, the amylopectin content was closer to the physicochemical properties of starch.
  • WAN Xuejie, ZHANG Yan, SHI Changhai, ZHOU Xuancai, SUN Xinling, LI Songjian, ZHANG Shoufu, LIU Yiguo
    In order to explore the effects of drought priming on antioxidant properties of wheat seedlings, control treatment and drought training treatment were set up in this experiment. PEG6000 nutrient solution was used for drought training when one heart and one leaf, and then Hoagland's total nutrient solution was restored. When three leaves are one heart, the drought stress is treated separately, and the dynamic changes of the substances related to the antioxidant properties in the young leaves were observed. The results showed that with the increase of drought degree and stress time, SOD, POD activity and soluble protein decreased, but MDA and soluble sugar content increased significantly. Compared with the control, the leaf SOD, POD activity and soluble protein decreased less after drought exercise, the soluble sugar content increased more, and the MDA increased less. Under the different drought stress, the antioxidative capacity of drought-stressed wheat under 25% PEG6000 stress was higher than that of 35% PEG6000. This showed that a certain concentration of drought training in wheat can significantly enhance its ability to adapt to drought conditions, which was beneficial to the growth of the seedling stage and provides theoretical support for the research on wheat resistance.
  • CHEN Yanqi, LIU Qiong, BIANBA Lamu, CHEN Songhe, ZHANG Heng, LI Chaosu, YANG Hongkun, ZHENG Ting, HUANG Xiulan, FAN Gaoqiong
    To clarify the effect of nitrogen application rate on the quality of wheat-rice system and Daqu quality in Sichuan Province.The experiment was started from 2019 to 2020 and carried out in Dayi County, Sichuan Province.The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with Mianmai 367 and Shumai 1671 as the main factor and the sub-plot was five nitrogen levels(0, 90, 135, 180 and 225 kg/ha), which were marked as N0, N90, N135, N180 and N225, respectively.Except for N0, the basal nitrogen level of other treatments was 45 kg/ha, and the remaining nitrogen was applied at single stage of four leaves.The results showed that the grain bulk density and opaque rate of the two varieties were higher than 750 g/L and 70%, respectively.Compared with other treatments, the hardness index of N225 treatment was significantly increased and the opaque rate was reduced, and the 1000-grain weight of N90 treatment was the highest.With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the protein content gradually increased(Shumai 1671)or first increased and then decreased(Mianmai 367).The wet gluten content and sedimentation value were the largest under 225 kg/ha treatment, and the starch content reached the maximum in N135 treatment.With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the falling value and RVA characteristic value gradually increased or tended to be stable, whereas the fat content showed a downward trend.Compared with other treatments, the sensory evaluation, saccharifying power and acidity reached the highest at N180, N135 and N135 treatment, respectively.The sensory evaluation was mainly affected by the content of starch and fat, followed by protein.The saccharifying power and acidity reached the maximum when the starch content was high.The results showed that grain starch content is particularly important for the formation of Daqu quality.Reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer can optimize the raw grain characteristics of weak gluten wheat and promote the suitability of Daqu production.In conclusion, it is suggested that the suitable nitrogen application range of rice stubble wheat used for Daqu production in Southwest China is 135-180 kg/ha.
  • LIU Chang, DUAN Jingtao, ZHANG Jianfu, PANG Li, SONG Haoyue, CHEN Faju, HE Zhengquan, ZHANG Fuli
    To explore the effects of Trichoderma fertilizer on wheat growth, disease resistance, yield and soil enzyme activities under salt stress.Plant height, root length, root number, physiological and biochemical indexs, diseased ears rate, disease index, control efficiency, thousand seeds weight and soil enzyme activity of Xinong 979 were measured under salt stress by using Trichoderma Fertilizer instead of 30% chemical fertilizer and using 100% chemical fertilizer.The results showed that compared with chemical fertilizer, the application of Trichoderma fertilizer significantly increased plant height, root length and root number of wheat by 10.91%, 43.45% and 42.86% under salt stress, respectively.Secondly, under salt stress, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and content of chlorophyll in wheat leaves increased significantly after Trichoderma fertilizer application, while the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in wheat leaves were significantly lower than that of chemical fertilizer.Moreover, the incidence rate of Fusarium head blight in wheat after Trichoderma fertilizer application was significantly lower than that in wheat applied with chemical fertilizer, with the control efficiency of 88.36% to Fusarium head blight.The thousand grains weight of wheat grain increased by 9.5% after Trichoderma fertilizer application compared to control.In addition, the activities of soil enzymes including urease, sucrase, dehydrogenase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in wheat rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere were much higher after Trichoderma fertilizer application.In sum, under salt stress, Trichoderma fertilizer enhanced the disease resistance of wheat by increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll content as well as improving the ecological environment of soil, subsequently increasing yield and improving quality of wheat grains.
  • WANG Xiaoya, BU Ruifang, HU Haiyan, LONG Qiang, SUN Lianxuan, QI Lu, LIU Zheng, LI Xiaoyao, LI Chengwei
    To explore the regulation mechanism of Jasmonic acid(JA) on growth,maturation and yield in wheat,the gene TaJIP2 was cloned from wheat Bainong 207 by homologous cloning method.Analysis of tissue differential expression showed that TaJIP2 gene was expressed in all tissues and the expression level was the highest in wheat hull.The TaJIP2 gene RNA interference(RNAi) vector was constructed to conduct genetic transformation and functional analysis in wheat.The results showed that silencing TaJIP2 gene increased the key enzymes activities of jasmonic acid biosynthesis,allene oxide cyclase(AOC) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase(OPR),and JA content,and the difference in JA content was mainly reflected in the roots.At the same time,it significantly promoted the growth of roots and above ground parts in wheat,and the difference was also mainly in root growth.In addition,observation of the ultrastructure of root tip cells showed that the root tip cells of TaJIP2 gene silenced plants were complete in structure,rich in variety and number of organelles,and strong in cell activity,thus promoting root growth.Silencing TaJIP2 significantly improved the photosynthetic efficiency of wheat leaves,made the heading time earlier,and significantly increased the grain length and width,spike number per plant,grain number per spike,1 000-grain weight and yield per plant.The results showed that RNAi-induced silencing of TaJIP2 significantly promoted the growth,early maturity and high yield of wheat,which indicated that TaJIP2 was a key negative regulator of wheat growth,maturity and yield.These findings provided genetic resources and research basis for promoting the photosynthetic efficiency,growth,early ripeness and high yield in wheat.
  • ZANG Hecang, CAO Tingjie, ZHANG Jie, ZHAO Qing, DI Jiaying, ZHANG Jiantao, ZHUANG Jiayu, CHEN Dandan, LIU Haijiao, ZHENG Guoqing, LI Guoqiang
    To evaluate the high yield,stable yield and adaptability for analyzing the genotype and environment interaction of new wheat cultivars under different ecological conditions,and to analyze the variation rule of yield of new wheat cultivars could provide scientific reference for the selection and breeding of wheat varieties with high quality.Regional trial was participated at Shangqiu, Luoyang and Xinxiang City in 2018-2020, with eight winter wheat cultivars as material, which were planted in Henan Province,mathematical statistics and GGE biplot were used to analyze the high yield,stability and adaptability of the new wheat varieties.Variance analysis showed that years,locations,cultivars and their interactions,except for years×cultivars,had extremely significant effects on wheat yield(P <0.01),and the years and locations had a greater contribution rate to wheat yield,38.63% and 32.86% respectively,while contribution rates of locations×cultivars,cultivars and years×cultivars to wheat yield was the smallest, only 1.31%. The yield of winter wheat in 2019-2020 was decreased by 9.71% compared with that in 2018-2019, the Shangqiu location had the lowest average yield for two years, which was significantly lower than the average yield of Luoyang and Xinxiang locations. The average yield of eight wheat cultivars from three regional test sites across two years were 8 049.04 kg/ha, yield of Taihe 896 had the highest, while yield of Bainong 207 had the lowest. In terms of high yield,Taihe 896,Nongkeda 888,Shengke 188,Hemai 53,Zhiyou 33,Yanbo 369 and Puda 1030 were varieties with better yield.In terms of stability,Bainong 207,Hemai 53,Nongkeda 888 and Zhiyou 33 were varieties with better yield stability.In terms of adaptability,Nongkeda 888,Taihe 896 and Shengke 188 were varieties with better adaptability.The research results provide a scientific basis for the rational utilization of new wheat varieties and have certain reference value.
  • TIAN Zhigang, ZHANG Shuwei, CHEN Fang, CHANG Lifang, JIA Juqing, ZHANG Xiaojun, LI Xin
    Nucleotide binding site(NBS) genes are a type of disease resistance genes widely present in plants.In order to screen the powdery mildew-resistant genes for wheat breeding,the changes in the expression level of wheat NBS genes after infection with Blumeria graminis f.sp.tritici(Bgt) were analyzed.Bioinformatics methods were used to assemble the original transcriptome data of a disease-resistant wheat variety infected by Bgt at 0,24,48,72 h,and 1 283 TaNBS with expression data were screened out,which were distributed on 21 chromosomes.Results of expression difference analysis showed that the expression levels of 395 TaNBS were significantly changed after being infected by Bgt,and they were divided into five types,including down-up-up,up-up-down,up-down-up,down-down-up as well as up-up-up,according to the change trend in three time periods(0-24 h,24-48 h,48-72 h).Using qRT-PCR technology,ten TaNBS with the most significant differences were selected from the up-up-up type for verification.The results showed that three genes Ta7dlLoc004854, Ta7dlLoc000139 and Ta3asLoc007663 remained significantly up-regulated in a self-breeding disease-resistant wheat germplasm CH7124 after being infected by Bgt. Using virus-induced gene silencing technology,the expression levels of the above three genes in CH7124 were down-regulated to obtain the silent plants.The results of the inoculation test showed that only the Bgt-infection type of Ta7dlLoc000139-silent plants changed from immune to high resistance or medium resistance,indicating that the decrease in the expression level of Ta7dlLoc000139 caused the plant resistance to weaken.Sequence analysis results showed that Ta7dlLoc000139 had a total length of 4 042 bp,contained three exons and two introns,and contained a large number of regulatory elements such as CGCG-Box,GATA-Box and CAAT-Box in the 2 000 bp region before its start codon.The research results could provide a theoretical basis for wheat disease resistance molecular breeding.
  • GUO Yuhuan, YAMAMOTO Naoki, PENG Zhengsong, LIAO Mingli, WEI Shuhong, WU Yichao, YANG Zaijun
    In order to further locate the Pis1 gene, accelerate the molecular marker-assisted breeding of wheat, and obtain the wheat varieties with high quality, high yield and stable yield. Chuanmai 28(CM28) and its three pistils near-isogenic line CM28TP were used as research materials, the three stages of CM28 and CM28TP young spikes(spikelet length 0.2-0.5 cm, 0.5-0.7 cm, 0.7-1.0 cm) perform transcriptome sequencing, then, the GO database was used to classify and analyze the genes where the mutation site was located, and four SNP markers near the Pis1 gene were selected for verification. The results showed that there were 5 310 common SNP/InDel loci in CM28TP and CM28 young spikes at three stages, including 5 024 SNP loci and 286 InDel loci.In SNP sites, the conversion types(63.33%) were more than the transversion types(31.28%), and the ratio of the two types reached 2.02. There were more insert types(152) than deletion types(134) in InDel site. The SNP/InDel locus was most distributed in the A genome, followed by the B genome and the D genome was the least. The GO classification annotation of SNP/InDel genes showed that genes accounted for the highest proportion in biological processes, followed by cell components and molecular functions. The prediction of the impact of the SNP/InDel loci on protein function indicated that 36 mutant loci severely affected protein function, and 1 279 mutant loci moderately affected protein function. Four SNP sites were screened from the location interval of the Pis1 gene for PCR amplification and sequencing verification, and it was found that these four sites were consistent with the results of RNA-seq analysis, which indicated that the SNP/InDel sites excavated were accurate. This study enriched SNP/InDel markers in wheat and laid a foundation for high-density genetic map construction, gene mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat, at the same time, four SNP markers near the Pis1 gene were developed, which provided the possibility of map-based cloning of this gene.
  • WU Xiaojun, LI Fengyuan, SHEN Yunxia, CHEN Xiangdong, HU Xigui, JIANG Hao, ZHANG Xuening, LI Xiaoli, HU Tiezhu, RU Zhengang
    In order to effectively utilize the introduced wheat germplasm resources and explore the breeding application value of some wheat grain weight genes, the 1000-kernel weight(TKW) of 48 introduced wheat germplasms were identified, and the allelic variation types and the distribution of high TKW alleles were detected by using the functional molecular markers of four grain weight genes(TaGW2-6ATaCwi-A1TaGS2-D1 and TaSus2-2B). The results showed that the average TKW of the introduced germplasm materials was 30.15 g, the variation range was 20.13-43.19 g, and the germplasm materials above the average accounted for 45.8%. There were 8 haplotypes in the 4 grain weight-related genes in the introduced wheat germplasms. The average TKW of high TKW haplotypes TaCwi-A1a of TaCwi-A1 gene and Hap-6A-A of TaGW2-6A gene were significantly higher than the corresponding low ones(TaCwi-A1b and Hap-6A-G). The average TKW of the low TKW haplotypes TaSus2-2Bb of TaSus2-2B gene and TaGS2-D1b of TaGS2-D1 gene were significantly higher than the corresponding high TKW haplotypes TaSus2-2Ba and TaGS2-D1a. Generally germplasm materials containing the same haplotype combination of each grain weight gene accounted for a relatively higher proportion of the tested materials, and their average TKW was relatively higher. Studies indicate that the grain weight-related traits of these wheat germplasms have good genetic improvement potential, and it is necessary to analyze the comprehensive genetic effects of related grain weight genes in wheat breeding.
  • YANG Zhongshuai, WU Jinzhi, HUANG Ming, LI Youjun, FU Guozhan, ZHAO Kainan, ZHANG Zhenwang, HOU Yuanquan
    In order to solve the main problems of dry land wheat production in China, such as low rainfall and uneven seasonal distribution, unreasonable fertilization method, the cultivation mode of dry land wheat was discussed.The experiment comprised four cultivation patterns, namely, conventional cropping with uniform fertilization(CK), furrow planting with uniform fertilization(FP), furrow planting with uniform fertilization but reduction of fertilizer application rate by 25%(FPRF), furrow planting with site-dressing fertilization but reduction of fertilizer application rate by 25%(FPOF). Tiller number, dry matter accumulation in the main growth period, soil water content of 0-200 cm at pre-sowing and maturity, yield, water use efficiency(WUE), partial fertilizer productivity of wheat were compared. Compared with CK, FP promoted soil water storage in the fallow season, thus increased soil water storage before sowing by 5.4%-5.5%, and increased the number of tillers and dry matter accumulation significantly in the main growth period, furthermore, the yield, WUE and partial fertilizer productivity were increased by 10.1%-11.2%, 7.2%-8.6% and 10.3%-11.4%, respectively. Compared with FP, FPRF significantly increased the fertilizer partial productivity by 22.9%-34.6%, had no significant effects on the yield and WUE in the first year, and significantly decreased them in the latter two years, but the above indicators were better than conventional plain cropping. Compared with the other three treatments, the yield, water and fertilizer use efficiency of FPOF were all the best, compared with FP, although the increase of yield and WUE was not significant, but the partial fertilizer productivity, were significantly increased by 35.2%-37.8%, respectively. Therefore, in the dryland of Western Henan, FP is beneficial to improve wheat yield and WUE, reducing fertilizer by 25% will reduce the yield to a certain extent, but it is beneficial to increase fertilizer partial productivity. FPOF is a suitable cultivation measure for winter wheat in arid areas due to synergistically improving yield, WUE and fertilizer partial productivity.
  • WANG Junhong, WANG Xinglin, WANG Kang, REN Zhenxing, WANG Mengliang
    To study the effect of replacing chemical fertilizers with bio-organic fertilizers on the biological characteristics of wheat rhizosphere soil and yield, field experiments were conducted to study the effects of organic substitution of chemical fertilizers on wheat rhizosphere soil nutrients, soil enzyme activities, rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure and wheat yield, by the use of physiological and biochemical means, high-throughput sequencing technology and yield survey. The results showed that bio-organic fertilizer reasonably replaces chemical fertilizers, soil nutrient contents and enzyme activities had an increasing trend, and chemical fertilizer reduction 10%+biological organic fertilizer treatment had the best effect. Compared with conventional fertilization, soil organic matter(SOM) and total nitrogen(TN), available phosphorus(AP), available potassium(AK) content and soil urease(S-UE), invertase(S-SC), neutral phosphatase(S-NP) activities increased by 17.4%, 12.4%, 16.2%, 19.2% and 19.0%, 9.7%, 18.3%, respectively. High-throughput analysis found that after bio-organic fertilizers replaced 10% and 20% chemical fertilizers, Sphingomonas, Lysobacter, Nitrospira, Massilia and other functional bacteria with biological control and growth-promoting effects significantly enriched.Redundancy analysis(RDA) showed that environmental factors were closely related to the bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere soil. After replacing 10% and 20% chemical fertilizers with bio-organic fertilizers, wheat production increased by 9.3% and 4.4%, respectively. Therefore, the reasonable substitution of bio-organic fertilizers for chemical fertilizers can increase soil enzyme activities and soil nutrient content, and enhance the sustainable productivity of the soil. It is the main means to change the current high-input and high-polluting agricultural production methods.
  • WU Xiaojun, HU Xigui, CHEN Xiangdong, JIANG Xiaoling, ZHANG Xuening, WANG Yuquan, DONG Na, HU Tiezhu, LI Xiaohui, RU Zhengang
    In order to effectively utilize the introduced wheat germplasm resources and evaluate the effectiveness of molecular markers associated with wheat drought resistance, 48 wheat germplasms were used to identify the relative germination rate of seeds under drought conditions, and 4 drought resistance related molecular markers were used to detect the distribution of drought resistance genes(1-feh-w3, Dreb-B1, NRX-B1 and FerA1). The results showed that the average relative germination rate of the introduced germplasms was 70.0%, the variation range was 34.9%-94.5%, and 85.4% of germplasm materials displayed moderate or above drought resistance level. There were 8 haplotypes in 4 drought resistance-related genes in the introduced wheat germplasms. The difference in the average relative germination rate between the 2 haplotypes of the Dreb-B1 gene and FerA1 gene reached significant levels, while there was no significant difference in the average relative germination rate between the Westonia type haplotype and Kauz type haplotype of the 1-feh-w3 gene, and the TaNRX-B1a haplotype and the TaNRX-B1b haplotype of the NRX-B1 gene;The haplotypes TaDreb-B1a, TaFer-A1 (H) were significantly positively correlated with the average relative germination rate, while 1-feh-w3 and NRX-B1 genes were not significantly correlated with the average relative germination rate. The average relative germination rate was the highest in the haplotype combination Westonia type/TaDreb-B1a/TaFer-A1 (H)/TaNRX-B1a, reaching 77.35%. The effectiveness of the molecular marker of the drought resistance gene Dreb-B1 was verified, and the two haplotypes of the 1-feh-w3 gene were invalid for drought resistance selection.
  • ZHANG Lihua, YAO Haipo, YAO Yanrong, DONG Zhiqiang, Lü Lihua, JIA Xiuling
    Abstract (187) PDF (148) RichHTML
    Field experiment was established in Hebei Province in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. To clarify the effect of irrigation time, density on wheat yield at different sowing date under irrigation once in spring, experiment was designed by split zone include 3 sowing dates(Oct 10, Oct 15 and Oct 20), 2 different densities at each sowing date planted according to the principle of delayed sowing and densification(330×104 ear/ha and 420×104 ear/ha, 420×104 ear/ha and 510×104 ear/ha, 510×104 ear/ha and 600×104 ear/ha), and one water carried out at 3 different irrigation times (erecting stage, jointing stage and 7 d after jointing stage)in the whole growing period. The result indicated that under irrigating once in the whole growth period, the average yield of wheat decreased with delayed sowing date and densification, but at the same sowing date of two years, wheat yield decreased (-4.5%, -1.8%) with higer density sown on October 10 and increased (4.6%, 1.9%) on October 20, however, difference occurred on October 15 because of different distribution of rainfall, it decreased with higher density under less rainfall before and more after in the whole growth period, otherwise, it increased. For the different irrigation time, wheat yield was the highest irrigating at the erecting stage(7 933.1 kg/ha), and the lowest at the jointing stage sown on October 10, nevertheless, the yield of wheat at jointing stage was the highest at delayed sowing date.Wheat yield of irrigating at erecting stage decreased for sowing with higher density, others decreased first and then increased and there were higher yield and less difference between the density of 330×104 ear/ha and 600×104 ear/ha.For more rainfall before and less after in the whole growth period, yield of different irrigation time showed 7 d after jointing>jointing>erecting and change could not happened in different irrigation time because of increased density. For the three factors of wheat yield, the difference of water at the earlier stage of the whole growth period affected the number of grains per spike, and the increase of spike number was the key to achieve higher yield for late sowing wheat. Therefore, irrigation time should be adjusted according to the rainfall before irrigation and sowing date under one water during the whole growth period, so as to increase the number of ears or grain number per ear and then achieve higher yield of wheat.
  • ZHANG Keke, SONG Xiao, GUO Doudou, HUANG Chenchen, YUE Ke, ZHANG Shuiqing, HUANG Shaomin
    Investigated the effects of long-term different fertilization methods on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content in fluvo-aquic soil region, which would provide guidance for obtaining high and stable yield of wheat and technology of fertilizing. Based on the long-term experiment, four fertilization treatments were selected including no fertilizer(CK), chemical fertilizer only (NPK), N, P, K fertilizer plus organic manure (MNPK) and N, P, K fertilizer plus maize straw (SNPK), for determination of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen content and wheat yield from 1990 to 2018. The results showed that wheat yield in fertilization treatments showed a increasing trend, and the wheat yield of SNPK and MNPK treatments was generally lower than that of NPK treatment in the first 18 years, and generally higher than that treated with NPK in the last 11 years, which increased by 8.90% and 8.93% respectively. Compared with CK, the stability of yield under NPK, MNPK and SNPK could increased. In fertilization treatment, the yield sustainable index of SNPK treatment was the highest, 0.66. The fitting equation showed that the contribution rate of fertilizer would be decreased by 14.35-19.57 percentage point for every 1 000 kg/ha increase in base yield of farmland. Long-term fertilization could increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content, and MNPK treatment increased soil organic carbon content and total nitrogen content the most obviously by 0.518,0.014 g/kg per year respectively. The soil total nitrogen content was positively correlated with soil organic carbon content (R2=0.620). Every 1 g/kg of increased in soil organic carbon content would bring an increase of 0.078 g/kg of total nitrogen content. In summary, fertilization increased wheat yield, yield stability and yield sustainable index. SNPK treatment maintained the best sustainable production capacity in the wheat-maize rotation system. MNPK treatment could effectively increase soil organic carbon content and total nitrogen content. Therefore, applying organic fertilizer and returning straw to field in fluvo-aquic soil area are important measures to improve soil fertility and ensure sustainable utilization.
  • LIU Dan, LIANG Dan, WANG Conglei, SHI Xiaowei, XU Qingfen, GAO Yang, HOU Kangbo, ZHANG Xin, FENG Gang, WANG Jianhe
    Gliadin is a moiety of wheat prolamins, which have variety-specificity. The regulators and transcript genes of gliadins are regularly distributed on all the chromosomes of wheat. Therefore,gliadin was regarded as fingerprint of wheat variety. And the gliadins can be used to identify seed purity. The Jimai 31,Jinqiang 11,Jinqiang 13 were used as materials to study the method of purity identification in the different seed development stage. In this paper, the expression pattern of gliadin was taken as the research object to make a clear distinction of the whole bands of gliadin after 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 d, mature seed of flowering to study the earliest time point of seed quality testing by A-PAGE. The results showed that the expression of gliadin was not detected from the seed at 5-10 d after anthesis, and few bands of gliadins was detected from the seed at 15 d after anthesis, the complete bands was obtained from the seed at 20-25 d after anthesis, which was same as the mature seed. Therefore, the seed at 20 d after anthesis can be used to identify the seed purity. So, the purity of Jinqiang 11 wheat planted in the field 20-25 d after anthesis was identified to verify the feasibility and accuracy of the method. Our method can find the mixed seeds, and the average purity of Jinqiang 11 was 90.88%. The findings of this study provides a theoretical basis for finding the earliest development stage of immature grains for gliadin identification and purity identification before harvest, and provides a fast, simple and efficient identification technology to identify seed purity for seed enterprise.
  • WANG Jianguo, LU Zhanyuan, CHENG Yuchen, ZHANG Dejian, ZHAO Xiaoqing, WU Haiming, ZHAO Yuhe
    A study was conducted to determine the effects of fallow on soil quality under the condition of the serious decline of farmland quality caused by continuous cultivation in the black soil,in order to provide theoretical basis for the establishment of fallow system based on wheat and rape rotation mode in Eastern Inner Mongolia. Wheat and rape fields and yield after fallow were investigated comparing with wheat-rape and rape-wheat rotation. After two years of repeated experiments, the results showed that all indexes were less affected by climate factors,and the soil biological properties of wheat and rape fields after fallow were better than those of conventional rotation patterns. The activities of catalase, sucrase, urease, and phosphatase in fallow wheat and rape fields after fallow were higher than those in conventional rotation,in particular, the difference of catalase and sucrase activity was significant (P<0.05). Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were also higher than conventional rotation. B/F had the same performance. The differences of soil bacterial richness and diversity were slightly different in two years, but the overall performance was greater than that of wheat rape conventional rotation mode. The biomass and economic yield of crops were significantly higher than those of conventional rotation (P<0.05). Through correlation analysis, the crop biomass and economic yield were positively correlated with enzyme activity, microbial biomass, and bacterial richness, but negatively correlated with fungal richness. Therefore, fallow could improve soil enzyme activity, microbial biomass, bacterial richness, and diversity, reduce fungal richness and diversity, improve the quality of cultivated land and increase crop yield.
  • Lü Liangjie, LIU Shaoxing, CHEN Xiyong, ZHAO Aiju, SUN Lijing, LI Hui
    In order to understand the dynamic rules of sugars, starch, protein and trace elements of different types of wheat during grain filling stage under drought stress, and to identify the difference of nutriment between drought and irrigation in the process of grain-filling by high-yield wheat, high-quality wheat and water-saving wheat, the wheat varieties of Jimai 325, Jimai 418 and Jimai 323 in the North of Huang-Huai Region were used as experimental materials. The plants heading and flowering on the same day were selected for marking, and the grains of each variety were taken every 6 days after 7-31 days after anthesis. The effects of drought during grain filling on the contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, glucose, fructose, protein, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, amylose and amylopectin accumulation, starch accumulation rate and the activities of key enzymes in starch synthesis were studied. The results showed that the content of sucrose and glucose in wheat grains was significantly decreased under drought stress, and the effect on fructose content was relatively small, and the sucrose and fructose of high-yielding variety Jimai 325 were less affected by drought in the filling process. Drought stress decreased the content of amylopectin and total starch in wheat grains, but had relatively little effect on the content of amylose. The effect of drought stress on starch content of high-yield and high-quality varieties was significantly greater than that of drought-tolerant variety Jimai 418. The activity of starch synthase was increased in the early and middle stages of filling stage under drought stress, and decreased rapidly in the middle and late stages compared with irrigation control. The content and accumulation of four mineral elements in wheat grains were Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn. With the progress of grain filling, the content of trace elements showed a downward trend. The accumulation of Fe, Zn and Mg in grains of Jimai 325 was higher. The difference of nutrient accumulation in grain filling process of different types of wheat under drought conditions were studied to provide theoretical data and reference basis for optimizing cultivation measures and realizing high quality, high yield and water saving of special wheat.
  • HUANG Shaohui, YANG Junfang, YANG Yunma, JIANG Rong, HE Ping, JIA Liangliang
    In order to explore the effects of nutrient expert (NE) management on nitrogen (N) use efficiency and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in the wheat-maize rotation system and improve its management practices, a long-term experiment was set up in 2009 to compare NE management with farmer's practice (FP) management. Through 9-years experiment, the crop yield, N use efficiency, SOC content, SOC sequestration rate and SOC sequestration efficiency were measured and analyzed. The advantages of long-term NE management in wheat-maize crop rotation system were evaluated. The results showed that long-term NE management reduced the amount of N fertilizer application rate, compared with FP management, but maintained the crop yields (no significant difference with FP). Compared with FP management, the average accumulative recovery efficiency of N, agronomic efficiency of N, and partial productivity of N in NE management system increased by 7.4 percentage points, 39.7%, and 28.4% in maize production system, and increased by 8.0 percentage points, 28.9%, and 32.8% in wheat production system, respectively After 9-years experiment, both NE and FP increased the SOC contents, with NE management increased faster than FP. The annual SOC contents rise rates of NE treatment in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil profile were 0.28, 0.27, 0.34 g/(kg·a), respectively, which were 7.7%, 68.8% and 126.7% higher than those of FP treatment. The average annual carbon input of NE and FP treatment from straw returning were 8.5, 8.7 t/(ha·a), respectively, and the SOC sequestration rates were 1.35, 0.68 t/(ha·a),respectively, and the SOC sequestration efficiencies were 18.6% and 0.4%, respectively, which shown a significant difference. NE management could improve N use efficiency and increase SOC sequestration. Long-term NE management is one of the important measures for fertilizer saving, efficiency strengthen and SOC pool richen in wheat-maize rotation system. It would play a crucial role in ensuring food security and realizing agriculture green development.
  • HUANG Chenchen, SONG Xiao, HUANG Shaomin, ZHANG Keke, YUE Ke
    To clarify the reasons for differences in phosphorus(P) absorption and utilization in wheat with different P efficiency.Useing the platform National Long-term Monitoring Station for Chao Soil Fertility,to study the P-efficient cultivar Xuke 168 and the P-inefficient cultivar Lankao 198 differences in the root biomass, root morphology, root activity and P transport capacity under two P levels (P0 and P1 represent low P and normal P treatments,respectively).The results showed that the root dry quality, root length, root surface area, root volume generally showed that Xuke 168 was greater than Lankao 198 in the same treatment.Under P0 treatment, the root average diameter of Xuke 168 was smaller than that of Lankao 198. Except for the overwintering stage, the root average diameter of Xuke 168 was higher than that of Lankao 198 under P1 treatment. In the same treatment, the root activity of Xuke 168 was higher than that of Lankao 198.At booting stage, the root activity difference between the two cultivars was the biggest.Xuke 168 was 1.36 times that of Lankao 198 under P0 treatment, and 1.34 times that of Lankao 198 under P1 treatment. Under the same treatment, grain yield, pre-anthesis phosphorus transport and the contribution rate of post-anthesis phosphorus uptake to grain phosphorus of Xuke 168 was significantly higher than that of Lankao 198, and the contribution rate of pre-anthesis phosphorus transport to grain phosphorus of Xuke 168 was lower than that of Lankao 198. Compared with P1, the root dry quality, root length, root surface area, root volume, average root diameter, grain yield, root activity, plant P accumulation, pre-flower P transport, P uptake after anthesis and the contribution rate of post-anthesis P uptake to grain P decreased, while root-shoot ratio and the contribution of pre-anthesis P uptake to grain P increased.The P-efficient cultivar Xuke 168 has high root vitality, root biomass and developed root system,which is the basis for the absorption of P. P-inefficient cultivar Lankao 198 lacks P absorption due to its small root biomass in the early growth period, smaller root caps in the late growth period, and weak root activity, resulting in P-inefficient. In summary, higher P transport capacity, grain distribution capacity and reasonable root-shoot ratio promote the utilization of P by crops, which are important factors for crop P efficiency.
  • ZHAO Jiping, QUAN Baoquan, GUO Pengyan, REN Jiecheng
    Soil quality is one of the important influencing factors of crop yield, and straw returning and reasonable fertilization are key measures to adjust soil quality. In order to explore the best interaction between straw returning and nitrogen application to improve soil quality and wheat yield,Jinmai 106 was selected as the test material, and a long-term positioning experiment was carried out in Fenyang, Shanxi. Through the Split-field test, the main area had set three levels of straw return:no return, half return, and full return, and the subsidiary area had three levels of nitrogen application:full nitrogen, 80% nitrogen, and no nitrogen. To study the effects of straw returning and nitrogen application on soil quality and wheat yield. The results showed that under the same treatment, the soil bulk density of 0-20 cm soil layer was lower than that of 20-40 cm soil layer. Under the interaction of straw returning and nitrogen application, the amount of straw returning increased and the soil bulk density decreased. Among them, the soil bulk density of the 10-20 cm soil layer was the lowest when the straw was returned to the field and the nitrogen fertilizer (SF1) was applied in full. There were differences in soil organic carbon, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, total nitrogen and total phosphorus under different treatments. Under the SF1 treatment, the nutrient stratification ratio was the smallest, and the effect of this interaction on the nutrient content of the 0-40 cm soil layer was significant(P<0.05). Under SF1 treatment, soil catalase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity were the highest. The yield of straw returning under the conditions of 80% nitrogen application (SF0.8) and SF1 was significantly higher than other treatment conditions(P<0.05). Among them, the yield was the highest under SF1 conditions. The interaction of straw returning and nitrogen application at a reasonable ratio can significantly improve soil quality and increase wheat yield.
  • ZHANG Ziyang, WANG Bin, WANG Zhiyu, WANG Zhiwei, ZHU Qidi, RU Zhengang, LIU Mingjiu
    To explore the relevant miRNAs and their response laws of wheat varieties with different resistance to cold in spring under the stress of low temperature in spring(late spring cold), high-throughput sequencing(Small RNA-seq) technology was used to analyze the young panicles of Aikang 58(AK58) and Zhengmai 366(ZM366) in the differentiation stage of pistil and stamen primordium at 0℃ low temperature stress for 72 h and without low temperature treatment(control).The purpose of sequencing is provide miRNA expression profiles and information on differentially expressed miRNAs, and reveal the role of differentially expressed miRNAs in wheat resistance to late spring cold. Through bioinformatics analysis, under the condition of padj<0.05 and|log2(Fold_change)| ≥ 1, the miRNAs with significant differential expression was screened under low temperature stress;using psRobot(v1.2) to predict the differentially expressed miRNA target genes, and then target genes with significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were subjected to GO enrichment analysis and KEGG Pathway analysis. The results showed that 112 types of miRNAs were identified by sequencing of wheat ears, belonging to 38 different MIRNA families.AK58 and ZM366 identified 85 and 88 differentially expressed miRNAs, respectively. AK58 had 27 miRNAs with significant differences in expression, 23 of which were significantly up-regulated, 4 were significantly down-regulated, and 2 miRNAs with extremely significant differential expression were tae-miR9672b, tae-miR9672a-3p;ZM366 had 48 miRNAs with significant differential expression, 13 with significantly up-regulated expression, 35 with significantly down-regulated expression, 4 miRNAs with extremely significant differential expression, tae-miR9672b, tae-miR9672a-3p, tae-miR6201, tae-miR9674b-5p.Target genes were predicted for the differentially expressed miRNAs of AK58 and ZM366 under low temperature stress. 85 differentially expressed miRNAs of AK58 correspond to 848 target genes;88 differentially expressed miRNAs of ZM366 correspond to 6 537 target genes.GO function enrichment analysis results showed that AK58 differentially expressed miRNA target genes had 20 biological processes, 6 cell components, and 6 molecular function categories extremely significantly enriched(FDR<0.01).ZM366 had 10 biological processes, 14 cell components, and 19 molecular functional categories extremely significantly enriched(FDR<0.01).The KEGG metabolic pathway(Pathway) enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed miRNA target genes in the young ears of two wheat varieties showed that AK58 differentially expressed miRNA target genes were significantly enriched(P<0.05) to RNA polymerase, purine metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism, photosynthetic organism carbon fixation pathway, autophagy, tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA replication, ribosome, niacin and nicotinamide metabolism 11 metabolic pathways.ZM366 differentially expressed miRNA target genes were significantly enriched(P<0.05) in plant pathogen interactions, plant circadian rhythms, degradation of valine, leucine and isoleucine, cell cycle, phenylalanine metabolism, propionic acid biology synthesis, RNA polymerase, plant hormone signal transduction, cyanamide acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, carbon fixation of photosynthetic organisms, pyruvate metabolism, carotenoid biosynthesis, 13 metabolic pathways.Wheat miRNA regulation of mRNA participates in wheat response to low temperature stress. It is possible that miRNAs such as miRNA171a, miRNA156, miRNA398 and other miRNAs can mediate regulation to resist cold stress. Plant circadian rhythms may be closely related to low temperature stress.The reason for the different resistance to spring cold of the two wheat varieties may be related to the different expression patterns of target genes in the miRNA-regulated photomorphogenesis pathway and flowering process.
  • LI Shengdong, HAN Wei, WANG Dan, BI Xiangjun, WANG Zongshuai, FENG Bo, WANG Xuqing, LI Huawei, SI Jisheng, WANG Fahong
    Abstract (184) PDF (110) RichHTML
    The purpose of this paper was to study the effects of different wheat varieties and different farming treatments on the light distribution characteristics of wheat population.Four different genotype wheat varieties:experiment with two large and medium panicle type in Tainong 18 and Shannong 24, two multiple panicle type in Jimai 23 and Jimai 44, comparative study the no-till seeding(Less-tillage sowing, LT) and conventional tillage seeding(Ploughing sowing, PS) on wheat group light intensity and the influence of wheat leaf net photosynthetic rate.Compared with PS treatment, LT treatment significantly improved the light distribution in the multiple panicle wheat population, and significantly increased the illumination amount and photosynthetic rate of the lower and middle leaves. The canopy temperature of Jimai 23 and Jimai 44 populations sown less no-tillage was significantly lower than that of ploughing sowing, but there was no significant difference between Tainong 18 and Shannong 24 under the two farming treatments. Less-tillage sowing significantly improved the vegetation normalization index(NDVI) of middle and large panicle wheat variety Shannong 24, in the middle and late growth period, and gave full play to the advantage of photosynthetic production in the late stage of wheat population. The Less-tillage sowing cultivation method significantly improved the yield of the multiple panicle type Jimai 23 and Jimai 44. Less-tillage sowing significantly improved the light distribution characteristics of wheat population, and it was more likely to increase yield than ploughing sowing. The multiple panicle type varieties with high tiller panicle rate and relatively large population were more likely to play the cost-saving and synergistic effect of Less-tillage sowing treatments.
  • WANG Yanhui, SUN Haowei, WEI Chaohui, WANG Li
    To explore the effect of activated water on wheat growth and root activity, a combination of indoor hydroponic and field experiment was set up by using Xiaoyan 22 as the test variety, and the effects of groundwater after activation treatments such as de-electronation, magnetization, de-electronation before magnetization, magnetization before de-electronation etc. On seed germination rate, plant height, leaf chlorophyll content(SPAD), aboveground and underground biomass, root activity, root configuration and grain yield of wheat were studied. The results showed that under field condition, at the same irrigation level(180 mm), the increase in plant height and dry matter mass from jointing to filling stage of wheat irrigated by activated water was significantly higher than that of groundwater irrigation. And the grain yield of wheat irrigated with activated water increased by 1.0%-17.8% compared with groundwater irrigation treatment. Laboratory studies found, compared with groundwater treatment, activated water cultivation could increase the germination rate of wheat seeds(4.0%-64.3%) and leaf chlorophyll content(8.9%-17.3%), while the aboveground dry matter mass, root dry matter mass and root activity increased significantly by 59.6%-102.4%, 35.9%-90.9% and 75.8%-194.2%, respectively. And root configuration index(total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, total root tips, etc.) also increased accordingly. In summary, laboratory hydroponic and field experiments had shown that various types of activated water could promote wheat growth, enhance root activity, improve root configuration, increase leaf chlorophyll content, promote the accumulation of plant dry matter, and thereby raise yield.
  • SU Wangcang, YUAN Mingyue, SUN Lanlan, XU Hongle, LU Chuantao, XUE Fei, WU Renhai
    In order to study the difference in the morphological, yield and quality traits between volunteer wheat and common wheat, the common wheat variety Aikang 58 and 3 volunteer wheat varieties W14, W15 and W18 were used as test materials. The split zone tests of water treatment(main zone) and nitrogen application rate(secondary zone) were set up. The water treatment had two levels:normal water and waterlogging, and meanwhile the nitrogen treatment had three levels:no nitrogen(N0), normal nitrogen application(225 kg/ha, N225) and excessive nitrogen application(300 kg/ha, N300). The results showed that under normal water and fertilizer management, the plant height of the volunteer wheat which had more tillers and smaller stem thickness than common wheat was 1.5-2.4 times higher than that of wheat, but the yield was less than 1/2 that of common wheat. In addition, the grain protein content, wet gluten content and water absorption of the W14, W15 and W18 were all higher than common wheat. Nitrogen treatment could increase the number of grains, yield, grain protein content, wet gluten content, water absorption, development time, stability time, flour yield, extension energy, resistance at constant deformation extensibility and maximum resistance. Normal nitrogen application(225 kg/ha) maximized the thousand-grain weight, yield, test weight and hardness of common wheat and volunteer wheat. Water had little effect on the morphology and yield of common wheat and volunteer wheat, but had an important effect on grain quality. In conclusion, water, variety and nitrogen had a significant impact on the grain quality of common wheat and volunteer wheat, which were the key factors that determine the grain quality of common wheat and volunteer wheat.
  • SU Tongqing, XING Lu, WANG Huoyan, ZHOU Jianmin
    To understand the effects of combined application and fertilization methods on utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer and crop yield, wheat was planted in calcareous fluvo-aquic soil through the potting experiment and the content of soil Olsen-P and phosphorus uptake of wheat were investigated. The mixed application was calcium dihydrogen phosphate(P1) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate(P2) combined with urea(N1) and ammonium sulfate(N2). The three different fertilizer methods included:(A) in the whole soil pot;(B) strip application with a vertical distance of 5 cm from the soil surface and a horizontal distance of 0 cm from the root system of wheat;and(C) strip application with a vertical distance of 5 cm from the soil surface and a horizontal distance of 12 cm from the root system of wheat. The results showed that the decrease of pH at the fertilization point of P1 treatment was more intense than that of P2 and the content of Olsen-P was higher, and the application of N2(P1N2:219.62 mg/kg) enhanced the increase of Olsen-P content in soil compared with the application of N1(P1N1:154.05 mg/kg). For wheat growth and development, the application of P2 was better than P1, and the application of fertilizer at a certain soil depth was better than the mixed application in the whole soil pot, but the application at 5 cm depth under root and 12 cm far from root had no significant differences. This study demonstrated that, for the fluvo-aquic soil-wheat growing season, P2 was more advantageous than P1, and it was more appropriate to apply concentrated application at a depth of 5 cm below the surface soil layer than to spread and mixed the surface soil, which provided fertilization reference for increasing phosphate utilization efficiency and wheat yield in fluvo-aquic soil.
  • ZHANG Shuai, ZHANG Xilan, ZHANG Na, ZHAO Minghui, QIAO Wenchen, SUN Lijing, LI Hui, FU Xiaoyi, HE Mingqi, JI Jun, LI Junming
    In order to identify the significant association loci and the favorable alleles that are responsible for spike-related traits,genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted in this research using an association panel consisted of 132 elite wheat varieties and their advanced lines mainly from the North Huanghuai River Valley Wheat Region. Wheat 55K SNP array was used to perform marker-trait association analysis. Four spike-related traits were evaluated at 8 environments,involving spike length,total spikelet number per spike,kernel number per spike and spike compactness. A total of 121 significant association SNP loci were identified,containing 38 sites significantly associated with spike length,15 sites significantly associated with total spikelet number per spike,47 sites significantly associated with spike compactness,and 21 sites significantly associated with kernel number per spike. There were 8 SNPs detected in multiple environments,including AX-108730544-1D, AX-94755570-2A, AX-111703851-6D, AX-111235532-2A, AX-110926142-2A, AX-110378404-5A, AX-108730544-1D and AX-110963299-1D. Geographical distribution analysis indicated that frequencies of the favorable alleles at the 8 significant association loci were divergent among theprovinces in the Huanghuai River Valley Wheat Region. The pyramiding effect analysis showed that the phenotypic value of spike length,total spikelet number per spike and spike compactness were increased with incorporation of the favorable alleles. These results provide a fundamental basis for gene mining and marker-assisted selection breeding of wheat panicle traits.
  • Lü Liangjie, CHEN Xiyong, ZHANG Wenying, ZHAO Aiju, SUN Lijing, ZHANG Yingjun, LIU Yuping, WANG Limei, LI Ziqian, LI Hui
    To obtain specific genetic materials for the study of gene function and genetic improvement of wheat,ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS) chemical mutagenesis was used to treat the drought-resistant,high-yield,and multi-resistant wheat variety Jimai 418. The field agronomic traits and biological characters were observed and investigated in the M2. 416 mutant spike lines were selected from 6 961 spike lines,with a mutation frequency of 5.98%.Among them,11 lines were seedlings habit mutants,with a mutation frequency of 0.16%; 12 lines were tiller mutants,with a mutation frequency of 0.17%; 34 lines were leaf mutants,with a mutation frequency of 0.48%; there were 68 plant height mutants with a mutation frequency of 0.97%,62 spike mutants with a mutation frequency of 0.89%,and 132 sterility mutants with a mutation frequency of 1.90%,15 root mutants (0.26%) and 82 other types of mutants. Through the verification of biological and agronomic characters,84 lines with stable inheritance were obtained in M3,including 43 stem mutants,23 spike mutants,7 leaf mutants,4 early-maturing mutants,2 late-maturing mutants,2 awn mutants,2 root mutants and 1 sterile mutant. The analysis of agronomic characters showed that the mutant library was rich in variation types,and the mutation frequencies of plant height,growth period and 1000-grain weight were relatively high. These new mutants provided new materials for the study of wheat functional genome and wheat genetic improvement.